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PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-1 CHAPTER 7 Manipulating Arrays.

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Presentation on theme: "PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-1 CHAPTER 7 Manipulating Arrays."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-1 CHAPTER 7 Manipulating Arrays

3 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-2 Objectives Manipulate array elements Declare and initialize associative arrays Use iteration functions Find and extract elements and values Sort, combine, and compare arrays Work with multidimensional arrays

4 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-3 Manipulating Elements $Topic = $_POST['topic']; $Name = $_POST['name']; $Message = $_POST['message']; $PostMessage = addslashes(“$Topic~$Name~$Message\n”); $MessageStore = fopen(“messages.txt”, “a”); fwrite($MessageStore, “$PostMessage”); fclose($MessageStore); echo “ Topic : $Topic ”; echo “ Name : $Name ”; echo “ Message : $Message ”;

5 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-4 Manipulating Elements if (!file_exists(“messages.txt”) || filesize(“messages.txt”) == 0) echo “ There are no messages posted. ”; else { $MessageArray = file(“messages.txt”); for ($i=0; $i

6 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-5 Manipulating Elements (continued) Figure 7-1 Post New Message page of the Discussion Forum script

7 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-6 Manipulating Elements Figure 7-2 Message Posted page of the Discussion Forum script

8 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-7 Adding and Removing Elements from the Beginning of an Array The array_shift() function removes the first element from the beginning of an array  Pass the name of the array whose first element you want to remove The array_unshift() function adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array  Pass the name of an array followed by comma- separated values for each element you want to add

9 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-8 Adding and Removing Elements from the Beginning of an Array $TopGolfers = array( “Ernie Els”, “Phil Mickelson”, “Retief Goosen”, “Padraig Harrington”, “David Toms”, “Sergio Garcia”, “Adam Scott”, “Stewart Cink”); array_shift($TopGolfers); array_unshift($TopGolfers, “Tiger Woods”, “Vijay Singh”); print_r($TopGolfers);

10 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-9 Adding and Removing Elements from the Beginning of an Array (continued) Figure 7-3 Output of an array modified with the array_shift() and array_unshift() functions

11 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-10 Adding and Removing Elements from the End of an Array The array_pop() function removes the last element from the end of an array  Pass the name of the array whose last element you want to remove The array_push() function adds one or more elements to the end of an array  Pass the name of an array followed by comma-separated values for each element you want to add

12 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-11 Adding and Removing Elements from the End of an Array $HospitalDepts = array( “Anesthesia”, “Molecular Biology”, “Neurology”, “Pediatrics”); array_pop($HospitalDepts); array_push($HospitalDepts, “Psychiatry”, “Pulmonary Diseases”);

13 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-12 Adding and Removing Elements Within an Array The array_splice() function adds or removes array elements The array_splice() function renumbers the indexes in the array The syntax for the array_splice() function is: array_splice(array_name, start, characters_to_delete, values_to_insert);

14 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-13 array_splice() Function To add an element within an array, include a value of 0 as the third argument $HospitalDepts = array( “Anesthesia”, // first element (0) “Molecular Biology”,// second element (1) “Neurology”, // third element (2) “Pediatrics”); // fourth element (3) array_splice($HospitalDepts, 3, 0, “Ophthalmology”);

15 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-14 array_splice() Function To add more than one element within an array, pass the array() construct as the fourth argument Separate the new element values by commas $HospitalDepts = array( “Anesthesia”, // first element (0) “Molecular Biology”,// second element (1) “Neurology”, // third element (2) “Pediatrics”);// fourth element (3) array_splice($HospitalDepts, 3, 0, array(“Ophthalmology”, “Otolaryngology”));

16 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-15 array_splice() Function Delete array elements by omitting the fourth argument from the array_splice() function $HospitalDepts = array( “Anesthesia”, // first element (0) “Molecular Biology”,// second element (1) “Neurology”,// third element (2) “Pediatrics”);// fourth element (3) array_splice($HospitalDepts, 1, 2);

