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The Road to War World War I The Russian Revolution Treaty of Versailles.

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Presentation on theme: "The Road to War World War I The Russian Revolution Treaty of Versailles."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Road to War World War I The Russian Revolution Treaty of Versailles


3 Militarism Size of European militaries double between 1890 & 1914 Alliances Austria, Germany, & Italy form the Triple Alliance in 1882 England, France, & Russia form the Triple Entente in 1907 Imperialism Race for remaining territory after 1880 created tension Nationalism Decline of Ottoman Empire led to Balkanization Serbs (Slavs) desire an independent Serbia Russia supports idea of Serbia; Austria-Hungary rejects it

4 Triple Alliance in red; Triple Entente in gray Serbia


6 “The entire able-bodied population is preparing to massacre one another; though no one, it is true, wants to attack, and everybody protests his love of peace and determination to maintain it, yet the whole world feels that it only requires some unforeseen incident, some unpreventable accident, for the spark to fall in a flash…and blow Europe sky-high.” Frederic Passy, 1895

7 Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 The assassin was a Serbian nationalist in a group called Young Bosnia The assassin, Gavrilo Princip, was only 20 years old

8 Austria-Hungary issued a list of ten demands to Serbia called the July Ultimatum Serbia accepted 9 of the 10 demands Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914 Russia immediately mobilized its army “The Guns of August” Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914 Germany declared war on France on August 3, 1914 Great Britain declared war on Germany on August 4, 1914



11 The Plan: Germany WinsThe Reality: A Stalemate


13 The war quickly turned to stalemate as neither the Germans nor the French dislodge the other from the trenches they had begun to dig for shelter. Two lines of trenches soon extended from the English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland. The Western Front had been bogged down in a trench warfare that kept both sides immobilized in virtually the same position for four years.



16 "No Man's Land is pocketmarked like the body of foulest disease and its odor is the breath of cancer...No Man's Land under snow is like the face of the moon, chaotic, crater- ridden, uninhabitable, awful, the abode of madness. Wilfred Owen

17 Northern France by 1917


19 Clockwise from top left: Sikh soldiers in India, Chinese troops in Greece, African soldiers in German East Africa, a Bermuda militia in London


21 Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers Attempt to regain territory in Balkan peninsula Arab Revolt of 1916 Arabs want independence from the Ottoman Empire British promise military aid Revolt was unsuccessful due to the lack of military support Arabs gain their “independence” after World War I T.E. Lawrence, leader of the Arab revolt


23 China was divided into spheres of influence prior to World War I Japan entered the war as an Allied Power Seized German colonies in the Pacific & China Japan issued the Twenty-One Demands to China in 1915 Hoped to turn China into a protectorate of Japan Chinese government did not accept or reject the demands Led to collapse of China’s military government

24 Most involved tropical dependency Gandhi and other leaders supported the war Hoped to achieve self-government British promised to move towards self-government after the war Provided loans & materials to aid the British war effort 1.3 million Indians served as soldiers and laborers Over 100,000 casualties “The moment Britain gets into trouble elsewhere, India, in her present temper, would burst into a blaze of rebellion.” William Archer

25 New technology changes nature of warfare Over 8 million soldiers killed; over 19 million wounded Over 8 million civilians were also killed

26 World War I biplane Machine gunners w/ gas masksBritish Tank German U-boat

27 Definition of Total War Conflict in which the participating countries devote all of their resources to the war effort Aspects of Total War Mandatory military conscription (a.k.a. the draft) Control of the economy & nationalization of industry Rationing of food and other essentials The Home Front Women, children, ethnic minorities, etc. are considered a vital part of the war effort Propaganda

28 Women in the Great War Worked in jobs traditionally held only by men, who were at war (ex: Factory workers, nurses, farmers) Strengthens suffrage movements Discovered the benefits of financial freedom (some refused to return to domestic service after the war)

29 Rationing Food Shortages Diets Change Left: German bread ration card Above: U.S. Food Administration propaganda posters

30 380,000 African-Americans served in the army 200,000 were sent to Europe; only 42,000 saw combat





35 Germans sink the British passenger ship, the Lusitania, on May 7, 1915 – killing 100 Americans Zimmerman Telegram in Feb 1917 A secret message sent between German diplomats suggesting that Mexico might want to join forces with Germany and thereby regain the territory it had lost to the US in the Mexican-American War of 1846. It was intercepted by the U.S. President Wilson and the U.S. declare war on Germany on April 6, 1917

36 One of the most devastating outbreaks of disease in modern times Mass movement during World War I spread the flu around the world Spread to the trenches of the Great War “Spanish” flu kills 30 million people worldwide Kills 550,000 in the United States Kills 12.5 million in India and China

