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2. Civil Rights Movement BR_MAIN1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. Emancipation Proclamation 1. Martin Luther King, Jr. 4.

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Presentation on theme: "2. Civil Rights Movement BR_MAIN1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. Emancipation Proclamation 1. Martin Luther King, Jr. 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 2. Civil Rights Movement BR_MAIN1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. Emancipation Proclamation 1. Martin Luther King, Jr. 4. English Song — My Country, ’Tis of Thee

2 2. Chronology of Martin Luther King BR_MAIN2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. A Video Clip About Martin Luther King 1. A Brief Introduction

3 2. Some Famous Figures and Events BR_MAIN3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. A Civil Rights Song — We Shall Not Be Moved 1. A Brief Introduction

4 Before Reading_1.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Brief Introduction Martin Luther King, Jr. was the leading figure of the black civil rights movement that swept the U.S. in the 1950s and 1960s. His reform movement, based on nonviolent disobedience, resulted in the segregation laws of the South being declared unconstitutional, and laws being passed to ensure equal voting rights for blacks. King began his career as a Baptist minister in Montgomery, Alabama. It was there, in 1956, that a woman named Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to vacate a “whites only” seat on a city bus. Together with Ralph Abernathy, King organized a successful boycott of the city buses, and won national acclaim. In 1963, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., he delivered his famous speech “I Have a Dream” to an audience of more than 250,000. King was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1964, yet his final years saw the rise of a militant black movement under the leadership of activists such as Malcolm X. In 1968, Martin Luther King was assassinated while visiting Memphis, Tennessee.

5 Before Reading_1.2.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Chronology of Martin Luther King TimeEvent January 15, 1929Born in Atlanta, Georgia, son of a Baptist minister. 1947Ordained into the Baptist church. 1954Appointed to the ministry at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. February 24, 1956Leads a 381-day boycott of Montgomery city buses. January, 1957Founds the S.C.L.C. (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) — a national vehicle for civil rights reform. August 28, 1963Delivers the speech “I Have a Dream” in Washington, D.C.

6 Before Reading_1.2.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading TimeEvent December 10, 1964Awarded Nobel peace prize. February 10, 1965Organizes demonstrations in Selma, Alabama, to assert the rights of blacks in the region to vote. April 4, 1968Shot dead by a white assassin, James Earl Ray, in Memphis, Tennessee.

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11 Before Reading_1.3.1 A Video Clip About Martin Luther King Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. was the main leader of the civil rights movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s. King devoted his life to the elimination of racial segregation and the promotion of political and economic equality for all Americans. King’s commitment to nonviolent protests and his stirring speeches earned him and his causes the support of millions of people. In 1963, King led the March on Washington. People came from all over the country. More than 200,000 people heard King’s dramatic plea for racial equality at the Lincoln Memorial. His speech that day was the high point of the demonstration and defined the moral basis of the civil rights movement. ■

12 Before Reading_1.4.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Brief Introduction The civil rights movement was a movement for racial equality in the U.S. that, through nonviolent protests, broke the pattern of racial segregation in the South and achieved equal rights legislation for blacks. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), African American and white supporters attempted to end entrenched segregationist practices. When Rosa Parks was arrested in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, an African American boycott of the bus system was led by Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy. In the early 1960s the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee led boycotts and sit-ins to desegregate many public facilities. Using the nonviolent methods of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the movement spread, forcing the desegregation of department stores, supermarkets, libraries, and movie theatres. The Deep South remained adamant in its opposition to most desegregation measures, often violently; protesters were attacked and occasionally killed. Their efforts culminated ( 达到高潮 ) in a march on Washington, D.C., in 1963 to support civil rights legislation.

13 Before Reading_1.4.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, President Lyndon B. Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a victory that was followed by the Voting Rights Act in After 1965, militant groups such as the Black Panther Party split off from the civil rights movement, and riots in black ghettos and King’s assassination caused many supporters to withdraw. In the succeeding decades, leaders sought power through elective office and substantive economic and educational gains through affirmative action.

