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KENNEDY-NIXON Major Events During Each Administration.

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1 KENNEDY-NIXON Major Events During Each Administration

2 KENNEDY First televised debate – Nixon vs. Kennedy Difference in opinion due to audio vs. visual Close election Kennedy wins (Electoral Votes) and 49.7% to 49.6% (Popular Votes)

3 KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR Bay of Pigs Invasion – 1961 failed invasion of Cuba by a CIA-led force of Cuban exiles Embarrassed the United States, turned Cuban-Americans against Kennedy Cuban Missile Crisis – 1962 conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union resulting from the Soviet installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba Missiles were removed in exchange for the U.S. removing missiles from Turkey and Italy Nuclear Test Ban Treaty – signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, which ended aboveground nuclear tests. Thirty-six other nations signed the agreement Berlin Wall is built by Nikita Khrushchev

4 KENNEDY’S NEW FRONTIER Kennedy’s domestic political platform was labeled as “The New Frontier” Described Kennedy’s proposals to improve the economy, education, healthcare, and civil rights. Led to the Equal Pay Act – required equal wages for “equal work” Practiced deficit spending by borrowing money to stimulate the economy while increasing taxes on the wealthy Introduced the Civil Rights Bill to Congress Increased scientific spending and the NASA “Space Race”

5 KENNEDY IS ASSASSINATED In November 1963, Kennedy traveled to Dallas, Texas to campaign for his 1964 reelection bid Kennedy was fired at three times, the third time hitting him in the back of the head, by assassin Lee Harvey Oswald Within 30 minutes Kennedy was pronounced dead, and his Vice-President, Lyndon Baines Johnson was sworn into office. The Warren Commission was a federal investigation into the assassination which concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was the “lone killer”

6 JOHNSON’S GREAT SOCIETY Was able to pass the Civil Rights Bill of 1964 The War on Poverty Bill increased measure to educate the uneducated, and provide healthcare to those in need The 1964 Economic Opportunity Act created the Job Corps training to young men and women between the ages of 16 and 21 to help them acquire better skills and move out of poverty. The act also established Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) which dealt with American volunteers helping poverty-stricken American communities Johnson will win his presidential election against Barry Goldwater

7 JOHNSON’S GREAT SOCIETY The Great Society demanded “an end to poverty and racial injustice” Johnson amended the Social Security Act by adding Medicare or hospital insurance to those who are 65 and older. He also created Medicaid that provided basic medical services to poor and disabled Americans who were not part of the Social Security System Johnson increased funding in schools located in poverty ridden areas The National Traffic and Motor Vehicles Act established safety standards for automobiles The Immigration and Nationality Act altered America’s quota system and allowed more immigrants to enter the United States

8 JOHNSON AND THE SUPREME COURT Established more rights to those arrested Miranda v. Arizona Allowed for further separation of church and state Johnson did not run for reelection due to his unpopularity during the Vietnam War

9 NIXON AND THE COLD WAR Nixon was elected President after Johnson Was criticized for invading Cambodia during the Vietnam War Nixon became the first US President to visit China to reach out to them in a Cold War society In 1979, the United States and China established full diplomatic relations Nixon’s trip to China led to a reaction from the Soviet Union US and Soviet joint space mission Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty – froze the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles and placed limits on antiballistic missiles A policy of détente was reached between the US and the Soviet Union Flexible diplomacy between the US, Soviet Union and China

10 PROTEST DURING THE 1960S AND 1970S The success of the Civil Rights Movement for African Americans led to many other groups fighting for their rights Women’s Rights Betty Friedman wrote “The Feminine Mystique” and several other books that demonstrated the independent woman The National Organization for Women (NOW) fought for equality between males and females Introduced the Equal Rights Amendment which did not pass due to concerns about women in combat situations Roe v. Wade led to a victory in women’s reproductive rights which legalized abortion and the women’s right to chose in the United States

