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Review of Last Week’s Class Toxicity and Risks of Pesticides Reading a Label Safe Use, Storage and Disposal of Pesticides.

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Presentation on theme: "Review of Last Week’s Class Toxicity and Risks of Pesticides Reading a Label Safe Use, Storage and Disposal of Pesticides."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Review of Last Week’s Class Toxicity and Risks of Pesticides Reading a Label Safe Use, Storage and Disposal of Pesticides

4 Three classes Class 1: Overview of UPRP. Pesticides defined. Assess your pesticide use in the home, garden and lawn. Class 2: Reading a pesticide label. Proper use, storage and disposal of pesticides. Class 3: Environmental fate of pesticides. Alternatives to pesticides for pest management. Prevention rather than reaction.

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6 Environmental fate of pesticides. Alternatives to pesticides for pest management.

7 Environmental fate of pesticides. Alternatives to pesticides for pest management.

8 Environmental Fate of Pesticides Degraded by sunlight Degraded by soil organisms Adsorbed to soil particles or organic matter Adsorbed to plant surfaces, or taken up by plants Hydrolyzed by water Copyright 2006, Oregon State University, all rights reserved.

9 Off-Site Movement of Pesticides High Air Temperature Sand versus Clay Soils Pesticide Properties Aerosol versus Solid Irrigation Low Air Moisture Copyright 2006, Oregon State University, all rights reserved.

10 Pesticide Drift Copyright 2006, Oregon State University, all rights reserved.

11 Vaporization and Volatization Copyright 2006, Oregon State University, all rights reserved.

12 Vapor Drift of Herbicides – Non-Target Effects Photo Credit: Joey Williamson Clemson University 2,4-D damage to green ash. Photo credit: Beth Jarvis

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14 Pesticide Leaching through Soil Leached to groundwater table Pesticide residue on soil surface Copyright 2006, Oregon State University, all rights reserved.

15 Pesticide Run-Off over Soil When irrigation or rainfall exceed the infiltration rate, runoff occurs. Pesticides dissolved in the water or adsorbed to transported soil particles (soil erosion) move offsite and may have unintended consequences. Pesticide adsorbed to soil particles or soil organic matter Copyright 2006, Oregon State University, all rights reserved.

16 Windy Calm Rainy No Rain Hot Cool Dry Humid Irrigation On Irrigation Off Close to Target Far from Target Check the one that is most likely to result in the pesticide drifting, volatizing, leaching or running off from the site of application.

17 Environmental fate of pesticides. Alternatives to pesticides for pest management.

18 REACTIVE Pesticides Home Remedies Organic Synthetic Biocontrol Release Ladybugs Lacewings PREVENTATIVE Plant Selection Plant Installation Plant Maintenance Physical Barriers Hand Picking Conservation Biocontrol

19 A Least Hazardous Approach to Pest Management Cultural Physical Biological Chemical Least Toxic Most Toxic Plant Selection, Install, Maintenance Barriers, Handpicking Conservation Biological Control Biocontrol Release Organic and Synthetic Pesticides Us a least hazardous approach, that will also enact effective control

20 Resistant varieties Cultural Control: Resistant Plants List of Rhododendrons Resistant to Root Weevils can be found at: http://www.co.thurston.wa.us/health/ehcsg/pdf/weevil%20guide.pdf Information on Managing Root Weevils in the Pacific Northwest: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/pdf/ec/ec1485.pdf Adult Root Weevil Damage to Leaves R. davidsonianum Root Weevils

21 Cultural Control: Plant Selection

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23 Dig a proper hole

24 Hole 2-3 X as wide as the diameter of the root ball

25 Top 10% above ground

26 Place insects in soapy water to kill them Physical Control: Handpicking

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28 Handpicking

29 Covers many plants, or entire rows Protection for seedlings, or during other vulnerable times Light, thermal and air environment will be modified

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31 Minute Pirate Bug Assassin Bug Rove Beetle Ground Beetle Biological Control: Garden Predators Spider Mites

32 Image Source: AMNH Braconid emerging from moth cocoon Braconid pupae on tomato hornworm Ichneumonid Biological Control: Parasitoid Wasps

33 Eulophid Wasp Aphelenid Wasp Encyrtid Wasp Ptermomalid Wasp Biological Control: Parasitoid Wasps

34 Parasitized Cabbage Moth Larvae Parasitized Beetle Larvae Aphid Mummies Parasitoid Emerging from Aphid Mummy

35 Provide Basic Needs Food: nectar and pollen, when prey disappears Water: no need to provision Shelter: undisturbed area, with structure