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17 Before Reading_1.5.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Some Famous Figures and Events Rosa Parks: (1913~2005) Born: Birthplace: Died: Best Known as: Name at Birth: 4 February, 1913 Tuskegee, Alabama 24 October, 2005 The black woman arrested in 1955 for not giving up her bus seat Rosa Louise McCauley ● ● ● ● ●

18 Before Reading_1.5.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Rosa Parks, a U.S. civil rights activist, worked as a tailor’s assistant in Montgomery, Alabama, where she joined the NAACP in In 1955 she was arrested after refusing to give her seat on a public bus to a white man. The resultant boycott ( 抵制 ) of the city’s bus system, organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. and others, brought the civil rights movement to new prominence. In 1957 Parks moved to Detroit, where she was a staff assistant (1965~1988) to U.S. Representative John Conyers. She was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal in 1999.

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21 Before Reading_1.6 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Freedom Rides Organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the 1961 freedom rides challenged the racial segregation of buses in the South. Black and white riders traveled from Washington, D.C. to Atlanta, Alabama, and Mississippi. In September 1961, after a petition from Robert Kennedy, the Interstate Commerce Commission enacted regulations that enabled the federal government to enforce the Supreme Court ruling (Boynton v. Virginia) that desegregated interstate travel.

22 Before Reading_1.7 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading March on Washington In the early 1960s as black unemployment rates were rising and as civil rights demonstrators around the country encountered police brutality, the idea for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom emerged. The march would turn out to be more successful than anticipated. It was at the march that Martin Luther King made his famous “I Have a Dream” speech and just one year later, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed.

23 Before Reading_1.8.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Civil Rights Song — We Shall Not Be Moved We shall not, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved We’ll build a mighty union, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved We shall not, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved

24 Before Reading_1.8.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading We’re fighting for our children, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved We shall not, we shall not be moved Just like a tree that stands by the water We shall not be moved

25 Before Reading_1.9 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation was a historic document that led to the end of slavery in the United States. President Abraham Lincoln issued the proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863, during the American Civil War. It declared freedom for slaves in all areas of the Confederacy that were still in rebellion against the Union. The proclamation also provided for the use of blacks in the Union Army and Navy. As a result, it greatly influenced the North’s victory in the war.

26 Before Reading_ Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading English Song — My Country, ’Tis of Thee My Country, ’Tis of Thee, also known as America, is an American patriotic song. The melody is derived from the British national anthem, God Save the Queen. The lyrics to My Country, ’Tis of Thee were written in 1831 by Reverend Samuel Francis Smith of Boston’s Park Street Church while at the Andover Theological Seminary in Andover, Massachusetts. The song served as a de facto ( 事实上的 ) national anthem for much of the 19th century.

27 Before Reading_ Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading My country, ’tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, Of thee I sing; Land where my fathers died, Land of the pilgrims’ pride, From every mountainside Let freedom ring! Let music swell the breeze, And ring from all the trees Sweet freedom’s song; Let mortal tongues awake; Let all that breathe partake; Let rocks their silence break, The sound prolong. Our father’s God to thee, Author of liberty, To thee we sing. Long may our land be bright, With freedom’s holy light, Protect us by thy might, Great God our King. From every mountainside Let freedom ring!

28 Globe Reading_main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Part Division of the Text For Part 1 For Part 2 Scanning Questions and Answers Interview 2. Further Understanding For Part 3

29 Globe Reading_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Part Division of the Text Main IdeasParts 1 2 Paragraphs The reason why so many people had the March on Washington. The tragic fact was that the Negro were still not free In spite of the terrible situation, King asked the Negro to have a dream for freedom.

30 Global Reading_2 1. Who is the “great American” that signed the Emancipation Proclamation? And when? Abraham Lincoln, American president. In What did the author think of the Emancipation Proclamation? He regarded it as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves and a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. 3. What was the Negro’s situation 100 years after the issue of the Emancipation Proclamation? They still didn’t have freedom; they had to face segregation and discrimination and their life was still poor. Questions and Answers Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

31 Globe Reading_3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Greeting 2. The reason why so many people came to the rally ( 集会 ) 3. The determination King showed to carry on the struggle 4. The strategy of the struggle 5. The five aspects of injustice the Negro were facing and the goal of the struggle Interview Suppose you are a reporter from CCTV and your partner is a professor whose research field is American history. Now you have an interview with him / her. Your interview should cover the following aspects: Directions:

32 Globe Reading_4.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Scanning In this part, King uses several sentences beginning with “I have a dream”. Now you are required to scan each of these sentences and summarize it with one word or a phrase from the sentence or written by yourself. Directions: For example: I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” After reading this sentence, we know the essence of the sentence is the last word “equal”. Therefore, we can use the word “equality” to summarize. Now, here are the sentences.

