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2 I. After World War II, the United States sought to stem the growth of Communist military power and ideological influence, create a stable global economy, and build an international security system. (WOR) A. The United States developed a foreign policy based on collective security and a multilateral economic framework that bolstered non-Communist nations. B. The United States sought to “contain” Soviet-dominated communism through a variety of measures, including military engagements in Korea and Vietnam. -space race C. The Cold War fluctuated between periods of direct and indirect military confrontation and periods of mutual coexistence (or détente). II. As the United States focused on containing communism, it faced increasingly complex foreign policy issues, including decolonization, shifting international alignments and regional conflicts, and global economic and environmental changes. (ENV) (WOR) A. Postwar decolonization and the emergence of powerful nationalist movements in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East led both sides in the Cold War to seek allies among new nations, many of which remained nonaligned. B. Cold War competition extended to Latin America, where the United States supported non-Communist regimes with varying levels of commitment to democracy.

3 III.C. Americans debated the merits of a large nuclear arsenal, the “military-industrial complex,” and the appropriate power of the executive branch in conducting foreign and military policy.

4 Eisenhower continued to enjoy extraordinary popularity to the end of his term:
Admired for his decency, goodwill, and moderation U.S.A. grew economically and geographically during his presidency Alaska and Hawaii attained statehood in 1959 In farewell address, Eisenhower warned against the influence of the military-industrial complex

5 “In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.” -Eisenhower, 1961 Context? U.S. has abandoned pre-war isolationism; NSC-68 and Cold War has resulted in emphasis on increased military power/spending that will continue throughout remainder of 20th century Author? President, former Supreme Allied Commander and commander of NATO Audience? The American people

6 Election of 1960 Republicans nominated Richard Nixon
“New” Nixon represented himself as mature, seasoned statesman Gained notice in kitchen debate with Khrushchev (Moscow, 1959) where Nixon extolled virtues of American consumerism over Soviet economic planning

7 Democrats nominated John F. Kennedy
Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, JFK's rival for nomination and Senate majority leader, accepted VP slot on ticket Kennedy was first Roman Catholic to be nominated by a major party since Al Smith in 1928 His Catholicism a problem in Protestant Bible Belt South, which was ordinarily Democratic JFK's support from Northern Catholics made up for any Southern Democrats who rejected him

8 Television may have tipped scales:
Nixon-Kennedy televised debates Reinforced importance of image over substance in TV age Viewers found Kennedy's glamour and vitality more appealing than Nixon's tired and pallid appearance

9 John F. Kennedy Campaigning for the Presidency,
1960 At right is his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy. p867

10 Election results: Kennedy—303 electoral votes to 219 for Nixon
JFK's popular vote margin only 118,574 votes out of over 68 million cast First Roman Catholic and youngest person elected to presidency Kennedy ran well in industrial centers Had strong support from African Americans Telephoned Coretta King while Dr. King imprisoned in GA 1960: two parties exhibited different racial strategies

11 Map 36.2 Presidential Election of 1960 (with electoral
vote by state) Kennedy owed his hairbreadth triumph to his victories in twenty-six of the forty largest cities—and to Lyndon Johnson’s strenuous campaigning in the South, where Kennedy’s Catholicism may have been a hotter issue than his stand on civil rights. © 2016 Cengage Learning Map 36-2 p868

12 Kennedy's “New Frontier” Spirit
John F. Kennedy: Pledged to “get the country moving again” Personified glamour and vitality of administration Youngest president ever elected Assembled one of the youngest cabinets, including 35-year-old brother, Robert F. Kennedy as attorney general Tried to recast priorities of FBI away from internal security toward organized crime and civil rights enforcement His efforts resisted by J. Edgar Hoover, who had served as FBI director longer than new attorney general had lived

13 Kennedy’s Inaugural Address

14 “If by a "Liberal" they mean someone who looks ahead and not behind, someone who welcomes new ideas without rigid reactions, someone who cares about the welfare of the people-their health, their housing, their schools, their jobs, their civil rights and their civil liberties-someone who believes we can break through the stalemate and suspicions that grip us in our policies abroad, if that is what they mean by a "Liberal", then I'm proud to say I'm a "Liberal.” -Kennedy, Profiles in Courage