17 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-16 unset() Function The unset() function removes array elements and other variables Pass to the unset() function the array name and index number of the element you want to remove To remove multiple elements, separate each index name and element number with commas unset($HospitalDepts[1], $HospitalDepts[2]);

18 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-17 Removing Duplicate Elements The array_unique() function removes duplicate elements from an array Pass to the array_unique() function the name of the array from which you want to remove duplicate elements The array_values() and array_unique() functions do not operate directly on an array The array_unique() function does renumber the indexes after removing duplicate values in an array

19 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-18 array_unique() Function $TopGolfers = array( “Tiger Woods”, “Tiger Woods”, “Vijay Singh”, “Vijay Singh”, “Ernie Els”, “Phil Mickelson”, “Retief Goosen”, “Retief Goosen”, “Padraig Harrington”, “David Toms”, “Sergio Garcia”, “Adam Scott”, “Stewart Cink”); echo “ The world's top golfers are: ”; $TopGolfers = array_unique($TopGolfers); $TopGolfers = array_values($TopGolfers); for ($i=0; $i

20 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-19 array_unique() Function (continued) Figure 7-4 Output of an array after removing duplicate values with the array_unique() function

21 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-20 Declaring and Initializing Associative Arrays With associative arrays, you specify an element’s key by using the array operator (=>) The syntax for declaring and initializing an associative array is: $array_name = array(key=>value,...); Figure 7-5 Output of array with associative and indexed elements

22 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-21 Declaring and Initializing Associative Arrays $Territories[100] = “Nunavut”; $Territories[] = “Northwest Territories”; $Territories[] = “Yukon Territory”; print_r($Territories); echo ' The $Territories array consists of ', count($Territories), “ elements. ”; Figure 7-6 Output of an array with a starting index of 100

23 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-22 Iterating Through an Array The internal array pointer refers to the currently selected element in an array Table 7-1 Array pointer iteration functions

24 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-23 Iterating Through an Array Figure 7-7 Output of an array without advancing the internal array pointer

25 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-24 Determining if a Value Exists The in_array() function returns a Boolean value of true if a given value exists in an array The array_search() function determines whether a given value exists in an array and  Returns the index or key of the first matching element if the value exists, or  Returns false if the value does not exist if (in_array(“Neurology”, $HospitalDepts)) echo “ The hospital has a Neurology department. ”;

26 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-25 Determining if a Key Exists The array_key_exists() function determines whether a given index or key exists You pass two arguments to the array_key_exists() function:  The first argument represents the key to search for  The second argument represents the name of the array in which to search

27 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-26 Determining if a Key Exists (continued) $GamePieces[“Dancer”] = “Daryl”; $GamePieces[“Fat Man”] = “Dennis”; $GamePieces[“Assassin”] = “Jennifer”; if (array_key_exists(“Fat Man”, $GamePieces)) echo “ {$GamePieces[“Fat Man”]} is already 'Fat Man'. ”; else { $GamePieces[“Fat Man”] = “Don”; echo “ {$GamePieces[“Fat Man”]} is now 'Fat Man'. ”; }

28 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-27 Returning a Portion of an Array The array_slice() function returns a portion of an array and assigns it to another array The syntax for the array_slice() function is: array_slice(array_name, start, characters_to_return);

29 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-28 Returning a Portion of an Array $TopGolfers = array(“Tiger Woods”, “Vijay Singh”, “Ernie Els”, “Phil Mickelson”, “Retief Goosen”, “Padraig Harrington”, “David Toms”, “Sergio Garcia”, “Adam Scott”, “Stewart Cink”); $TopFiveGolfers = array_slice($TopGolfers, 0, 5); echo “ The top five golfers in the world are: ”; for ($i=0; $i

30 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-29 Returning a Portion of an Array (continued) Figure 7-8 Output of an array returned with the array_slice() function

31 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-30 Sorting Arrays The most commonly used array sorting functions are:  sort() and rsort() for indexed arrays  ksort() and krsort() for associative arrays

32 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-31 Sorting Arrays Table 7-2 Array sorting functions

33 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-32 Sorting Arrays Table 7-2 Array sorting functions (continued)

