Presentation on theme: "The War Between the States"— Presentation transcript:
1The War Between the States AH1.H.5.1Summarize how the philosophical, ideological and/or religious views on freedom and equality contributed to the development of American political and economic systems through Reconstruction.AH1.H.7Understand the impact of war on American politics, economics, society, and culture.AH1.H.7.1Explain the impact of wars on American politics through Reconstruction.AH1.H.7.3Explain the impact of wars on American society and culture through Reconstruction.AH1.H.8.2Explain how opportunity and mobility impacted various groups within American society through Reconstruction.Unit 9: The Civil War
2Unit 9: The Civil WarIdentify political and military turning points of the Civil War and assess their significance to the outcome of the conflict.Essential Questions:Why are the Battle of Gettysburg and the Siege of Vicksburg considered the military turning points of the Civil War?How did the political actions of President Lincoln affect the outcome of the war?Was it inevitable that the North would win the war?
3Strengths & Weaknesses of the North & South Unit 9: The Civil War
4Who had the military advantage? NORTH¾ of US Navy’s officers and nearly all of its sailors were New EnglandersNearly all of the U.S. Navy’s warships were stationed in the North, so not seized by South during secessionAll but one major shipyard was in the NorthSOUTH1/3 of the U.S. Army’s officers resigned to join the Confederacy, including Robert E. Lee7 of the 8 military colleges in US were in the South, so there were many more trained soldiers in the South
6George McClellan1826 – 1885Placed in command of Union forces twice by Lincoln, but fired both times because of his cautiousness an unwillingness to attack if situation wasn’t perfectRan as a Democrat for president against Lincoln in 1864
7Ulysses S. Grant1822 – 1885Disgraced and run out of the Army before the war, he returned to duty and was highly successful in the Western campaignsEventually made overall US commander, despite being known for sacrificing huge numbers of his men to win battlesLater became President
8William Tecumseh Sherman 1820 – 1891Practiced a “scorched earth” policy in his “March to the Sea” campaign, badly damaging the SouthCaptured Raleigh, NC near the end of the war“War is Hell”After the war, assumed command of fighting the Indian Wars on the Great Plains
10Robert E. Lee1807 – 1870High-ranking officer in US Army at the start of the warWas offered command of Union forcesOpposed secession and abhorred slaveryStill, sided with his home state of VA, resigned from US Army and instead took command of the Confederacy’s forces
11Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson 1824 – 1863Lee’s top officerBrilliant military strategistAccidentally shot by his Confederate forces, lost his armLee: “Jackson has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right.”Died 8 days later from pneumonia
12J.E.B. Stuart 1833 – 1864 Lee’s commander of cavalry Present at many major battles of the warShowy, liked to take off on daring attacks without permission; one of these forays left Lee’s forces unprotected at GettysburgKilled in action in 1864
13Who had the manpower advantage? NORTHPop. = 22 millionMore population meant there were enough men to fight AND work in industry and farmingAdditionally, immigrants from Europe all came into northern ports!SOUTHPop. = 9 million (3 million of which were slaves!)Less population meant that nearly every able-bodied white male would have to fight; women and slaves would have to contribute to war effort through farming
15Who had the manufacturing advantage? NORTH80% of U.S. factories were in the NorthOver 90% of clothes, shoes, and iron were made in the NorthNearly 100% of guns and gunpowder were made in the NorthSOUTHHad only 1 iron works which could make proper cannonsHad NO gunpowder manufacturingSouth did move quickly to build factories to make weapons and gunpowder, but still relied on Europe for many other goods
17RiflesWhen war started, most soldiers still using slow- loading muskets which fired round ballsOver the course of the war, they were replaced by faster firing, more accurate rifles which fired conoidal bulletsThe Mini Ball
18Monitor & MerrimackBoth sides began using “ironclads” – steam- powered ships covered in sheets of iron armorFirst battle: March 9, between the USS Monitor and CSS Virginia (formerly the USS Merrimack)Battle was indecisive
19CSS HunleyBoth sides developed submarine technology, but the South was the only side to put one into actionThe CSS Hunley sank a northern ship blockading Charleston Harbor on Feb. 18, 1864 – unfortunately, the Hunley also sank in the attack
20Who had the transportation advantage? NORTHHad 2/3 of railroads, plus turnpikes and the National Road, plus the Great Lakes and connected canals and waterways for moving food and materials around the NorthSOUTHHad only about 1/3 of railroads in USHad only one major east-west rail line for moving food and materials around the SouthDepended on the Mississippi River
21The War Between the States AH1.H.5.1Summarize how the philosophical, ideological and/or religious views on freedom and equality contributed to the development of American political and economic systems through Reconstruction.AH1.H.7Understand the impact of war on American politics, economics, society, and culture.AH1.H.7.1Explain the impact of wars on American politics through Reconstruction.AH1.H.7.3Explain the impact of wars on American society and culture through Reconstruction.AH1.H.8.2Explain how opportunity and mobility impacted various groups within American society through Reconstruction.Unit 9: The Civil War
22The War Between the States Unit 9: The Civil War
23Who had the financial advantage? NORTHAlready had an established treasury to print moneyReceived revenues from tariffsMost powerful banks which could loan money to the government through the purchase of bonds were in the NorthGold and silver fields (reserves) of the West stayed in the UnionBy war’s end, inflation in the North was at 80% (high, but not unreasonable)SOUTHDepended on cash cropsMost Southern planters were “cash poor” & already in debtSouthern banks were small, had little cash to buy bondsWith Southern ports blockaded by Union warships, South could not rely on tariffs or trade with Europe for revenueSouth began to print paper money, but it had little valueBy war’s end, inflation = 9000% (outrageously high!)
