8 because he was fatherless The poet suggests the baby knew he was fatherless and that is why he cried so desperately.
9 The gods Not Christian, pagan The gods planned his life, he was an important person from birth. The gods knew he had potential.
10 boiled his bloodThere is a saying: his blood boiled – which means the person is angry.The poet suggests Shaka became aggressive and more determined because of this action.
11 in a clay pot of passionThe clay pot relates to the Zulu custom of making food and beer in clay pots. Shaka had more traditional passion.
12 to course in his veins.If passion courses in his veins, he is very passionate
13 His heart was shaped into an ox shield Metaphor: his heart is as strong as an ox shield. An ox shield is a traditional defensive shield. This means Shaka would be protected
14 to foil every foeAlliteration: f. His enemies would be fooled.
15 Ancestors forgedAncestors are very important in Zulu culture. Ancestors determine the prosperity of a family because they intercede in the spirit world.Forged: when you make metal hot and hit it into a certain shape.