37 Russia withdraws in Feb. 1918 Russian Revolution Treaty of Brest-Litvosk War of Attrition Almost no fighting occurs in Germany Germany surrenders at 11:00 on November 11, 1918 Treaty of Versailles conference starts January 1919

38 Germany 1,935,000 Russia 1,700,000 France 1,368,000 Austria-Hungary 1,200,000 British Empire 942,135 Ottoman Empire 725,000 Italy 680,000 Romania 300,000 United States 116,516 Bulgaria 87,495 Belgium 45,550 Serbia 45,000 Greece 23,098 Portugal 8,145 Montenegro 3,000 Japan 1,344


40 Industrialization of Russia Used foreign investment to build factories Poor working conditions led to urban unrest Russo-Japanese War Russia was embarrassed by loss to Japan Revolution of 1905—”Bloody Sunday” Russian soldiers fire on unarmed protesters 500-1000 people were killed Led to creation of the Duma

41 Workers begin to support the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx Believed industrial workers would overthrow the czar Bolshevik party formed in 1903 Led by Vladimir Lenin (right)

42 World War I Russia was consistently defeated by Germany 4 million casualties in the first year Demonstrates weakness of czarist rule Czar’s wife Alexandria runs the government while husband leads the war effort Rasputin undermines her authority Defeats destroyed the moral of Russia troops Soldiers mutinied, deserted, or ignored orders

43 Women in St. Petersburg led citywide strike March 1917 200,000 workers joined the strike Soldiers sent to stop the strike joined the strikers Led to general uprising in Russia Czar was forced to abdicate his throne Provisional government established Led by Alexander Kerensky

44 Lenin and the Bolsheviks seize power in October 1917 Motto was “Peace, Land, Bread” Immediate Reforms Ordered all farmland be distributed to peasants Control of factories given to workers Withdrew from World War I Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Russian Civil War

45 New Economic Policy Creates limited capitalists reforms in order to promote agricultural and industrial development Dies in 1924 Battle for succession between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin

46 Goal was to create communist state envisioned by Bolsheviks Collectivization Eliminate private farms in favor of collective farms Kills millions of peasants Secures Soviet control of countryside

47 First Five-Year Plan (1928) focuses on iron, steel, machine tools, and electricity Called for 1115% increase in coal production, 200% increase in iron, and 335% in electric power Posted worker production in factories Workers who failed to meet production quotas were shot or imprisoned in the Gulag

48 Attempt by Stalin to eliminate political opposition Leading members of the Bolshevik party were executed or sent to labor camps Stalin purged prominent military officials 50% of a military officers were purged Historians estimate 10 to 20 million people died during the Great Purge


50  Wilson’s Fourteen Points. Reduction of weapons. Reduction of weapons. People’s right to choose their own government. People’s right to choose their own government. Organization of world nations to protect against aggression. Organization of world nations to protect against aggression.  Allied Goals. The four major countries all had different ideas for a peace treaty. The four major countries all had different ideas for a peace treaty. France and Great Britain wanted to punish Germany. France and Great Britain wanted to punish Germany.  However, Great Britain did not want to weaken Germany.  Italian leaders hoped to gain land. Disappointed that they were mostly ignored by the other leaders. Disappointed that they were mostly ignored by the other leaders.

51 Council of Four British Prime Minister David Lloyd George French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando American President Woodrow Wilson Not in Attendance Russia and Germany Left to Right: David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Woodrow Wilson

52 Italy and Britain wanted territory France wanted to punish Germany Italy and United States left, leaving peace settlement to France and Britain France and Britain created a severe treaty that punished Germany Germany had to: Return land to France Keep area near France, called Rhineland, demilitarized (no military) Pay 32 billion dollars Agree to they were guilty for the war

53 New Countries Poland Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Czechoslovakia Austria Hungary Turkey Yugoslavia

54  League of Nations. Organization of world governments proposed by Wilson. Organization of world governments proposed by Wilson. Established by the Treaty of Versailles. Established by the Treaty of Versailles. Main goal was to encourage cooperation and keep peace. Main goal was to encourage cooperation and keep peace. Germany was excluded. Germany was excluded. United States did not join. United States did not join.  Ultimately weakened the League of Nations.  Changes in Europe. Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire lands were broken up. Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire lands were broken up. Independent nations were created. Independent nations were created.  Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Turkey.  Other treaties signed with the defeated Central Powers.

55  Many colonists who fought in the war heard the words of the Allies leaders about the importance of freedom and democracy.  After fighting for colonial rulers they expected rights for themselves.  Wartime sacrifices did not win new freedoms.  European powers split up lands controlled by Germans, Austro-Hungarians, Ottomans. Redistributed them to other colonial powers. Redistributed them to other colonial powers.

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