15 p869

16 Kennedy‘s “New Frontier”
Inner circle of confident and sophisticated advisors Robert S. McNamara left presidency of Ford Motor Company to head Defense Department Kennedy inspired high expectations: New Frontier depicted America's potential for greatness Peace Corps: army of mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to undeveloped countries Summoned citizens to serve their country Soaring rhetoric did not match political situation

17 Kennedy‘s “New Frontier”
Congress: Republicans and southern Democrats teamed up to oppose New Frontier proposals JFK won first round when he forced Congress to expand House Rules Committee: Had been dominated by conservatives Still New Frontier not enacted swiftly Key medical and education bills stalled in Congress Congress rejected JFK's plan to cut taxes as economic boost JFK had complex relationship with big business Helped negotiate and enforce a noninflationary wage agreement in steel industry (1962)

18 Space Race 1957 Soviets launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite 1958 NASA created 1961 Kennedy proposed multibillion-dollar project to land a man on the Moon shot a calculated plan to restore America's prestige in space race Severely damaged by Soviet Sputnik successes $24 billion later, two NASA astronauts planted their footprints—and U.S. flag—on moon's surface (1969) Apollo mission seen live on television around globe Symbol of U.S. dominance

19 On the Moon This moon’s-eye view of the earth greeted
the first men to land on the lunar surface. (right) Astronaut Edwin (“Buzz”) Aldrin descends from the spacecraft. As he stepped onto the moon’s surface, his companion, Neil Armstrong, said, “That’s one small step for man; one giant leap for mankind.” p875

20 On the Moon This moon’s-eye view of the earth greeted
the first men to land on the lunar surface. (right) Astronaut Edwin (“Buzz”) Aldrin descends from the spacecraft. As he stepped onto the moon’s surface, his companion, Neil Armstrong, said, “That’s one small step for man; one giant leap for mankind.” p875

21 Cold War Kennedy and Khrushchev: First met in Vienna, June 1961
East Germany begin to build Berlin Wall, Aug. 1961 Designed to plug heavy population drain from East Germany to West Germany Stood for almost three decades as symbol of post-WWII division of Europe into two hostile camps

22 The B erlin Wall, 1961–1989 The wall separating East and
West Berlin stood for nearly thirty years as a hated symbol of the division of Europe into democratic and communist camps. (left) East German soldiers stood guard as the concrete wall was constructed, November 20, (right) Demonstrators had begun to tear down the wall in 1989 following powerful nonviolent protests in East Germany. p876

23 The B erlin Wall, 1961–1989 The wall separating East and
West Berlin stood for nearly thirty years as a hated symbol of the division of Europe into democratic and communist camps. (left) East German soldiers stood guard as the concrete wall was constructed, November 20, (right) Demonstrators had begun to tear down the wall in 1989 following powerful nonviolent protests in East Germany. p876

24 Foreign Policy- Trade European Economic Community (EEC):
Free trade area that later evolved into European Union JFK secured passage of Trade Expansion Act, 1962 Authorizing tariff cuts of up to 50% to promote trade with EEC countries Led to so-called Kennedy Round of tariff negotiations, concluded in 1967 Globalization—new era of robustly invigorated international commerce

25 “Flexible Response” Growing decolonization of European overseas possessions created problems for U.S. policy Danger of Cold War competition there escalating into nuclear confrontation between USA and USSR JFK moved from Ike's doctrine of “massive retaliation” to McNamara's strategy of “flexible response”— Developed array of military “options” that could be matched to gravity of crisis at hand Kennedy increased spending on conventional military forces and bolstered Special Forces (Green Berets)

26 “Flexible Response” Doctrine of “flexible response”:
Potentially lowered level at which diplomacy would give way to shooting Provided mechanism for progressive, and possibly endless, stepping-up of use of force South Vietnam presented proof of these pitfalls Corrupt, right-wing government of Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon ruled shakily since 1954 partition 1961, Kennedy ordered sharp increase in number of “military advisers” (U.S. troops) to South Vietnam