33 Globe Reading_4.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. brotherhood 2. I have a dream that even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. freedom and justice 3. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. racial discrimination

34 Globe Reading_4.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 4. I have a dream that the state of Alabama will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. brotherhood 5. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough place will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. equality

35 Article Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in the United States. One hundred years after this decree was signed, however, the life of blacks was still “sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.” On August 28, 1963, a quarter of a million people of all races came to Washington, D.C., to show their support for freedom and justice for all Americans, and for black people in particular. At that demonstration Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered this famous speech, widely regarded as the most eloquent statement of the black people’s dreams and aspirations ever made. Dr. King told the world, “I have a dream” that equality would come “to all of God’s children.” He said he wanted everyone to be able to “join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, ‘Free at last! Free at last!...’”

36 Article1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. I Have a Dream Martin Luther King, Jr.

37 Article2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we have come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

38 Article3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds.” But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check — a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of Democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

39 Article4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality is not an end, but a beginning. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwind of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence.

40 Article5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, “When will you be satisfied?” We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities.

41 Article6 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating “For Whites Only.” We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.

42 Article7 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading I have a dream that even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that the state of Alabama will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough place will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

43 Article8 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country, ’tis of thee Sweet land of liberty Of thee I sing: Land where my fathers died, Land of the pilgrims’ pride, From every mountainside Let freedom ring.

44 Article9 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire! Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California! But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!”

45 Article _S_ This… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1.What can we infer from the words “beacon light” and “daybreak”? We can infer that the Negro were in great form when they learned the contents of the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. 2.What rhetorical device does the author adopt when he uses the words “beacon light” and “daybreak”? Here the author uses the rhetorical device called “simile”, which is used to describe sth. by comparing it with sth. else, with the words “as” or “like”. More examples: He eats like a pig! 他吃东西像头猪 ! I saw an old woman with hair as white as snow. 我看到一位白发苍苍的老妇人。

46 Article _S_ the… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Translate this part into Chinese. 黑人的生活仍然悲惨地套着种族隔离和种族歧视的枷锁。 … the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.

47 Article_S_in… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading In a sense we have come to our nation’s capital to cash a check. What does the phrase “cash a check” really mean? It means “get justice back” or “get the freedom and equality as Emancipation Proclamation claimed back”.

48 Article _S_ they… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading … they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. Paraphrase this part of the sentence. They wrote their signatures on the note and promised that every American could inherit it.

49 Article _S_ but… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. What is the implied meaning of the sentence? The implied meaning is “We don’t believe there is no justice in America”.

50 Article _S_ we… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. What are the different meanings of the two of’s in the sentence? The first “of” has something to do with the word “remind”. “Remind sb. of sth.” is a set phrase, meaning “ 提醒某人某事 ”, while the second “of” just means “…… 的 ”.

51 Article _S_ this… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality is not an end, but a beginning. What do “summer” and “autumn” refer to respectively? Here “summer” is the symbol of injustice while “autumn” justice and freedom.

52 Article_S_ the… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading … the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. Paraphrase this part of the sentence. The Negroes are allowed to have their citizenship rights.

53 Article _S_ again… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 我们必须以不懈的努力登上以灵魂力量对付肉体力量的庄严高地。

54 Article _S_ we… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading We can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their selfhood and robbed of their dignity by signs stating “For Whites Only.” Paraphrase this sentence. We will never be content if our future generations are deprived of their personality and esteem by signs with the words “For Whites Only”.

