Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 12. QUICK OVERVIEW OF RECONSTRUCTION Civil War ends in 1865. 13 th Amendment passed- Abolishes Slavery Lincoln Assassinated on April 15 by John."— Presentation transcript:
QUICK OVERVIEW OF RECONSTRUCTION Civil War ends in th Amendment passed- Abolishes Slavery Lincoln Assassinated on April 15 by John Wilkes Booth. Secretary of State also attacked, and Vice president supposed to be attacked, but assassin backed out. Lincoln favors lenient reconstruction plan- swear allegiance, and get right to vote. Johnson excludes wealthy southern landowners from taking the oath, but pardons more than 13,000 whites because “white men alone should run the south.” Black Codes Restrict African Americans from voting.
QUICK OVERVIEW OF RECONSTRUCTION 1866 congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1866 which gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws.- President Vetoes Congress then passes 14 th Amendment- prevents states from denying rights and privileges to any citizen. Congress is not happy with President Johnson so they find a way to impeach him, they do but Senate vote not to convict him Grant is elected President.
QUICK OVERVIEW OF RECONSTRUCTION South is put under military Rule by congress 15 amendment passed in cannot be kept from voting because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. African Americans started to drastically improve their living. Many moved, found new jobs, and some became elected officials. 16 were elected to congress. Sharecropping system becomes prominent. The KKK becomes prominent as an opposition to reconstruction. Killed around 20,000 people. Eventually support for reconstruction fades and southern democrats regain control of the South Hayes Elected. Plessy vs. Ferguson
CHAPTER 12 CHANGE AND CONFLICT IN THE AMERICAN WEST
12.2 MINING AND RANCHING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WEST First Settlers farmers Then they found GOLD!!! 1848 John Sutter’s workers finds gold at his sawmill Doesn’t stay a secret long= California Gold Rush “Forty-niners” about 80,000 people from all over hoping to strike it rich. 9 of 10 men California’s Population went from 93,000 to 380,000. Few struck it rich Eventually only large mining companies left- did a lot of damage to the environment.
RANCHERS AND COWBOYS FIND A HOME ON THE RANGE As buffalo disappear and Native Americans are forced onto reservations, the plains open up to cattle ranching. Americans learned about cattle from their Mexican Neighbors Texas Longhorns- cows accustomed to dry grasslands of southern Spain, brought over by Spanish settlers. Everything about the cowboy was heavily influenced by Mexican Vaqueros. Railroads helped drive the cattle industry.
RANCHERS AND COWBOYS FIND A HOME ON THE RANGE After Civil War demand for beef skyrockets Chisholm Trail- Route from San Antonio Texas to Abilene, Kansas. Other routes had problems 35,000 head of cattle the 1 st year 75,000 the next year.
A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A COWBOY 55,000 cowboys on the plains from % African American 12% Mexican 14 + hour days Most cowboys broke down by 40 Season began at Spring round-up and ended after the long drive. ( about 3 months) Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show Feed into idea/ myth of the west * What was/is the myth of the Wild West? And how did that compare to reality?
END OF THE OPEN RANGE By end of the 1880s cattle frontier had met it’s end Why? Overgrazing Bad weather THE INVENTION OF BARBED WIRE Joseph F. Glidden.
12.3 RAILROADS OPEN WEST TO RAPID SETTLEMENT Before 1850s, railroads just short lines. Wanted Transcontinental Railroad Plans had been stalled b/c of divide between north and south. Civil war allowed for approval of Northern route. Union Pacific works its way west, Central Pacific works its way East. Had a hard time completing it. ($, attacks from N. Americans, etc.) Ex Civil War soldiers, former slaves, Irish and Chinese Immigrants made up a large part of the workforce. Rough Conditions killed many May 10, 1869 the Transcontinental Railroad is completed Railroads made many rich, made towns spring up, and had problems of price hiking.
THE CULTURE OF THE PLAINS INDIANS The Great Plains- grassland extending through the west-central portion of the United States. Horses- Almost all tribes have them by 1700s. Lead to increased mobility and more efficient hunting Also lead to more wars from one tribe trespassing on another's’ hunting grounds. Bison (Buffalo) Provided most of the Native Americans’ needs. Food, clothing, shelter.
FAMILY LIFE Lived in small extended family groups. Men hunted/ were warriors Women helped butcher game and prepared hides All believed that powerful spirits controlled events in the natural world. People sensitive to spirits became medicine persons or shamans. Tribes were ruled by counsel and land was held in common for use by whole tribe. Main difference between the two cultures Ownership of land * How did the two cultures clash?
SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD Who went West? Many different fortune seekers including Irish, German, Polish, Chinese, and African Americans Some women went as well.
GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVE AMERICANS 1834 Government Passes Act that designated the entire great plains as Native American Reservation 1850s govt. changes plans, and has more restrictive areas Native Americans continue to hunt on their traditional lands Massacre at Sand Creek Cheyenne thinking they were protected by the Govt. peacefully return to Sand Creek Reserve in Colorado for the winter. General wanted “no peace till the Indians suffer more.” Kills over 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho, mostly women and children. November 1864.
DEATH ON THE BOZEMAN TRAIL Bozeman Trail runs through Sioux hunting grounds. Chief appeals to Govt. to stop white settlement on the trail Crazy Horse Ambushes US troops and kills over 80 soldiers in Dec Treaty of Fort Laramie Sioux live on reservation along the Missouri River Is forced on the Sioux leaders in 1868 They expected to continue to use their traditional hunting grounds. Is a temporary halt in the warfare
CRAZY HORSE MONUMENT
BLOODY BATTLES CONTINUE Red River War Kiowa and Comanche engaged in 6 years of raiding U.S. army responds Heard friendly tribes to reservations and open fire on all others Custer’s Last Stand June 1876 Sitting Bull has a vision Lead by Crazy Horse, Gall and Sitting Bull, the warriors outflanked and crushed Custer’s troops. W/in one hour Custer and whole 7 th Calvary dead By 1876 Sioux were beaten 1885 Sitting Bull featured in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show
GENERAL GEORGE A. CUSTER
THE GOVERNMENT SUPPORTS ASSIMILATION Dawes Act 1887 Congress passes to “Americanize” the Native Americans Broke up reservations and gave land to individual Native Americans 160 acres to each head of household 80 acres to each unmarried adult Govt. supposed to give money from rest of the land to Native Americans- Never follow through Destruction of the Buffalo million buffalo Less than 1,000
THE MASSACRE OF WOUNDED KNEE December 1890 the 7 th Calvary rounds up 350 Sioux and took them camp Want Native Americans to give up their weapons Shot was fired (don’t know who did it) Soldiers use cannon Within minutes 300 unarmed Native Americans are slaughtered This event brought the Indian wars to an end. * How would you react if you were a Native American in the late 1800s?