2Quick Overview of Reconstruction Civil War ends in 1865.13th Amendment passed- Abolishes SlaveryLincoln Assassinated on April 15 by John Wilkes Booth. Secretary of State also attacked, and Vice president supposed to be attacked, but assassin backed out.Lincoln favors lenient reconstruction plan- swear allegiance, and get right to vote.Johnson excludes wealthy southern landowners from taking the oath, but pardons more than 13,000 whites because “white men alone should run the south.”Black Codes Restrict African Americans from voting.
3Quick Overview of Reconstruction 1866 congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1866 which gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws.- President VetoesCongress then passes 14th Amendment- prevents states from denying rights and privileges to any citizen.Congress is not happy with President Johnson so they find a way to impeach him, they do but Senate vote not to convict him.1868 Grant is elected President.
4Quick Overview of Reconstruction South is put under military Rule by congress15 amendment passed in cannot be kept from voting because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.African Americans started to drastically improve their living. Many moved, found new jobs, and some became elected officials. 16 were elected to congress.Sharecropping system becomes prominent.The KKK becomes prominent as an opposition to reconstruction. Killed around 20,000 people.Eventually support for reconstruction fades and southern democrats regain control of the South Hayes Elected.Plessy vs. Ferguson
5Change and Conflict in the American West Chapter 12Change and Conflict in the American West
612.2 Mining and Ranching Opportunities in the West First Settlers farmersThen they found GOLD!!!1848 John Sutter’s workers finds gold at his sawmillDoesn’t stay a secret long= California Gold Rush“Forty-niners”1849 about 80,000 people from all over hoping to strike it rich.9 of 10 menCalifornia’s Population went from 93,000 to 380,000.Few struck it richEventually only large mining companies left- did a lot of damage to the environment.
7Ranchers and Cowboys find a home on the range As buffalo disappear and Native Americans are forced onto reservations, the plains open up to cattle ranching.Americans learned about cattle from their Mexican NeighborsTexas Longhorns- cows accustomed to dry grasslands of southern Spain, brought over by Spanish settlers.Everything about the cowboy was heavily influenced by Mexican Vaqueros.Railroads helped drive the cattle industry.
8Ranchers and Cowboys find a home on the range After Civil War demand for beef skyrocketsChisholm Trail- Route from San Antonio Texas to Abilene, Kansas.Other routes had problems35,000 head of cattle the 1st year75,000 the next year.
9A day in the life of a Cowboy 55,000 cowboys on the plains from25% African American12% Mexican14 + hour daysMost cowboys broke down by 40Season began at Spring round-up and ended after the long drive. ( about 3 months)Buffalo Bill’s Wild West ShowFeed into idea/ myth of the west* What was/is the myth of the Wild West? And how did that compare to reality?
10End of the Open RangeBy end of the 1880s cattle frontier had met it’s endWhy?OvergrazingBad weatherTHE INVENTION OF BARBED WIREJoseph F. Glidden.
1112.3 Railroads open west to rapid settlement Before 1850s, railroads just short lines.Wanted Transcontinental RailroadPlans had been stalled b/c of divide between north and south.Civil war allowed for approval of Northern route.Union Pacific works its way west, Central Pacific works its way East.Had a hard time completing it. ($, attacks from N. Americans, etc.)Ex Civil War soldiers, former slaves, Irish and Chinese Immigrants made up a large part of the workforce.Rough Conditions killed manyMay 10, 1869 the Transcontinental Railroad is completedRailroads made many rich, made towns spring up, and had problems of price hiking.
12The Culture of the plains Indians The Great Plains- grassland extending through the west-central portion of the United States.Horses-Almost all tribes have them by 1700s.Lead to increased mobility and more efficient huntingAlso lead to more wars from one tribe trespassing on another's’ hunting grounds.Bison (Buffalo)Provided most of the Native Americans’ needs.Food, clothing, shelter.
14Family Life * How did the two cultures clash? Lived in small extended family groups.Men hunted/ were warriorsWomen helped butcher game and prepared hidesAll believed that powerful spirits controlled events in the natural world.People sensitive to spirits became medicine persons or shamans.Tribes were ruled by counsel and land was held in common for use by whole tribe.Main difference between the two culturesOwnership of land* How did the two cultures clash?
15Settlers Push Westward Who went West?Many different fortune seekers including Irish, German, Polish, Chinese, and African AmericansSome women went as well.
16Government Restricts Native Americans 1834 Government Passes Act that designated the entire great plains as Native American Reservation1850s govt. changes plans, and has more restrictive areasNative Americans continue to hunt on their traditional landsMassacre at Sand CreekCheyenne thinking they were protected by the Govt. peacefully return to Sand Creek Reserve in Colorado for the winter.General wanted “no peace till the Indians suffer more.”Kills over 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho, mostly women and children. November 1864.
17Death on the Bozeman Trail Bozeman Trail runs through Sioux hunting grounds.Chief appeals to Govt. to stop white settlement on the trailCrazy HorseAmbushes US troops and kills over 80 soldiers in DecTreaty of Fort LaramieSioux live on reservation along the Missouri RiverIs forced on the Sioux leaders in 1868They expected to continue to use their traditional hunting grounds.Is a temporary halt in the warfare
19Bloody Battles Continue Red River WarKiowa and Comanche engaged in 6 years of raidingU.S. army respondsHeard friendly tribes to reservations and open fire on all othersCuster’s Last StandJune 1876 Sitting Bull has a visionLead by Crazy Horse, Gall and Sitting Bull, the warriors outflanked and crushed Custer’s troops.W/in one hour Custer and whole 7th Calvary deadBy 1876 Sioux were beaten1885 Sitting Bull featured in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show
22The Government Supports Assimilation Dawes Act1887 Congress passes to “Americanize” the Native AmericansBroke up reservations and gave land to individual Native Americans160 acres to each head of household80 acres to each unmarried adultGovt. supposed to give money from rest of the land to Native Americans- Never follow throughDestruction of the Buffalomillion buffalo1890- Less than 1,000
23The Massacre of Wounded Knee December 1890 the 7th Calvary rounds up 350 Sioux and took them campWant Native Americans to give up their weaponsShot was fired (don’t know who did it)Soldiers use cannonWithin minutes 300 unarmed Native Americans are slaughteredThis event brought the Indian wars to an end.* How would you react if you were a Native American in the late 1800s?