55 Article _S_ until… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading What can we infer from this part of the sentence? At the time King made the speech, the Negro couldn’t have real justice and righteousness because there were some people in America who prevented the Negro from having them just as waters or a stream was stopped by someone. … until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.

56 Article _S_ we… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” Do you know where this sentence comes from? If you know, would you please say something more about it? This sentence is quoted from the famous Declaration of Independence, the document written in 1776, in which the thirteen British colonies in America officially stated that they were an independent nation and would no longer agree to be ruled by Britain.

57 Article _S_ i… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading I have a dream that the state of Alabama will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. Why does King deliberately mention Alabama here? Maybe it is because Alabama is the setting of Rosa Parks’s incident and the resultant boycott of the city’s bus system.

58 Article _S_ with… Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. Analyze the sentence. Pay attention to the order of the sentence after the word “to”. The right order should be “hew a stone of hope out of the mountain of despair”. The author uses the inverted order to emphasize the word “despair”.

59 Article _W_ momentous Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading momentous: adj. very important or significant His colleagues all recognized that this was a momentous occasion. Any momentous decision cannot be made by one person alone. 任何重要的决定不能由一个人说了算。 At the time, our department was going through some momentous changes.

60 Article _W_ decree Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading decree: 1) n. an official order; law In 1637 the Emperor issued a decree ordering all foreigners to leave the country. 2) vt. make an official judgment or give an official order In 1929 Parliament decreed that all women should have the right to vote. This is a reform by presidential decree. 这是一项依照总统令实行的改革。 指统治者或政府不与别人商议而公开宣布决定。例如: 指用权力支配他人。例如: CF: decree dictate 该独裁者发布命令,将其生日定为公众假期。 The dictator decreed that his birthday would be a public holiday. 他们哪来的权利规定我们该吃什么不该吃什么? What gives them the right to dictate to us what we should eat? decree & dictate 这两个动词均含 “ 命令 ” 之意。

61 Article _W_ wither Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading wither: v. 1) (cause to) dry up 2) slowly disappear, lose importance or become weaker The flowers will wither if you don’t put them in water. Their hopes gradually withered away. 他们的希望逐渐破灭了。

62 Article _W_ captivity Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading captivity: n. the state of being in prison or held against one’s will Captivity hasn’t weakened his will to fight. 囚禁生活没有削弱他的战斗意志。 The hostages were released from captivity. in captivity bear captivity Collocation: 被囚禁,被关起来 忍受囚禁生活 许多关在樊笼中成长的动物不能很好地繁殖。 Many animals do not breed well in captivity.

63 Article _W_ prosperity Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading prosperity: n. success or good fortune He wished the young couple a life of happiness and prosperity. 他祝这对年轻人生活幸福、万事如意。 In Chinese history, the Tang dynasty is a time of economic prosperity. boost / foster / promote economic prosperity bring / create / destroy prosperity enjoy prosperity hamper / retard the commercial prosperity common prosperity national prosperity Collocation: 促进经济繁荣 带来 / 创造 / 破坏繁荣 享受富足生活 阻碍商业繁荣 共同繁荣 国家昌盛

64 Article _W_ languish Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading languish: vi. experience long suffering He has been languishing in jail for the past twenty years. He languished in poverty for years. 他多年来一直在贫困中挣扎。

65 Article _W_ exile1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading exile: 1. n. 1) a person who has been forced to leave his country There were many French exiles in England after the Revolution. 2. vt. force someone to leave their country, especially for political reasons Several of the leaders were arrested and exiled to France. 2) forced removal from one’s country or home During his exile, he also began writing books. After an exile of ten years her uncle returned to Britain. 她叔叔背井离乡十年后返回英国。

66 Article _W_ exile2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 指政府强迫某一公民离开祖国或流放到某地,但不一定含有耻辱意味。例如: 含义广,可指驱逐出境或取消某一资格,含有耻辱意味。例如: exile & expel 这两个动词都有 “ 驱逐出境,放逐 ” 之意。 exile expel The writer was exiled to Siberia for writing political novels. 那位作家因写政治小说而被放逐到西伯利亚。 Two girls were expelled from school for taking drugs. 两个女生因吸毒而被开除。 CF:

67 Article _W_ appalling Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading appalling: adj. shocking; extremely bad He was kept in appalling conditions in prison. Animals were neglected and lived in appalling conditions.

