Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER 16: P OLITICS & R EFORM 1877-1896. S ECTION 1: S TALEMATE IN W ASHINGTON Rutherford B. Hayes is in office in 1877 Tried to make some reforms."— Presentation transcript:
S ECTION 1: S TALEMATE IN W ASHINGTON Rutherford B. Hayes is in office in 1877 Tried to make some reforms so that people got government jobs based on qualifications, not political connections. Sets up a political fight with the party bosses “stalwarts” vs. “halfbreeds” Hayes decides not to run again Election of 1880: James Garfield and Chester Arthur as his VP. This formed a mixed ticket…
President Rutherford B. Hayes was the first to attempt civil service reform to end patronage
F IGHT WITHIN THE REPUBLICAN PARTY “Stalwarts” vs. “Halfbreeds” Both factions of the Republican party Stalwarts are allied with the party bosses and political machines. Had also been angered by the party’s end of Reconstruction because it allowed the Democrats to regain the South, so they weren’t going to support Hayes for reelection. Halfbreeds were the reformers who had gained office under Hayes but were considered “wolves in sheep’s clothing” who were just in it for the jobs. Sets up a fight within the party going into the Election of 1880. James Garfield is nominated for president and Chester Arthur for VP and this is a “mixed ticket” of a “stalwart” and a “halfbreed”
Garfield is president after having won the election of 1880. His VP is Chester Arthur What happened to Garfield? Why? See p. 492 What was Guiteau’s motivation? What does this show about the power of the spoils system (patronage)? Why did Garfield’s assassin think his death was necessary? What does it mean that he says he’s a “Stalwart of stalwarts?” The response to Garfield’s death is the passage of the Pendleton Act by Congress. Created the Civil Service Commission Government jobs to be based on the merit system, not patronage.
C HANGES IN THE POLITICAL SYSTEM Where do the two parties get their support? Use the info on p. 493 to make a chart comparing and contrasting the Democrats and Republicans What were the traditional voting patterns? How did the system in the 1870s and 1880s give advantages to the parties? Which party benefitted in the House? In the Senate? See p. 493- 494 How does this impact presidential elections during this time period? See p. 494
E LECTION OF 1884: E NTER THE M UGWUMPS The candidates: Grover Cleveland,(D) governor of NY Major policy position was his stance against Tammany Hall James G. Blaine (R), former House member and party leader in Maine. Focused on personal morals of the candidates since political corruption was the key issue in the campaign Was Blaine hiding his involvement with the Credit Moblier scandal when he was in the House? Some Republicans have doubts so they split off to nominate their own candidate. Called the Mugwumps, Algonquin for “great chiefs”
C LEVELAND ’ S ADMINISTRATION Wins a very close election “This dreadful…office-seeking hangs over me and surrounds me, and makes me feel like resigning” 1 st Democrat in office since before the Civil War, so lots of people expected political favors Main focus is economic issues Labor unrest such as the Haymarket Riot Americans’ distrust of big business (ex. rebates) Supreme Court forces federal attention to the issue in the Wabash case. Congress responds to the decision by passing the Interstate Commerce Act, which creates the Interstate Commerce Commission This was Congress’ 1 st law aimed at regulating interstate commerce. In practice, this was very difficult to enforce because it relied on court rulings
C LEVELAND ’ S ADMINISTRATION CONTINUED Economic issues continued: Tariffs are back! Do we still need to protect weak/emerging industries? Or are prices artificially high and so it’s harder to compete? Trade war? Who would benefit the most from high tariffs? This becomes the key issue in the election of 1888
E LECTION OF 1888 Republicans hope to regain the White House, so they nominate Benjamin Harrison Campaign contributions pour in from industrialists Focus is on high tariffs Grover Cleveland is running for re-election and says he’ll lower tariffs. Popular vote and electoral vote are split: Harrison lost the popular vote to Cleveland, but won in the electoral college.