36 Reduce Disturbance Reduce Pesticide Use on the Lawn and in the Garden Leave an area of the garden undisturbed – no or low mowing, raking or pruning

37 Coreopsis, Parsnip Mints Buckwheat Yarrow Sunflowers, Asters, Coneflowers Lobelia Goldenrod Parsley Basil Oregano Rosemary Lavender Daisies Dandelions

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40 Broad Spectrum / Non-Selective pesticides control a wide range of pest organisms Organophosphates (a.i. malathion) Carbamates (a.i. carbaryl, methomyl) Pyrethroids (a.i. cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin) Neonicotinoids (a.i. imidacloprid) Examples of Broad Spectrum Insecticides

41 Organic: Derived from an organic source Botanicals (pyrethrum Neem TM, Rotenone TM ) Microbials (Bt sprays) Naturalytes (Spinosad TM ) Synthetic: Manufactured pesticides Synthetic Pyrethroid Organic Pyrethrin

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43 ClassMode of Action Range of Activity Notes OrganophophatesCholinesterase Inhibitor BroadPotential non-target effects on mammals, beneficial insects a concern CarbamatesCholinesterase Inhibitor Broad – Chewing Insects Potential non-target effects on beneficial insects a concern, mammals PyrethroidsImpacts Ion Channels BroadLow toxicity to mammals, birds. Toxic to fish. Potential non-target effects on beneficial insects. NeonicitinoidsImpacts Ion Channels Broad – Homoptera and beetles Systemic. Low toxicity to mammals. Potential non-target effects on beneficial insects, especially bees.

44 ClassMode of Action Range of Activity Notes Botanical Insecticides - pyrethrum Impacts Ion Channels Many insects, but particularly useful against caterpillars, sawfly larvae, leaf beetles, leafhoppers Low toxicity to mammals. Rapid break down in sun. Degradation limits impact on beneficial insects, but may require repeat application. Botanical Insecticides - neem Inhibits feeding, interferes with molting and egg production Effective against a limited range of insects. Low toxicity to mammals. Low risk to beneficial insects. Botanical Insecticide - Rotenone NO

45 ClassMode of Action Range of Activity Notes Microbials - BtStomach poison. Paralyzes insect gut. Narrow – (Bt-k) caterpillars, (Bt-t) beetles, (Bt-i) - Flies Must be ingested in order to be effective. Thus, targets only those insects that are feeding on the protected plant. Microbial Derivitives - Avermectims Inhibits ion channels Mites, Leaf Miners, Leaf Beetles Moderate toxicity to mammals. Toxicity to aquatic organisms potentially high. Microbial Derivitives - Spinosad Overexcites nervous system Leaf Chewers, Thrips, some Gall Makers Must be ingested in order to be effective. Low toxicity to mammals and beneficial insects.

46 ClassMode of Action Range of Activity Notes Horticultural OilsSmothering (block spiracles) Effective against small, soft-bodied, slow or immobile insects– timing of application critical Low toxicity and minimal impacts on non-target insects. Insecticidal SoapsDisrupts cuticleSmall, soft-bodies insects and mites Vertebrates and non-target insects generally not impacted. Toxic against beneficial mites. May directly harm plant Information for Tables Taken From: Whitney Cranshaw. Classes of Pesticides Used in Landscape/Nursery Pest Management. In Chapter 9 of Tactics and Tools for IPM.

47 Foster and celebrate diversity in your yard Plants, Insects, Birds Choose and install plants wisely Vigorous, healthy plants Wide planting holes, loose backfill Use physical controls Handpicking, row covers Reduce or stop pesticide use Spot treat, narrow spectrum, organic

48 Please take a few moments to complete the pesticide audit that you completed in week 1 of the UPRP. Remember, if you signed the Informed Consent Form, your answers will be included in a study that is being conducted to determine the effectiveness of the UPRP. Please complete the audit, even if you do not sign the Informed Consent Form, so that you can have a sense of whether or not your knowledge or attitudes about pesticides have changed from the first class, to this class.

49 Have your answered changed from the first class, to this class? If so, how? For those who have signed an Informed Consent Document, you will receive a follow up survey in 6 months.

50 Thank you for taking part in the UPRP. Your time and effort will help foster healthier communities. Well done!


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