68 Article _W_ in a sense Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading in a sense: in some ways but not in all; somewhat 1) in a sense 还可以用 in one sense 来表示。 2) 在英语中,还有一些与这个词组结构相似但意思不同的词组,见下面方框中的词组: NB: What he says is right in a sense. 从某种意义上说,他说的是对的。 in no sense 从任何意义上说都不 (= not at all) in every sense of the word 从任何一种意义上说 (= in every way) in a general sense 从一般意义上说 in a real sense 从真正意义上说 (used to emphasize that a statement or description is true)

69 Article _W_ default on Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading default on: fail to pay or do when due People who default on their mortgage repayments may have their homes repossessed. In those days, anyone who defaulted on a loan was put in prison. 在那个时代,任何拖欠贷款的人都要被关进监狱。

70 Article _W_ bankrupt Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading bankrupt: adj. unable to pay one’s debts; having no money Many small businesses will go bankrupt unless interest rates fall. The company went bankrupt because it couldn’t sell its products. 该公司因产品滞销而倒闭。 bankrupt 的名词形式是 bankruptcy ,以下是与 bankruptcy 相关的词组: NB: avoid bankruptcy declare bankruptcy face bankruptcy petition for bankruptcy go into bankruptcy verge on bankruptcy 避免破产 宣告破产 面临破产 申请破产 破产 濒临破产 Five years ago she was a successful actress, but now she is bankrupt.

71 Article _W_ cool off Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading cool off: make or become less warm, excited, ardent, or interested By late autumn Mediterranean islands have cooled off, and can have rainy days. Wait until he cools off before you approach him again. 等他气消后再去找他。

72 Article _W_ desolate Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading desolate: adj. without people; lonely and sad His body was found in a desolate canyon about 65 miles north of Los Angeles. We all felt absolutely desolate when she left. 她走后,我们都觉得万分孤寂。

73 Article _W_ brotherhood Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading brotherhood: n. All we want for our countries is peace and brotherhood. close feeling or friendship among a group; fellowship -hood 是个构成名词的后缀,意为 “…… 状态; …… 时期 ” 。本课文中出现的 selfhood 意为 “ 自我,个性,人格 ” 。在英语中还有些以 - hood 结尾的名词,如: childhood (孩童时期), manhood (成年), likelihood (可能性), falsehood (缺少真实性和实在性), sisterhood (姐妹关系), parenthood (父母身份), neighborhood (邻近地区)等。 NB:

74 Article _W_ legitimate Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading legitimate: adj. 1) in accordance with the law or rules; lawful Their business operations are perfectly legitimate. 2) reasonable, fair Most scientists believe it is legitimate to use animals in medical research. the legitimate heir I’m not sure whether his business is strictly legitimate. 我说不好他的生意是否绝对合法。 法定继承人

75 Article _W_ threshold Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading threshold: n. 1) a piece of wood, or stone placed beneath a door Morris had never crossed the threshold of a public house. 2) the place or point of beginning We are at the threshold of a new era in medicine. We are on the threshold of a great change. He was on the threshold of his career. 他的事业刚刚起步。

76 Article _W_ guilty of Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading guilty of: responsible for breaking a law He was found not guilty of the death of Jones. The jury found her guilty of murder. 陪审团判决她犯有谋杀罪。

77 Article _W_ degenerate Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading degenerate: vi. decline in physical, mental, or moral qualities Educational standards are degenerating year by year because of a lack of funds. The British economy might degenerate into permanent recession. 英国经济可能会陷入持久衰退。 His health is degenerating rapidly.