34 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-33 Sorting Arrays Table 7-2 Array sorting functions (continued) If the sort() and rsort() functions are used on an associative array, the keys are replaced with indexes

35 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-34 Sorting Arrays Figure 7-9 Output of an array after applying the sort() and rsort() functions

36 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-35 Sorting Arrays Figure 7-10 Output of an associative array after executing the sort() function Figure 7-11 Output of an associative array after executing the ksort() function

37 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-36 Combining Arrays To append one array to another, use the addition (+) or the compound assignment operator (+=) To merge two or more arrays use the array_merge() function The syntax for the array_merge() function is: new_array = array_merge($array1, $array2, $array3,...);

38 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-37 Combining Arrays $Provinces = array(“Newfoundland and Labrador”, “Prince Edward Island”, “Nova Scotia”, “New Brunswick”, “Quebec”, “Ontario”, “Manitoba”, “Saskatchewan”, “Alberta”, “British Columbia”); $Territories = array(“Nunavut”, “Northwest Territories”, “Yukon Territory”); $Canada = $Provinces + $Territories; print_r($Canada); Figure 7-12 Output of two combined indexed arrays

39 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-38 Comparing Arrays The array_diff() function returns an array of elements that exist in one array but not in any other arrays to which it is compared The syntax for the array_diff() function is: new_array = array_diff($array1, $array2, $array3,...); The array_intersect() function returns an array of elements that exist in all of the arrays that are compared

40 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-39 Comparing Arrays The syntax for the array_intersect() function is: new_array = array_intersect($array1, $array2, $array3,...);

41 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-40 Comparing Arrays Figure 7-13 Output of an array created with the array_intersect() function

42 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-41 Creating Two-Dimensional Indexed Arrays A multidimensional array consists of multiple indexes or keys A two-dimensional array has two sets of indexes or keys

43 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-42 Creating Two-Dimensional Indexed Arrays $USDollars = array( , // Yen , // Euro , // UK Pound , // Canadian Dollar // Swiss Francs ); Table 7-3 Currency conversion table

44 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-43 Creating Two-Dimensional Indexed Arrays $USDollars = array(1, , , , , ); $Yen = array( , 1, , , , ); $Euro = array(1.3377, , 1, , , ); $UKPound = array(1.9239, , , 1, , ); $CanadianDollar = array(0.8324, , , , 1, ); $SwissFranc = array(0.8641, , , , , 1);

45 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-44 Creating Two-Dimensional Indexed Arrays $ExchangeRates = array($USDollars, $Yen, $Euro, $UKPound, $CanadianDollar, $SwissFranc); Table 7-4 Elements and indexes in the $ExchangeRates[ ] array

46 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-45 Creating Two-Dimensional Associative Arrays Figure 7-14 Elements and keys in the $ExchangeRates[ ] array

47 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-46 Creating Multidimensional Arrays with a Single Statement $ExchangeRates = array( array(1, , , , , ), // U.S. $ array( , 1, , , , ), // Yen array(1.3377, , 1, , , ), // Euro array(1.9239, , , 1, , ), // U.K. Pound array(0.8324, , , , 1, ), // Canadian $ array(0.8641, , , , , 1) // Swiss Franc );

48 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-47 Working with Additional Dimensions Table 7-5 The Alaska table of a three-dimensional array

49 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-48 Summary The array_shift() function removes the first element from the beginning of an array The array_unshift() function adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array The array_pop() function removes the last element from the end of an array The array_push() function adds one or more elements to the end of an array The array_splice() function adds or removes array elements

50 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-49 Summary The unset() function removes array elements and other variables The array_values() function renumbers an indexed array’s elements The array_unique() function removes duplicate elements from an array The in_array() function returns a Boolean value of true if a given value exists in an array The array_search() function determines whether a given value exists in an array

51 PHP Programming with MySQL Slide 7-50 Summary The array_key_exists() function determines whether a given index or key exists The array_slice() function returns a portion of an array and assigns it to another array The array_diff() function returns an array of elements that exist in one array but not in any other arrays to which it is compared The array_intersect() function returns an array of elements that exist in all of the arrays that are compared


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