R EPUBLICANS REGAIN CONTROL Take back the White House with the election (sort of) of Harrison Also win majorities in both the House and Senate Congress passes the McKinley Tariff to make good on campaign promises. Who gains and who loses? See p. 497 Veterans’ pensions are also increased These two together lead to a loss of revenue and the US starts running a deficit. Key piece of legislation under Harrison’s administration is the Sherman Antitrust Act
S HERMAN A NTITRUST A CT The courts are slow to implement the law, so this act, like the ICC,is more about setting precedent than making immediate changes. What’s a trust again? So has the federal government really solved any of the key political issues in this time period? Can the Republicans and Democrats offer any solutions? If not, what’s an alternative?
S ECTION 2: P OPULISM Populism is most closely associated with farmers in this period, but it had other supporters also. Farmers were angry about: Dropping crop prices Deflation & inflation The money supply Why is deflation particularly bad for farmers? In response, Oliver H Kelley founded the Patrons of Husbandry, AKA the Grange Grangers had some specific goals. What were they? See p. 502 Three things…
W AS THE GRANGE SUCCESSFUL ? Create a chart that shows what they tried to do and if it worked or not. See p. 502 Farmers don’t just give up. Creation of the Farmers’ Alliance Key strategy for the alliance was to create cooperatives called exchanges How did these work? Did they have an impact on farmers’ problems? See p. 503 What other two strategies did the Farmers’ Alliance try?
S EC 2 P OPULISM Populism was a political movement in the 1890’s that helped farmers and to push for Bimetallism
T HE R ISE OF POPULISM The Ocala Demands Issued by the Farmers’ Alliance as a kind of voters’ guide to help farmers choose candidates in the 1890 elections. The demands included: Putting the subtreasury plan into effect if elected Free coinage of silver End tariffs End the national bank (Bank of the United States) Tighter regulation of the railroads Direct election of senators by the people and not state legislatures (17 th amendment)
P OPULISM CONTINUED Many Democrats were elected, especially in the South by agreeing to the Ocala Demands, but once in office they didn’t follow through Those voters who supported the Farmers’ Alliance lose faith in the Democratic Party and decide to support the People’s Party
E LECTION OF 1896 Democrats nominate William Jennings Bryan Also supported by the People’s Party Supports free silver Republicans choose William McKinley as their candidate Promised a “full dinner pail” Supported by the country’s business leaders Opposes free silver as bad for the economy More gold and silver discovered in Alaska and the Yukon territory, ending the money supply shortage
M C K INLEY W INS ! No real reason for the People’s Party to continue. Still exists today but this was its high point in being an influence on national politics.
S ECTION 3: T HE RISE OF SEGREGATION Many African- Americans in the South had become sharecroppers after the Civil War. Remember debt peonage? Many chose to leave the South in search of better opportunities “Benjamin “Pap” Singleton and the Exodusters went to Kansas Formation of the Colored Farmers’ National Alliance Set up cooperatives Voted for and supported the Populist Party Democrats in the south were threatened by this rise in political power and appealed to poor white racism Poll taxes Literacy tests
L EGALIZING SEGREGATION Segregation existed in both the North and the South but was codified in law in the South Known as Jim Crow laws Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 Southern states passed laws enforcing segregation in public places Plessy v. Ferguson upheld segregation by creating the doctrine of “separate but equal” Became the legal justification for segregation for 50+ years until it is struck down later by Brown v. Board of Education
T HE A FRICAN A MERICAN RESPONSE Ida B. Wells Led a movement against lynching Wrote a book and newspaper articles Booker T. Washington Urged a focus on achieving economic goals rather than focusing on legal or political goals Legal and political/social goals will be achieved when they earn the respect of whites. Explained his reasoning in a famous speech called the Atlanta Compromise Was challenged by other African American leaders like W.E.B. Du Bois Argued that African Americans should demand their rights and respect of whites