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Western Civilization Chapter 25 World and Revolution, 1914 - 1919.

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1 Western Civilization Chapter 25 World and Revolution, 1914 - 1919

2 Background to World War I 28 June 1914 – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophia, by Gavrilo Princip of the Black Hand in Sarajevo, Bosnia 23 July – Ultimatum sent from Austria-Hungary to Serbia (unreasonable demands and a time limit) 28 July – Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia after response was 1 hour late and only with German backing 30 July - Russia declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany

3 Assassination of Franz Ferdinand and His Wife, Sophia

4 The Assassin

5 By 4 August – Germany declared war on Russia and France (then walked through neutral Belgium to get to France) - France declared war on Germany in response - Britain declared war on Germany because it went through neutral Belgium to get to France

6 Liege, Belgium

7 Remember: 4 Main Causes Militarism – build-up of new weapons Imperialism – taking over territory that is already occupied and organized Nationalism – belief that people of the same ethnic background, same history, should have their own nation-state Alliances – Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente Trigger: the assassination of Franz Ferdinand

8 Triple Alliance Italy Germany Austria-Hungary Italy changed to the Triple Entente in 1915. The Ottoman Empire joined in on the German side

9 Triple Entente Britain France Russia Countries make alliances not because they like each other, but because they have a common enemy

10 Germany declared war on both France and Russia because they had a plan for a two front war It was called the Schlieffen Plan – In a 2-front war you throw all you have against one side – Then when one side has fallen, throw all you have against the other side Germany was counting on Russia taking a long time to mobilize; it didn’t. Germany had a 2-front war.

11 The war spread worldwide, eventually involving 33 nations and colonies In 1914 President Woodrow Wilson declared the United States neutral We had a history of not joining entangling alliances We did not wish to be dragged into any European wars

12 It was hard for Americans to remain neutral – Ancestral ties – Trade – Some felt sympathy for France, our oldest friend – Some sympathized with Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy, the Central Powers – Many Irish wished for neutrality because of their hatred for Britain

13 – Russians and Polish Jews supported Germany because of their rough treatment by the Tsars of Russia – Socialists also hated the Tsars’ cruel treatment by the secret police against rebels and so backed Germany So in the U.S., there were conflicting loyalties, and Wilson’s wish for neutrality was idealistic But U.S. wasn’t ready for war; we didn’t join alliances and we would only fight in self-defense

14 Stalemate in Europe Schlieffen Plan did not work – No quick, victorious take-over of France – Belgians resisted heroically – Russians advanced more quickly than expected into German territory – So Germany had to split their forces thus weakening their offensive in the West by sending troops to head off Russia

15 Technology of Killing New weapons were not used efficiently because they weren’t completely understood – Airplane: of little importance in battle at first; used to count troops of the enemy until enemy started shooting at planes – Poisonous Mustard Gas: not used effectively yet devastating because a slight shift in the wind could throw it back on the troops spraying it

16 – Machine Gun: very effective because it could mow down troops advancing in the old infantry style Battle of the Somme, July 1916; 60,000 British troops killed or wounded in the first ½ hour At the end of the battle there were 400,000 British losses, 200,000 French losses, and 500,000 German losses

17 – Tanks developed by the British armored vehicles could drive right through encampments not used effectively finally were used in conjunction with infantry soldiers instead of sending tanks in first, followed by foot soldiers

18 War at Sea Directly touched American interests Naval war was an economic war because it destroyed commerce British set up a blockade of Germany with their superior navy During times of war, all enemy merchant ships could be seized, attacked, and sunk According to the old rules of the sea, crews and passengers were to be rescued before ship was sunk

19 Ships of neutral nations retained the right to trade with any nation as long as they weren’t carrying war materiel British blockade kept Americans from trading with Germany because the British had mined the waters American ships were also stopped and searched by the British British saw war materiel to be foodstuffs and virtually any trade good

20 Americans had only minor objections because German trade was minor In retaliation, Germany tried to harm the British economy by using their submarine called the Unterseeboot or U-Boat – Modern sub developed by 2 Americans, John Holland and Simon Lake – Plans offered to U.S. first but rejected by U.S. Navy – Took plans to Europe and sold them to highest bidder, Germany

21 Submarine – Armed with 19 torpedoes each – Made the waters around the British Isles a war zone – Any merchant ships in the area were in danger of attack – No opportunity for escape – Any survivors most likely drowned – German U-boat tactics seemed immoral to many

22 U-boat Attack

23 Lusitania 7 May 1915, the English luxury liner, the Lusitania, was sunk off the coast of Ireland killing 1198 of the 1959 aboard including 128 Americans Before Americans and others boarded the ship in New York, the Germans took out a full-page ad in the New York papers warning of a possible attack Americans felt invulnerable because the U.S. was officially neutral

24 When the ship was sunk and there was an outcry, the Germans said, “We warned you.” The Lusitania was carrying war materiel, 4200 cases of small arms bought in U.S., back to England There was a secondary explosion on the ship after it had been torpedoed The Germans felt justified in sinking the ship

25 Lusitania

26 Americans became anti-German as a result Wilson was upset because of the loss of life and because the right to the freedom of the seas had been violated A series of messages went back and forth between the U.S. and Germany The Germans then agreed to stop attacking passenger vessels

27 Things calmed down a bit between the U.S. and Germany In 1916 the allies said they’d arm all merchant ships, hence the Germans resumed sinking ships without warning When the Sussex was sunk with 1 American on board, Wilson threatened to break diplomatic relations with Germany (this was usually the last step before declaring war) Germany said it would stop and search before attacking