24North’s Strategy for Winning The Anaconda PlanBlockade Southern ports and seize control of the Mississippi River – this would isolate and divide the South, strangling their access to resourcesTake Richmond, Va. (Capitol of the Confederacy)Grant sweep through Kentucky and TennesseeWould take time, but be less costly in livesKeep Europe out of the war
25South’s Strategy for Winning Choose battles carefully and avoid large, risky encountersWage a defensive war of attrition – make the war as expensive in lives and resources for the Union as possible.This will make the war unpopular and force them to negotiateIf necessary, pull European powers (esp. Great Britain) into the war – their textile factories depended on Southern cotton
26Europe and the WarBritain and France depended on Southern cotton for their textile mills, but were reluctant to anger U.S. by recognizing the CSABoth decided on a “wait and see” approach; if the South could prove itself in battle, then European powers would show public support
27The Trent Affair November 1861 CSA sent representatives James Mason & John Slidell to Europe via Cuba; they boarded the British ship Trent, but US Navy intercepted the Trent and arrested Mason & SlidellBritain protested and threatened war; Lincoln ordered the two diplomats released to ease tensions
28Divisions in the Democratic Party War Democrats: supported the use of military force to restore the Union, opposed ending slaveryPeace Democrats: opposed the war, wanted to see Union restored through negotiation (quieting down the elephant)
29“Copperheads”Republicans hated the Northern Peace Democrats – considered their opposition to the war to be treasonRepublicans nicknamed the Peace Democrats “Copperheads” after a venomous snake
30Divisions in the Republican Party Most Republicans wanted to see a total end to slaveryIn the beginning President Lincoln placed preserving the Union ahead of ending slavery – if he could put the country back together, he would tolerate slaveryHis later meetings with Fredrick Douglass would help him to see that the war needed to be about seeing the slave made free
31The Political LincolnLincoln was described as Compassionate, Intelligent, and Calculated.Limitations on Wartime Liberties"Honest" Abe Lincoln took several steps that were clearly against Constitution. He felt his steps were simply needed due to the split nation and emergency-like situation.Things he did against the Constitution:(a) increased the size of the Army,(b) declared war without congressional approval(c) suspended habeas corpus so arrests could be made easily,(d) "monitored" Border State elections so the vote would turn out his way and(e) declared martial law in Maryland
32The DraftSummer 1862US Congress passed militia law which required states to use conscription (the draft) if necessary to field enough soldiersHurt the poor because the rich could buy out of the draft for $300 or hire a proxy (a substitute) to serve for themOpposed by Democrats, led to riots in strongly Democratic districtsCSA would also use conscription to force men into service
34Lincoln suspends Habeas Corpus After anti-conscription riots, Lincoln suspended the requirement that a person could not be imprisoned without being charged and given a trialAnyone who aided the South or resisted the draft could be imprisoned indefinitely without trialLincoln was heavily criticizedCSA would also suspend habeas corpus, for the same reasons
35Legal Tender Act of 1862As worried citizens withdrew gold and silver from US banks, created a financial crisisUS government created a national paper currency which came to be known as “greenbacks”CSA also began to print and use paper money
36The War Between the States The Major Battles Unit 9: The Civil War
37First Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861First Battle of ManassasFirst major battle of the warUnion forces badly defeated just outside Washington DCSouth did not press its advantage due to disorganizationMade it clear to the North that the war would not be quickly won
38“The Civil War”First Battle of Bull Run “spectators come to the show” * See Saw Battle * (Richmond)McDowell (Union)Beauregard (Conf)”Stonewall” Jackson”Confederate Victory
39North captured New Orleans April 29, 1862US Navy under David Farragut attacked and captured New Orleans, a port vital to the South because it controlled both the Gulf of Mexico and the mouth of the Mississippi River
40Grant’s Western Campaign Ulysses Grant’s forces were put in charge of securing the West (mainly Kentucky and Tennessee)Grant won major victories, but only because he was willing to make sacrifices – large numbers of Union casualtiesHe would only accept complete surrender.
42McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign McClellan attempted to end the war by landing forces near Fort Monroe, VA and pushing up the peninsula between the James and York Rivers to attack the Confederate capital of Richmond, VAThe campaign bogged down and Lincoln ordered the return of Union forces to Washington D.C. to protect the US capital.
43Second Battle of Bull Run Aug , 1862Confederate forces defeated (but did not destroy) the Union ArmyOpened the way for the South to invade the North
44Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Lee secretly planned to invade the North, but his plans were discovered and Union forces met his at Antietam Creek, MDBloodiest single day of the warLee was defeated, but escaped south with his army still intact
45The Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863Lincoln issued an executive order freeing all slaves in any state which was in armed rebellion, but not in states which had stayed in the Union!This encouraged free blacks to enlist in the Union Army, because it gave them a moral objective for fighting – to free the slaves in the South
46The 54th MassCol. Robert Shaw lead a regiment of all black soldiers from MassachusettsMany thought they’d never get to fight but they did so on several occasions in SC and Fla.
47The War Between the States Unit 9: The Civil War
48The End in Sight…Identify political and military turning points of the Civil War and assess their significance to the outcome of the conflict.Essential Questions:Why are the Battle of Gettysburg and the Siege of Vicksburg considered the military turning points of the Civil War?How did the political actions of President Lincoln affect the outcome of the war?Was it inevitable that the North would win the war?
49Siege of Vicksburg May 15 – July 1, 1863 After a two month siege by Grant’s forces, Vicksburg, MS surrendered, giving the Union total control of the Mississippi RiverPermanently divided the South
50Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 In an effort to move the war out of the South, Lee marched into Pennsylvania; he hoped to destroy public support for the war in the North by bringing the war to their towns and farmsBattle was bloody- in 3 days – nearly dead and 27,000 woundedConfederate forces were defeated and turned back to VirginiaThe South would not be able to invade the North again and would be on the defensive from this point forward
51The Gettysburg Address November 19, 1863Lincoln delivered his speech 4 months after the battle, at the dedication of the National Cemetery in GettysburgOne of the most famous speeches in US History – even though it was only about 2 minutes long
52The Gettysburg Address Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate…we cannot consecrate…we cannot hallow…this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us…that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
54Sherman’s “March to the Sea” Nov.-Dec. 1864After capturing the key railroad town of Atlanta, GA, Sherman marched his men across Georgia to the port of SavannahAlong the way, Sherman practiced a “scorched earth” campaign, burning or destroying nearly everything he came across – plantations, railroads, crops, businesses, and factories
55Election of 1864 Democrats ran George McClellan Republicans ran Abraham Lincoln with a VP candidate who was a War Democrat (Andrew Johnson) to broaden their appealLincoln won with the help of some major Union battle victories
56April 9, 1865 Lee Surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse April 2, Richmond FallsApril 7, Lee sends message to GrantApril 9, 1865 Lee Surrenders at Appomattox CourthouseApril 14, Fords Theatre Abraham Lincoln assassinated John Wilkes Booth Copperhead Conspiracy
57Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865Lee, who saw victory as hopeless, surrendered to Grant in order to avoid needless deaths2 weeks later, the last major Confederate force surrendered in Durham, NCThe war was over
58Lincoln Assassinated April 14, 1865 Lincoln was shot and killed while watching a play at Ford’s Theater in DCAssassin John Wilkes Booth escaped capture for 12 days but was hunted down and killed by Union forcesBooth was an ardent Southerner who was angered by Lincoln’s support of voting rights for African-Americans
59Bell Ringer Changes Bell Ringers only last 5 minutes Start on a clean sheet of paper and continue from there…Name in the top right corner.Things Bell Ringer need to include:DateDefinition (With two sentences)Thought for the day:Answer question(s) ORRespond to thoughtAt the end of week turn them in to the file on my desk for your period for a weekly grade.