78 Article _W_ majestic1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading majestic: adj. dignified and noble The majestic scenery will leave you breathless. The great ship looked majestic in her new colors. 这艘巨轮上了新颜色显得很雄伟。 强调状态、外表、仪态等给人以威严感。 指环境、建筑物等本身的壮丽、堂皇、庄严、崇高或出色等。 指人在行为、品德或性格等方面的卓越超群;指物强调外观上的辉煌。 用于口语中,作 “ 极好的,绝妙的 ” 解。 CF: majestic magnificent splendid majestic, magnificent & splendid 这些形容词都含有 “ 宏伟壮丽的 ” 之意。

79 Article _W_ majestic2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. The troops are doing a job of keeping the peace. 2. This lovely village is surrounded by mountain scenery. 3. Have you ever seen the mountains of the Himalayas? 4. In the country we can see a Renaissance palace. 5. In the centre of the room was a 18th-century oak table. Directions: splendid_______ majestic_______ majestic_______ magnificent__________ splendid_______

80 Article _W_ destiny1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading destiny: n. the fate or fortune of a person or thing Our country must be the master of its own economic destiny. 表示一个人生活中发生的不可改变的每件事,包括将来发生的事情,尤指那些 人们认为是由某人或某种力量决定的事情。 表示由超自然力量或自然规律决定的状态或结果,是不可避免,不可改变的。 表示对人的活动产生重要影响的机遇。 CF: destiny fate fortune The government wants to give people more control over their own destinies. destiny, fate & fortune 这三个名词均含 “ 命运 ” 之意。

81 Article _W_ destiny2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. We know we are in control of our own. 2. I wanted to go to India in June, but decided otherwise. 3. She had good to be free from illness all her life. 4. Susan wondered whether it was her to marry George and live in Mexico. Directions: destiny______ fate____ fortune______ destiny______

82 Article _W_ tie up with Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading tie up with: connect to; relate to The shortage of teachers is tied up with the issue of pay. The air pollution in this city is tied up with the two big power plants. 这个城市的空气污染与两个大的发电厂有关。

83 Article _W_ fatigue Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading fatigue: n. a feeling of being tired Sam’s face was grey with fatigue. We were all suffering from fatigue at the end of our journey. 我们到旅程终点时全都累垮了。 feel / induce fatigue sleep away fatigue suffer from fatigue allay / alleviate / lessen fatigue eliminate / relieve fatigue deep / excessive fatigue physical / mental fatigue Collocation: 感到 / 引起疲劳 用睡眠消除疲劳 深感疲劳 减轻疲劳 消除疲劳 极度疲劳 身体 / 精神疲劳

84 Article _W_ strip of Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading strip of: take (sth. of value) away from Captain Evans was found guilty and stripped of his rank. He was stripped of all his possessions. 他被剥夺了全部财产。 英语中还有一个词组 strip off ,意为 “ 脱衣,剥落 ” 。使用时,其后可跟或不跟名词。例如: NB: We need to strip the wallpaper off the walls first. 我们首先要把墙纸从墙上剥落下来。 He stripped off and had a shower. 他脱光衣服洗了个淋浴。

85 Article _W_ mobility Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading mobility: n. the ability to move or be moved; the movement of people from one social group or status to another Shuttles will give mobility to employees without cars. In America, social mobility is an everyday reality. 在美国,社会阶层的变动是很普通的事。 与该词搭配的通常有两个词组: downward mobility 与 upward mobility 。前者意为 “ (个体 或群体向经济地位或社会地位较低的阶层或阶级流动的)向下流动倾向 ” ;后者意义相反。例 如: NB: Unemployment is also a significant cause of downward mobility in Britain. 在英国,失业也是产生人们社会和经济地位向下流动倾向的重要原因。

86 Article _W_ live out Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading live out: Will the old man live out the month? The money enabled them to live out their dreams. 那笔钱使他们得以实践他们的梦想。 1) live through 2) experience; do the things one has thought about Her success enabled her to live out her wildest dream.

87 Article _W_ transform1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading transform: vt. change in form, nature, function, or appearance Whenever a camera was pointed at her, Marilyn would instantly transform herself into a radiant star. She used to be terribly shy, but a year abroad has completely transformed her. 她过去十分腼腆,但在国外呆了一年以后完全变了。 指人或物在形状、外观、形式、性质等方面发生彻底变化,失去原状成为全新 的东西。 常指轻微的改变,强调在基本上保持原物、原状的情况下所进行的部分改变。 指进行全部或局部改变以适应新的功能或用途。指信仰或态度时,强调较激烈、 较大的改变。 强调起限定作用的变化或变更。指细小的变化,常含 “ 缓和、降调 ” 的意味。 CF: transform alter convert modify transform, alter, convert & modify 这些动词均含有 “ 变化,改变 ” 之意。