27 Vietnam U.S. forces entered South Vietnam to foster political stability: By protecting Diem from communists Frustrated with Diem's refusal to reform, JFK administration encouraged coup against Diem (Nov. 1963) JFK told South Vietnamese it was “their war,” but he made dangerously deep political commitments Ordered more than 15,000 Americans into Vietnam A pullout became increasingly difficult

28 Map 36. 3 Vietnam and Southeast Asia, 1954–1975 Le Ly Hayslip (b
Map 36.3 Vietnam and Southeast Asia, 1954–1975 Le Ly Hayslip (b. 1949) was born in a peasant village in South Vietnam, just south of Da Nang. In her memoir, When Heaven and Earth Changed Places, she describes the trauma endured by ordinary Vietnamese as a result of America’s fight against the Viet Cong: “In 1963—the year the Viet Cong came to my village—American warplanes bombed Man Quang. It was at noon, just when the children were getting out of school. My aunt Thu and her pregnant daughter-in-law were making lunch for her husband and four grandchildren when the air-raid signal blared. They all jumped under the wooden table and sheltered the pregnant woman with their bodies— even the little kids. A bomb fell in Aunt Thu’s front yard Hot shrapnel tore through everyone except the pregnant woman. Aunt Thu and one of her grandchildren were killed. The passing fragment left only a weeping hole where her generous heart had been.” © 2016 Cengage Learning Map 36-3 p878

29 Latin America Alliance for Progress (1961):
Kennedy wanted to improve relations with Latin America; U.S. had lost prestige as Eisenhower had supported military dictatorships Hailed as Marshall Plan for Latin America Intended to quiet communist agitation there Disappointing results U.S. handouts had little positive impact on Latin America's immense social problems

30 Cuba Inherited from Eisenhower administration a CIA-backed scheme to topple Fidel Castro: By invading Cuba with anti-communist exiles April 17, 1961: Bay of Pigs invasion failed Events pushed Castro closer to USSR Oct. 1962, U.S. spy plane revealed Soviets secretly installing nuclear-tipped missiles in Cuba Kennedy and Khrushchev began nerve-racking game of “nuclear chicken” Oct. 22, 1962: JFK ordered naval “quarantine” of Cuba and demanded immediate removal of missiles


32 Failed B ay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 Cuban soldiers
demonstrate a beach gun they used against a brigade of ex-Cubans who furtively invaded Cuba as agents of the United States. The debacle was one of several unsuccessful American attempts to overthrow Cuban leader Fidel Castro. p877

33 Cuba JFK further warned that any attack on USA from Cuba would trigger nuclear retaliation against USSR World teetered on brink of global atomization Oct. 28, Khrushchev agreed to partial compromise: He would remove missiles from Cuba USA agreed to end quarantine and not invade Cuba USA agreed to remove from Turkey some of its missiles targeted at Soviet Union

34 Cuba Fallout from Cuban missiles crisis:
Khrushchev ultimately hounded out of office USSR launched major program of military expansion Kennedy pushed harder for nuclear test-ban treaty Pact prohibiting trial nuclear explosions in atmosphere signed in 1963 Moscow-Washington “hot line” (1963) permitted immediate teletype communication Another sign of thaw in Cold War

35 Early efforts at détente
Kennedy's speech at American University (June 1963): Urged Americans to abandon view of Soviet Union as Devil-ridden land filled with fanatics Deal with world “as it is, not as it might have been had the history of the last 18 years had been different” Tried to lay foundation for policy of peaceful coexistence with Soviet Union Modern origins of policy known as “détente” (French for “relaxation of tension”)

36 The Killing of Kennedy November 22, 1963 (Dallas, Texas):
President Kennedy shot; died within seconds VP Johnson sworn in as president Alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, killed in front of TV cameras by self-appointed avenger, Jack Ruby Elaborate investigation by Chief Justice Warren could not quiet doubts and theories about what really happened

37 Kennedy’s Legacy Kennedy had been in White House for slightly more than a thousand days Acclaimed more for his ideals and the spirit he kindled, than for concrete goals he achieved Inspirational figure for rising “baby boom” generation of 1960s

38 p883

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