Presentation on theme: "William Shakespeare and His Theater Actor ~ Businessman ~ Writer ~ Legend."— Presentation transcript:
William Shakespeare and His Theater Actor ~ Businessman ~ Writer ~ Legend
What do you already know about Shakespeare, his works, culture, and his history?
Actors in Shakespeare’s Day Considered immoral, irresponsible, and rowdy. Believed to promote disturbances. Called sacrilegious for boys playing female roles (cross-dressing). Functioned on a Repertory system Rarely acted the same play two days in a row
Costumes Lavish and expensive costumes Bright in color Contemporary clothing Most prized possession Usually donated by nobles Main characters wore historically accurate costumes
The Theater a polygonal structure made of wood thatched roof only over the galleries and the stage center open to the sky no curtain with a stage jutting into the yard Many theaters burned down.
The Theater cheap seats = standing room only on the floor (the “yard” or “pit”) Also called “penny seats” and groundlings expensive seats = galleries above very few set pieces and some small props yelling from audience members = allowed
Threats to English Theater Fires Bubonic Plague Puritan Movement Ended the golden age of English theater 1642
Disapproval by Church and London Theaters... were located in “bad” areas – prostitution, blood sports, disreputable taverns, beggars (but London officials wouldn’t allow them elsewhere). caused traffic problems (since thousands of people attended). supposedly caused violence and lawlessness.
Disapproval by Church and London Theaters were... blamed for spreading the plague. attended by apprentices who skipped work. the sources of “curses” (fire, sickness, natural disasters, etc.) from God for the immorality and violence on stage.
Writers Modest backgrounds Paid in increments Wrote 1 to 2 plays a year Actors and Shareholders
Who was Shakespeare?
Shakespeare’s Childhood Birth: April, 1564 (exact date unknown) Parents: John and Mary Shakespeare Birthplace: Stratford-upon-Avon, an important agricultural and market center
Shakespeare’s Education Most likely attended Stratford’s grammar school Subjects – English classics and Latin grammar Apprentice to his father (who worked in leather and agricultural goods)
Shakespeare’s Marriage and Children Marriage: November 28, 1582 to Anne Hathaway (eight years older than 18 year old William) Children: Susanna, Judith, and Hamnet
“The Lost Years” No records exist after his children were born in 1585 until his appearance in London in Legends poached deer and escaped to London worked for an attorney joined a theater group and went to London went to Italy became a schoolmaster
Shakespeare’s Early Career Well known by 1592 in the theater business Playwright, play mender, poet, shareholder, and actor involved with many acting companies By member of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, an acting company that had the honor of playing for the queen that year.
Shakespeare’s Growing Success Late 1590s: author of numerous plays and manager for the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, the most popular company in London 1599: Globe Theater, the most famous playhouse in London
Shakespeare’s Later Years Lord Chamberlain’s Men became the King’s Men (James I - new patron) Era of greatest tragedies, including Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, and King Lear Financial success wealthy in retirement
Shakespeare’s Retirement & Death Returned to Stratford in 1612 and died in 1616 Buried in Holy Trinity Church (curse on gravestone) Good friend for Jesus’ sake forebear, To dig the dust enclosed here; Blessed be the man that spares these stones, And curst be he that moves my bones.
Shakespeare’s Legacy 154 sonnets and poems Nearly 40 plays (scholars know of at least one lost play, Cardenio), all of which are still performed in theaters or on the big screen Numerous new words or new forms of words
Eaten out of house and home Pomp and circumstance Foregone conclusion Full circle The makings of Method in the madness Neither rhyme nor reason One fell swoop Seen better days It smells to heaven A sorry sight A spotless reputation Strange bedfellows The world's (my) oyster Amazement Assassin baseless clangor countless dishearten dwindle eventful gnarled laughable monumental obscene premeditated submerge Shakespeare coined countless English words/phrases, including: And even…Yes…That’s right…
Types of Plays 1. History 2. Tragedy 3. Comedy 4. Romance
Structure of a Tragedy Act I: The first act serves to introduce the conflict(s), set the scene and mood, introduce the principal players, and set the plot in motion. (Setting and Exposition, Conflict) Act II: The second act serves to add complications to the conflict(s) and to develop both characters and plot lines. (Rising Action) Act III: The third act should continue the building of complications until the action comes to a climax, which is the turning point of the play. Actions after the climax are irreversible. (Climax) Act IV: The fourth act contains the events after the climax. It shows the consequences of characters’ actions. (Falling Action) Act V: The fifth act is the end of the play. The conflict(s) is/are “resolved” and the play ends. (Resolution/Denouement)
Shakespeare’s Language Blank Verse - Iambic Pentameter - 10 syllables in a line - unstressed/ stressed - A horse/ a horse/ my king/ dom for/ a horse ! Prose -For common people - Ordinary setting Poetry -Shows heightened emotion - Royalty/magical -Scene change
Terms used in Shakespeare In addition to the figurative language terms you have already learned about, Shakespeare also employs the following literary terms.
Soliloquy – A monologue onstage where the character is alone – shares inner thoughts and feelings Aside – The character is speaking to himself or the audience, but the other characters do not hear him/her. Inner thoughts and feelings
Monologue – A long speech by a character. Other characters are on stage with him/her. Foil – A character who highlights certain traits of another character by having contrasting traits
Allusion – a reference to an important person or event in history, mythological, Biblical the author assumes the audience knows Supernatural – Things that don’t occur naturally – weather, witches, etc.
Pun A play on words If someone steals someone’s coffee, they are “mugging” them. Don’t go to Starbucks or you could be latte for work!
Tragic Hero – A fortunate or privileged person (god, demi-god, hero, high ranking official) who is generally brought down by a tragic flaw A fundamental character weakness such as destructive pride, ruthless ambition, or obsessive jealousy An Elizabethan tragic hero generally brings about his own downfall
Conflict – The problem in the story. Internal and external Dynamic Character – A character that changed throughout the story. Static Character - A character that doesn’t change throughout the story.
Foreshadowing When authors give clues to something that is going to happen next. The ominous clouds foreshadowed something bad was on its way.
Irony When something unexpected happens. Dramatic The audience knows something the characters do not. Verbal A play on words; a pun Situational When we don’t expect the event to happen.
10 Things I Hate About You (1999) from The Taming of the Shrew 10 Things I Hate About You She’s the Man (2006) from Twelfth Night The Lion King (1994) from Hamlet O (2001) from Othello West Side Story (1961) from Romeo & Juliet Shakespeare in Love (1998)- fictional story based on Shakespeare’s romance while writing Romeo & Juliet Pop Culture
“Love Story”- Taylor Swift “Romeo and Juliet”- Indigo Girls “Miss MacBeth”- Elvis Costello “Sister Moon” and “Be Still My Beating Heart”- Sting “(Don’t Fear) The Reaper”- Blue Oyster Cult “Get Over It”- The Eagles Shakespeare-inspired music
Has Shakespeare impacted your lives? Have you seen any of these movies or heard any of these songs? Have you used any of these words, sayings, or notable phrases? Can you think of any other examples? Your Turn
O We are going to say this word. A lot. (Read “O” with the emotion in parenthesis)
O (holding a puppy)
I didn’t say he killed our king.
Beowulf - Old English Beowulf - Old English Canterbury Tales - Middle English Canterbury Tales - Middle English