88 Article _W_ transform2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. The proposals were unpopular and were only accepted in a form. 2. Do you know the process by which caterpillars ( 毛虫 ) are into butterflies? 3. European missionaries thousands to Christianity. 4. She had to her clothes after losing weight. 5. Could we the sofa into a bed? Directions: modified_______ transformed__________ converted________ alter____ convert______

89 Article _W_ crooked Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading crooked: adj. not straight; bent or curved I still remember our house was located in a crooked lane in Shanghai. You have to drive slowly on these crooked country roads. 在弯曲的乡间小道开车,你不得不慢慢地开。

90 Article _W_ discord1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading discord: n. No one likes to listen to discords. Various discords have arisen over this question. 在这个问题上出现了各种分歧。 1) a group of musical notes which give an unpleasant sound when played together 2) disagreement or argument between people Money is the single biggest cause of discord in marriage. 当该词意为 “ 不和谐 ” 时,它的反义词为 concord 。例如: NB: The neighboring states had lived in concord for centuries. 这些邻国已和睦相处若干世纪了。

91 Article _W_ discord2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading arouse / generate / stir up discord assuage / settle discord spread / sow discord among marital discord domestic / family discord political discord Collocation: 引起争执 缓和 / 排除争执 在 …… 中挑拨离间 夫妻争吵 家庭不和 政治分歧

92 Article _W_ stand up for Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading stand up for: Didn’t anyone stand up for James and say it wasn’t his fault? It’s time we stood up for our rights. 到了我们维护自己权利的时候了。 support or defend a person or idea when they are being attacked

93 Article _W_ speed up Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading speed up: Africa’s population growth speeded up. (cause to) go faster The truck speeded up going down the hill.

94 After Reading_main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Useful Expressions 2. Listening and Speaking 3. Picture Talking 4. Writing Practice 5. Proverbs and Quotations

95 After Reading_ 一百年前 2. 一项重要法令 3. 希望灯塔 4. 黑奴 5. 悲惨现实 6. 种族隔离和种族歧视 7. 物质繁荣 8. 骇人听闻的状况 five score years ago a momentous decree the beacon light of hope Negro slaves the tragic fact racial segregation and racial discrimination material prosperity an appalling condition Useful Expressions Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 9. 兑现支票 10. 不可剥夺的生存权 cash a check the inalienable rights of life

96 After Reading_1.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 13. 被赋予其公民权 14. 席卷黑人社会 15. 息息相关 be granted one’s citizenship rights engulf the Negro community tie up with 16. 紧密相连 be bound to 17. 保证 18. 后退 19. 只要 make a pledge turn back as long as 20. 剥夺某人的人格和尊严 strip / rob sb. of one’s selfhood and dignity 12. 就 …… 而言 insofar as … be concerned 11. 没有兑付一张期票 default on a promissory note

97 After Reading_1.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 23. 所有的人生来都是平等的 24. 酷热难熬 25. 与 …… 携起手来 all men are created equal swelter with the heat join hands with 26. 争取自由 stand up for freedom 27. 实现 28. 加速 become true speed up 22. 实践 …… 的真谛 live out the true meaning of 21. 困难和挫折 difficulties and frustrations

98 After Reading_2.1 Listening and Speaking Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading First, listen to a passage twice and fill in the blanks with the words you hear. Then you are required to listen to the passage again and catch the key words of the story. At last, you are required to retell the story based on the key words you get. In much of the American South in the 1950s, the first rows of seats on city buses were for white people only. Black people sat in the back of the bus. Both groups could sit in a. However, black people sitting in that part of the bus were expected to if a white person wanted to sit there. Rosa Parks and three other black people were seated in the middle area of the bus when a white person got on the bus and. The bus driver demanded that all four black people leave their seats so the white person would not have to. The three other blacks, but Missus Parks refused. Directions: middle area__________ leave their seats______________ wanted a seat____________ sit next to any of them__________________ got up _______ She was arrested_______________.

