Causes of World War I 1.Nationalism Pride in ones country Nationalism led to the unification of Germany and Italy during the 1870’s In the Balkans, nationalist movements fought for independence from the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire Russia saw itself as the protectors of Slavic nationalism in the Balkans.
Causes of World War I 2.Imperialism Nationalism led to nations competing for overseas colonies Colonies provided natural resources and markets for goods Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted to colonies for the newly united Germany
Causes of World War I 3.Militarism The policy of military preparedness and building up of weapons Germany built up its navy so it could compete with Great Britain Germany enlarged its army and modernized it with the latest weapons -Including machine guns and large artillery.
Causes of World War I 4. Alliances For Protection, nations formed alliances The Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy The Triple Entente Britain, France, and Russia European leaders believed alliances would create a balance of power Would decrease the likelihood of war
Origins of the War 6/26/1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo -Heir to Austrian throne
Origins of the War Assassin, Gavrilo Princip, operated with cooperation of the Black Hand -a Serbian nationalist group with ties to Serbian government and army officials
Origins of the War 7/23/1914 Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia given 48 hours to: -Apologize -ban all anti-Austrian propaganda -accept Austrian participation in investigations of assassination Designed to provoke Serbia Serbia agrees to ban propaganda and apologize, refused Austrian led investigation
Origins of the War 7/28/1914 Austria declares war on Serbia 7/29/1914 Russia orders mobilization of military to support Serbia 7/31/1914 Germany demands Russia end mobilization. Russia refuses 8/1/1914 Germany declares war on Russia France begins mobilization 8/3/1914 Germany Declares war on France Invades Belgium as part of Schlieffen Plan 8/4/1914 After invasion of neutral Belgium, Great Britain declared war on Germany
Origins of the War Within 48 hours, each nation had 2 million soldiers at its command Of the major powers, only Italy remained neutral Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire Allied Powers Great Britain, France, Russia, & eventually Italy
A New Kind of Warfare Schlieffen Plan was successful, German troops quickly defeated Belgians. French troops mobilized to meet approaching German divisions. – They looked much as French soldiers did over 40 years earlier, wearing bright red coats and heavy brass helmets. – The German troops dressed in gray uniforms that worked as camouflage on the battlefield.
A New Kind of Warfare French war strategy had not changed much since the 1800s. – soldiers marched row by row onto the battlefield, with bayonets mounted to their field rifles, preparing for close combat – The Germans had many machine guns, and mowed down some 15,000 French troops per day in early battle. – A German machine-gun team could set up in four seconds, – each machine gun matched the firepower of 50 to 100 French rifles. Many Europeans wrongly thought these technological advances would make the war short and that France would be defeated in two months.
The First Battle of the Marne The German army quickly advanced through northern France after only one month of fighting were 25 miles from Paris. The French, however, would not give up.
The Battle The French launched a counterattack This battle became known as the First Battle of the Marne 9/7/1914. 2 million men fought on a battle-front that stretched 125 miles. the French had rallied and pushed the Germans back some 40 miles. five days and 250,000 deaths
The Aftermath The French paid a heavy price, as countless red-coated French troops had fallen in the battle. Despite the loss of life, it helped the Allies by giving Russia more time to mobilize for war. Once Russia mobilized, Germany had to pull some of its troops out of France and send them to fight Russia on the Eastern Front, which stretched from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea.
Stalemate The First Battle of the Marne ended in a stalemate, both French and German soldiers dug trenches, or deep ditches, to defend their positions and seek shelter from enemy fire. By late 1914, two massive systems of trenches stretched 400 miles across Western Europe, and the battle lines known as the Western Front extended from Switzerland to the North Sea. Trench warfare, or fighting from trenches, was an old strategy that had been used in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
Stalemate This trench warfare, however, was different because of its scale. – Soldiers lived in trenches, surrounded by machine-gun fire, flying grenades, and exploding artillery shells. – Opposing forces had machine guns pointed at enemy trenches at all times, firing whenever a helmet or rifle appeared over the top. – Thousands of men that ran into the area between the trenches, known as “no-man’s-land,” were chopped down by enemy fire. Neither the Allies nor the Germans were able to make significant advances, creating a stalemate, or deadlock.
Poisonous Gas German military scientists experimented with gas as a weapon. Gas in battle was risky: Soldiers didn’t know how much to use, and wind changes could backfire the gas. Then Germans threw canisters of gas into the Allies’ trenches. Many regretted using gas, but British and French forces began using it too, to keep things even. Tanks When soldiers began to carry gas masks, they still faced a stalemate. British forces soon developed armored tanks to move into no-man’s-land. These tanks had limited success because many got stuck in the mud. Germans soon found ways to destroy the tanks with artillery fire. New Weapons of War Airplanes Both sides used planes to map and to attack trenches from above. Planes first dropped brinks and heavy objects on enemy troops. Soon they mounted guns and bombs on planes. Skilled pilots sought in air battles called dogfights. The German Red Baron downed 80 Allied planes, until he was shot down.
Major World War I Battles Battle of Tannenburg: Aug. 1914, Russia’s worst defeat in World War I First Battle of the Marne: Sept. 1914, Allies halted German advance, saving Paris from occupation First Battle of Ypres: Oct.–Nov. 1914, last major German offensive until 1918 Battle of Gallipoli: Apr.–Dec. 1915, failed attempt of the Allies to knock Turkey out of the war Battle of Verdun: Feb.– Dec. 1916, longest battle of World War I with huge loss of life Battle of the Somme: July– Nov. 1916, first great offensive of the British, best remembered for its staggering loss of life Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele): July–Nov. 1917, so many losses that the name Passchendaele came to mean senseless slaughter Battle of Caporetto: Oct.–Nov. 1917, tremendous victory for the Central Powers
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