11 PROTEST DURING THE 1960S AND 1970S Migrant Worker Rights Migrant workers would be workers that traveled from farm to farm to pick fruits and vegetables – they often worked long hours in deplorable conditions with no benefits Cesar Chavez was a leader in the Migrant Worker Movement Founded the United Farm Workers (UFW) which led strikes and protests (most famously California grapes) in order to achieve more workers’ rights Native American Rights Dennis Banks established the American Indian Movement (AIM) focused on civil rights issues dealing with the securing of land, legal rights, and self-government for Native Americans – fought against broken treaties

12 PROTESTS DURING THE 1960S AND 1970S Ralph Nader led the Consumers Rights Movement Published “Unsafe at Any Speed” which attacked automakers for making unsafe cars as they thirsted for profit Prompted Congress to sign the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act

13 THE ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT Earth Day was started Nixon created the EPA or the Environmental Protection Agency which sought to protect the “entire ecological chain” The Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Endangered Species Act was signed

14 NIXON Nixon’s economy was struggling with stagflation – which is a stagnant economy containing inflation Nixon wanted to decrease the size of the government after the LBJ administration but in reality expanded the government’s role Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) placed an embargo on the US which led to a 400% increase in gas prices as well as gas shortages Controversy over busing -> Nixon criticized the government policy of busing in students to other schools to keep them diverse, as he appeased the southern congressmen Nixon’s stance on civil rights was mixed though as he opposed busing but supported affirmative action

15 NIXON’S PARANOIA Nixon was a paranoid person and had a list of names of people he did not trust -> overall it can be said Nixon was determined to achieve his goal of becoming a reelected President Nixon beat McGovern in the 1972 election (electoral votes) and 60.7% to 37.5% (popular votes) -> reasons for his popularity could include his trips to the Soviet Union and China, as well as some of his domestic policies. Nixon became the first Republican President to sweep the entire south. As Nixon stood before cameras to show off his victory, he had no idea the seeds of his downfall had already begun after a botched burglary of the Democratic Headquarters at the Watergate Complex in June 1972.

16 NIXON AND WATERGATE The Watergate burglars were tried in After the trial, one of them, James McCord, charged that administration officials had been involved in the break-in. This led to a Senate investigation and to televised hearings, where several witnesses charged that the President and his top aides had taken part in a cover-up. Nixon denied any wrongdoing. Two Washington Post journalists, Woodward and Bernstein, played a crucial role in making Watergate public. Following tips from a secret informant, “Deep Throat” (later revealed to be a top FBI official at the time), they reported the burglary had ties to Nixon’s reelection committee. Nixon repeatedly claimed his innocence, claiming “I am not a crook” A poll given at the time said fewer than 1 out of 5 Americans believed Nixon

17 NIXON AND WATERGATE The Watergate scandal came to a climax when a series of developments occurred at once Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned in an unrelated corruption scandal referencing bribery According to the 25 th Amendment, which deals with presidential succession, allowed Nixon to nominate Gerald Ford as his Vice-President The “Nixon” Tapes get released In 1973, it was revealed that someone had been secretly taping Oval Office conversations. May people felt these types would show Nixon’s involvement in Watergate.

18 THE NIXON TAPES Nixon refused to turn over the tapes claiming “Executive Privilege” allowed him too. Meaning the President has the right to keep certain information confidential. A year later in United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon needed to turn over the tapes – The tapes were turned over but pieces were missing from them – Nixon claimed his secretary had mistakenly erased them – Still the tapes gave Congress enough evidence to vote to impeach him Nixon decided to resign realizing he would be impeached – even among his fellow Republicans Gerald Ford would now be President – the first and only person to serve as both Vice President and President without being elected

19 MORE REVELATIONS AFTER WATERGATE Investigations revealed Nixon and his reelection team practiced in dirty tricks to secure his election Nixon developed an “enemies list” and used federal agencies to go after his enemies Nixon was also caught ordering the FBI in install wiretaps on the telephones of those government employees and reporters he suspected of leaking information unfavorable to the administration Nixon’s paranoia led to his downfall The effects of Watergate damaged the reputation of the Presidency and shook people’s confidence in the government.


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