99 After Reading_2.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A group of black activist women in Montgomery was known as the Women’s Political Council. The group was working to. The women’s group immediately all blacks in the city to refuse to on the day of Missus Parks’s, Monday, December 5th. The result was that 40,000 people walked and used on that day. That night, at meetings throughout the city, blacks in Montgomery agreed to continue to the city buses until their. They also demanded that the city black bus drivers and that anyone be to sit in the middle of the bus and not have to for anyone else. oppose the mistreatment of black bus passengers ______________________________ __________ called for________ ride on city buses_________________trial______ other transportation________________ boycott______mistreatment stopped__________________ hire____permitted________ get up______ The Montgomery bus boycott continued for 381 days. It was led by E.D. Nixon and a young black, Martin Luther King, Jr. Similar protests were. Finally, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled on Missus Parks’s case. It made on city buses. That decision came on November 13th, 1956, almost a year after Missus Parks’s arrest. The boycott in Montgomery ended the day after the arrived, December 29th. local black leader______________ minister______ held in other southern cities________________________ racial separation illegal _________________ _____ court order_________

100 After Reading_3 Picture Talking Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

101 After Reading_3.1 Picture Talking Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

102 After Reading_3.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

103 After Reading_3.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

104 After Reading_3.4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

105 After Reading_3.5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

106 After Reading_3.6 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

107 After Reading_3.7 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Picture Talking

108 After Reading_4.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Writing Practice — Essay Writing A Brief Introduction An essay is a short piece of writing that generally shows the author’s view on a particular subject. There are many different kinds of essays, including narrative, descriptive, and persuasive. The following steps, however, can be used to write any kind of essay. 1) Establish your topic ** Pay attention to the key words in the teacher’s assignment that will suggest the content and structure of your essay. ** If you are asked to find a topic of your own, you’d better choose a subject which interests you most. ** Be sure your topic is narrow enough so that you can write about it in detail in the number of pages that you are allowed.

109 After Reading_4.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3) Write a first draft ** Three parts of an essay: introduction, body and conclusion ** Introduction: It often begins with a general statement about the topic and ends with a more specific statement of the main idea of your paper. ** Body: — It consists of a number of paragraphs in which you develop your ideas in detail. — Limit each paragraph to one main idea. — Use specific examples and quotations to prove your points. — Use transition words to make your writing coherent. 2) Organize your ideas ** Develop an outline to organize your ideas. ** Write down all the main ideas. ** List the subordinate ideas below the main ideas. ** Avoid any repetition of ideas.

110 After Reading_4.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading ** Conclusion: Summarize your main points by restating the main idea of the paper. 4) Revise the first draft ** Try to set aside your draft for a day or two before revising. ** Develop your ideas in more detail, give more evidence to support your claims, or delete material that is unnecessary. ** Read your paper out loud. ** Have somebody else read the paper and have a discussion with you. 5) Proofread the final draft ** Look for careless errors such as misspelled words and incorrect punctuation and capitalization.

111 After Reading_4.4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Homework 1. The setting of the speech 2. The main ideas the speech expresses 3. The significance and influence of the speech 4. My view on the speech In this part, you are supposed to write a composition on the title “My View on King’s Famous Speech”. Your composition should be no less than 180 words. The composition should cover the following points: Directions:

112 After Reading_6.1 Proverbs and Quotations 1. Where might is master, justice is servant. 有强权,就没有正义。 2. Liberty is the only thing you cannot have unless you give it to others. 自由是唯一一件这样的东西,不给予别人,你自己也无法得到。 3. Who loses liberty loses all. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 失去自由即失去一切。

113 After Reading_ Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom must undergo the fatigue of supporting it. — Thomas Paine, British writer 没有什么比独立自由更可宝贵的了。 —— 越南政治家 胡志明 想要收获自由之果的人,必须承受维护自由的劳苦。 —— 英国作家 托马斯 潘恩 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 4. Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom. — Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese statesman 6. Liberty is in every blow! Let us do or die. — Robert Burns, British poet 多一分斗争,添一分自由!不在斗争中生,就在等待中死。 —— 英国诗人 罗伯特 彭斯


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