Presentation on theme: "“the causes and results of” How to start a War! Economic RivalryNationalism Germany and Great Britain both had control over weaker nations and their."— Presentation transcript:
“the causes and results of”
How to start a War! Economic RivalryNationalism Germany and Great Britain both had control over weaker nations and their trade this led to economic rivalry- or the struggle for new markets in the world When national pride goes too far, people of one nation believe they are always right. This sense of pride or nationalism often leads to dislike of other countries. This was also one of the factors that lead to World War 1.
Arms Race Great Britain and Germany both had huge navies. Each tried to become better and more powerful than the other this was called the Arms Race Other nations in Europe also had strong armies and navies, it was only a matter of time until they found a way to use them
Rivalries and Allies RRivalries- competitions between nations TThe troubles in the Balkan peninsula simmered rivalries among many of the regions ethnic groups. SSeveral small nations shared the rest of the peninsula and joined other powerful nations to secure allies for the upcoming war. SSerbia- secured Russia as it’s ally. AAustria- opposed this and took over some areas that Serbia hoped to have
Alliances “the clubs of WW1” Just as people join clubs, so did the nations of Europe. Their “clubs” were called alliances An alliance is a formal agreement between two or more nations to help each other in time of war
Alliances of World War 1 Triple AllianceTriple Entente Germany Austria-Hungary Italy Great Britain France Russia
The spark that set things off June 28, 1914 – Francis Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Hungary, was visiting Serbia. An assassin shot and killed him (assassin is someone who kills a politically important person) One month later, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia
Francis Ferdinand and his family
The World at War Austria-Hungary used the killing of Francis Ferdinand as an excuse to declare war on Serbia By August 1914, Austria-Hungary and Germany were now at war with Great Britain, France and Russia.
The Alliances are now Powers Central PowersAllied Powers (Allies) Germany Austria-Hungary Italy (until 1915) France Great Britain Russia Italy (later) United States (later)
The Western Front Germany defeated the little country of Belgium and invaded France. Great Britain rushed to help France. Germany was fighting Russia on the east at the same time it fought France and Great Britain on the west
The Western Front The western fighting line was called the Western Front Great ditches called trenches were dug. The armies put up barbed wire and brought up guns. All of Europe was prepared for war!
To Fight or not to fight? Some nations, did not take sides, but rather stayed neutral. Others were joining sides. The Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria helped Germany and the Central Powers Italy joined the Allies against the Central Powers in an attempt to gain more land Japan joined the Allies hoping to gain some of Germany’s colonies Switzerland did not take sides, but stayed neutral
The U.S. is brought into the fight The United States had decided to stay neutral. However, Germany began using its submarines to sink ships bringing supplies to the Allies. On May 7, 1915, a German submarine sank the ship Lusitania in the Atlantic Ocean
The U.S. declares war Of the 1,198 passengers who died in the sinking of the Lusitania, 139 were Americans. In March 1917, the Germans sank three American ships in two days. Two weeks later, the United States declared war on Germany
World War 1 marks many firsts….. The first time so many nations of the world joined sides to fight against one another. The first time that submarines were used in large numbers It was also the first time that airplanes were used in warfare. It was the first time the tank was used Poison gas was also another invention
American troops begin arriving in France By June 1917, American troops were arriving in France. After many battles, the Allies and Germany signed armistice (an informal agreement to stop fighting a war) The other Central Powers had already stopped fighting, and Russia had withdrawn after undergoing a revolution. On November 11, 1918 the war was over
United States declares War on Germany In January 1917, A German official named Arthur Zimmermann cabled a German ambassador in Mexico. Zimmermann proposed if war broke out with the US and Germany that Mexico should ally itself with Germany and in return Mexico would regain lost territory in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico after the war. The British intercepted the telegram and gave it to the American newspaper. This outraged Americans and Americans began demanding WAR on Germany!
U.S. declares war on Germany German submarine began sinking U.S. ships again without warning. Between March 21 and Feb. 3 German U- boats sank six American merchant ships. On April 6, 1917, Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany.
The War Ends In November of 1917, the Russians pulled out of the war. German troops on the Eastern Front were sent west to strengthen Germany’s army as it advanced toward Paris in On June 1, American and French troops blocked the advance at the town of Chateau-Thierry. Four months later the Americans launched their own massive attack in the Battle of Argonne Forest. The Americans suffered major losses but shattered the German defense.
Meanwhile… The Austro-Hungarian Empire was in chaos, and the Ottoman Turks surrendered. The German emperor stepped down after conspiracy (mutiny) within the German navy and a revolt in Berlin. On Nov. 11, 1918, Germany signed an armistice (or cease-fire) that ended the war
Treaty of Versailles In January 1919, peace talks began at Versailles outside Paris. U.S. President- Woodrow Wilson, British Prime Minister –David Lloyd George, French Premier- Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister- Vittorio Orlando created the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty stripped Germany of armed forces and required Germany to pay reparations (war damages) of 33 billion dollars to the Allies. Created a League of Nations, so countries could settle differences by reason rather than by war The U.S. Congress didn’t approve of the League of Nations.
New nations in Europe The War recreated a new map of Europe. Both the German and Russian Empires lost territory in Southeastern Europe. Austro-Hungarian Empire became many separate smaller nations The Ottoman Empire became Turkey and new Arab nations Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Palestine
World War 1 was over! Some 30 nations had been involved in the war. Over 10 million people had died, and twice that number had been wounded No one knows how many people lost their homes and farms in the fighting
Homecoming Parade: Los Angeles, California April 22, 1919
A Plan for Peace When World War I ended, the problems of keeping peace began. The President of the United States,Woodrow Wilson, had some good ideas. He called them his Fourteen Points.
Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points Wilson wanted all lands to be free from fear of other nations. He wanted an end to the arms race and freedom around the world. Most important, a League of Nations would be set up so nations of the world could solve their problems by reason rather than by war
What’s wrong with Peace? Many of the Allies did not like President Wilson’s ideas. They wanted Germany to be punished for the war and to pay for war damages. In spite of what Wilson wanted, the United States refused to join the League of Nations
The official end of the war Germany and its allies signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, which officially ended the war. The treaty left out many of President Wilson’s ideas for peace. Germany lost its colonies in Asia and Africa. Some German land was to be used by France. Austria-Hungary became two completely separate nations, and other new nations were formed.
Not so fast, The United States did not even sign the peace treaty. Russia was not involved in the Versailles treaty. It signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1918, after its revolution. The war was over, but the world’s problems were not Hate and bitterness still filled the hearts of many……the world had not learned from this terrible war, and in another twenty years, nations would be fighting again.