Presentation on theme: "Kennedy and Johnson Years [ ]: chapter 21"— Presentation transcript:
1Kennedy and Johnson Years [1960-1968]: chapter 21 “My fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.” Kennedy
2The Election of 1960 TV Presidential Debate Nixon - ill, serious, not overly handsomeKennedy - young, relaxed, handsomeKennedy skilled on TV: Nixon skilled at using TVdebate gave him momentum going into the electionPolls showed:Those who watched debate on TV selected Kennedy as the winnerThose who listened to debate on Radio selected Nixon as the winner
3Election of 1960Kennedy = young, energetic Senator, also Roman CatholicNixon = seasoned veteran who had lots of political experienceKennedy won the popular election by 119,000 votes out of 69 million
4Kennedy’s Domestic Programs Kennedy’s programs and incentives: The New FrontierKennedy did not have a mandate (public endorsement of his proposals). Difficulty getting his bills passed in Congress.The EconomyFought big business price fixingProposed large tax cutCombating Poverty and InequalityKennedy - convinced the poor needed direct federal aidCongress passed a minimum wage increase and the Housing Act of 1961Other Kennedy InitiativesKennedy began trying to achieve his goals through executive orderIssued many executive orders
5The Space ProgramIn 1961, Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to travel in spaceFearing America had fallen behind in technological development, Kennedy called for more funding and better results
6Space ProgramThe United States “should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon.”The nation accepted the challenge and funding for NASA increased
7The Warren CourtReferred to as the Warren Court because of its Chief Justice Earl Warren ( )Warren Court overturned many old laws and established new legal precedents
9The Warren CourtDuring the Kennedy-Johnson years, the Supreme Court, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, handed down many controversial landmark verdicts.The Court ruled on social issues including:Obscenityprayer in public schoolsuse of birth control.Court ruled on the rights of persons accused of committing crimes.Miranda rule, a result of the 1966 case Miranda v. Arizona, required police to inform accused persons of their rights.Court decisions changed the nature of apportionment, or the distribution of the seats in a legislature among electoral districts.
10Warren Court Criticism Correctly or not, much of the criticism of the Warren Court during the 1950s and 1960s centered on perceptions that the Supreme Court had become too activist.Instead of simply deciding what the Constitution required, the justices attempted to enforce their own notions of justice."constitutional interpretation." American Government ABC-CLIO. 23 Apr <http://www.americangovernment.abc-clio.com>
11Continued Warren Court Criticism Liberal decisions found many supportersHowever, such judicial activism stirred considerable opposition both on and off the Court.While indicating their own support for the liberal direction of Supreme Court decisions, such justices as Felix Frankfurter and John Marshall Harlan II advocated greater judicial restraint (limited nature of court power)"judicial activism and restraint." American Government ABC-CLIO. 23 Apr <http://www.americangovernment.abc-clio.com>.
12Warren Court Criticism Criticized for going far beyond the language of the Constitution and:weakening democracy by usurping (take by force) the role of the people's elected representatives.In 1968, presidential candidate Richard Nixon blamed the Court's decisions for rising crime ratesNixon promised to appoint strict constructionists (those who interpret the original intent of the Constitution) to the Supreme Court if elected to the presidency.
13Bay of Pigs Invasion: 1961Fidel Castro overthrew the U.S. backed dictator Fulgencio BatistaCastro installed a communist governmentPresident Kennedy learned of a plan by outgoing President Eisenhower to train exiled Cubans in Guatemala to overthrow CastroDay of the invasion - air strike was limited and missed the Cuban air force1,500 U.S.-backed invaders captured by Castro’s forcesHumiliating loss for the US8
14The Berlin Crisis: 1961Soviet Union wanted to stop the flow of East German people to West Germany through BerlinSoviet demanded a treaty to make the division permanent
15The Berlin Wall: 1961JFK felt like the Soviets were going to try to take over more of Europecalled for a large increase in military spendingArmy placed on alertSoviets responded by building the Berlin Wall
16The Cuban Missile Crisis: 1962 October 1962, American spy plane revealed the Soviet Union were building missile bases on Cuban soilTension escalated between the US and USSR
17Cuban Missile Crisis:1962Kennedy’s response = a naval quarantine (blockade) of CubaSoviet ships approached the blockade = world waited in fearAt the last minute Soviet leader Khrushchev ordered ships turned around
20Cuba:Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles that were already there in exchange for the U.S. staying out of Cuba and U.S. missiles being removed from Turkey
21Limited Test Ban Treaty: 1963 The Limited Test Ban Treaty also was a result of this crisis, it banned nuclear testing above the ground
22JFK: Foreign Policy“Flexible Response” - moved away from the drastic stances of Massive Retaliation = Less militant responseAlliance for Progress - Proactive ventures in Latin AmericaThe Peace Corps(Flexible Response)(Alliance for Progress)
23The Peace Corps The Peace Corps Kennedy established program for group of volunteers that were sent overseas to help developing nations around the world as:Educatorshealth workerstechnicians
24Kennedy Assassination Began his reelection campaign, JFK traveled to Dallas, TX with his wifeThe Governor met them at the airport and together they took an open-air limousine through DallasIn the Texas School Book Depository, Lee Harvey Oswald took aim and shot Kennedy from the sixth floorKennedy was pronounced dead at the Hospital shortly after on Nov. 22, 1963.
25Nation in Mourning Nation grieved Alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald Oswald shot by Jack Ruby (Dallas night club owner)President LBJ ordered the Warren Commission on the Assassination of President John F. KennedyConcluded Oswald had acted aloneC
26Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ): Path to the White House LBJ = skilled politicianyoungest minority leader of the Senatelater Senate majority leader.very successful
27Presidential Election of 1964 (p. 843) Johnson easily won the election over Barry Goldwater in 1964Characterized Goldwater as a trigger happy war monger who would use nuclear weapons.Presidential Election of 1964 (p. 843)
28LBJ in actionFamous for his ability to use the political system to accomplish goalsJohnson inspired fear and awe among his colleagues
29The Great SocietyJohnson began a series of major legislative initiatives called the Great Society
31The Great SocietyGreat Society programs included major poverty relief, education aid, healthcare, voting rights, conservation and beautification projects, urban renewal and economic development
32The Great Society The Tax Cut War on Poverty Johnson proposed a large tax cut that would pay for itself with the increase in the economyWar on PovertyHe started Head Start (preschool for low income families)Volunteers in Service to America [VISTA] (volunteers for low income neighborhoods)
33Figure 28.4 Legal Immigration to the United States by Region, 1931–1984 (p. 828)
34The Great SocietyAid to Education — The 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, provided billions of dollars in aid to public and private schools.Medicare and MedicaidMedicare - provides low-cost medical insurance to most Americans over age 65Medicaid - provides medical and health services to poor Americans of any age.Immigration Reform Immigration Act of replaced immigration quotas with overall limits from various parts of the world.Immigration rose dramically during the 1960s and 1970s.
35Johnson’s Foreign Policy The Dominican RepublicAfter Communist rebels attack the country, Johnson sent 22,000 marines to ensure the government not become Communist and they were successfulVietnamJohnson became deeply involved in Southeast AsiaU.S. backed South Vietnam against forces wanting a Communist government(DR)(Vietnam)