28 Americans Enter War Because of the stalemate on the Western Front, each side tried to find new allies to join them – Ottoman Empire joined the German side in August 1914 – Italians switched sides in 1915 and joined with Britain and France – Colonies were drawn into the fight – In 1917, the U.S. entered the war on the British and French side

29 Allies of World War I

30 The U.S. had tried to stay neutral because we weren’t ready for war in 1914 We did, however, start to supply Britain with needed goods We entered the war in April of 1917 because: – Freedom of the seas had been violated – Innocent lives had been lost – Commerce was interrupted – Shift in American sentiments – Zimmerman telegram

31 Zimmerman Telegram We aren’t sure if this was a true telegram or something dreamed up by the British to get U.S. into the war The telegram said that Germany would finance a Mexican attack on the U.S. in order to keep the U.S. occupied in the Western Hemisphere and away from Europe Then when Germany won the war, Germany would give back to Mexico all the territory the U.S. had taken from them

32 The Zimmerman telegram was the last straw for the U.S., and so we joined in on the fight Wilson also had a plan for how world politics should be conducted after the war called his 14 Points He knew no one would listen to him if the U.S. did not get into the war and help

33 Although U.S. troops in large numbers didn’t arrive until 1918, the U.S. entry gave the Allies a needed shot in the arm – raised morale Also in 1917 Russia withdrew from the war: The Russian Revolution had begun

34 Home Fronts War affected all citizens, whether soldiers or not – Increase in government powers – Increase in size of government use of propaganda to manipulate public opinion – Women worked in factories, drove trucks, and did men’s jobs while the men went off to war – This resulted in women getting the right to vote in the U.S. – In Germany, Austria, and Britain women demanded equal pay

35 – Military draft imposed – Factories produced war products – Food rationing in some areas, not in U.S. – Civil liberties removed or threatened, even in U.S. – Unemployment ended In the last year of the war, the influx of American troops helped bring the war to an end

36 On 29 September 1918, German leaders were informed that the war was lost for them and they should sue for peace Armistice Day was 11 November 1918 The war was over Now came the Peace Conference and Peace Treaty

37 Peace Settlement January 1919 delegations of the 27 victorious allied nations gathered in Paris to write up the final settlement of the war The conference was dominated by 3 leaders: France Great Britain U.S. Georges David Lloyd Woodrow Clemenceau George Wilson = = revenge just peace 14 Points Compromise

38 Clemenceau, Lloyd George, & Wilson

39 14 Points Some of the 14 Points: – No secret alliances – Self-Determination – General association of nations : the League of Nations

40 Italy played a less important role at the conference than it thought it should have Germany wasn’t invited and was only expected to sign the treaty without question The compromise at the end: Wilson sacrificed most of his 14 points but got his League of Nations Overall, it was a vengeful peace

41 Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles was signed by the new government in Germany, the Weimar, because they felt they had no other choice; Germans were starving The Treaty of Versailles was signed on the 28 June 1919, the 5 th anniversary of Franz Ferdinand’s assassination

42 Terms of Treaty German army was limited to 100,000 men and they had to stay in army for a long time Germany could not have any submarines or an air force (Luftwaffe) Austria could not merge with Germany Alsace and Lorraine went back to France and sections of Prussia to the new Polish state new nations formed from former Austria- Hungary: Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia

43 Germany had to pay reparations of 132 billion gold marks or $33 billion – U.S. loaned money to Germany to help it get back on its feet – Germany used some of the money to pay Britain and France – Britain and France used the money to pay U.S. for the war goods they had bought *(Remember this when we get to 1920s)

44 Rhineland was demilitarized Germany was blamed entirely for the war Germany was totally humiliated Every country but the United States approved the Treaty of Versailles – U.S. Congress did not because of the inclusion of the League of Nations; said we did not join alliances – U.S. returned to isolationism and elected Warren G. Harding

45 Results There was a weakened League of Nations because U.S. did not join Communist Russia Shaky S.E. Asia: new nations that were unstable U.S. isolationism Britain refused to support France in future conflicts France was alone sharing a border with Germany

46 Germany: – was humiliated and resentful – had trouble repaying reparations – had a shaky economy and inflation – Caused France to occupy the Ruhr Valley for 15 years to make sure Germany paid their debt

47 The Russian Revolution Russia finally entered the Industrial Revolution in the early 20 th century The conditions for the workers were horrendous: – worked an 11 ½ hour day – lived in a shared hovel with 10 other people – strikes were illegal – unions were illegal – had no contact with employer

48 So Marxism, which first made its appearance in the 1880s, began to take hold In the 1890s, Vladimir Ulyanov Lenin emerged as strong force in the movement He was influenced by the execution of his older brother for terrorism in 1886 Lenin believed in revolution as a means of change

49 Vladimir Lenin

50 He wanted to build up the party quickly and bring the peasants to revolt Others did not want to move in that direction At a party conference in 1903 in Brussels and in London, the majority of delegates supported his plan, and hence, were called the Bolsheviks or “majorityites” Lenin was sent into exile from Russia by the Tsar for his ideas

51 Then, without him in Russia, the Russian Revolutionary movement was dominated by the “minorityites” or Mensheviks who opposed Lenin’s pursuit of violent revolution In Russia, conditions were poor for the peasants, 90% of the population – Russia had lost its war with Japan, 1904-1905

52 – Russians were starving and approached the Tsar’s palace to ask for bread and an 8-hour day in 1905; the military fired on them – The result was Bloody Sunday or the First Russian Revolution (failed because there was no real plan) – The country went on strike after Bloody Sunday – The only way Tsar Nicholas II could get the country back under his control was to promise political reforms like a Duma (parliament)

53 Tsar Nicholas II

54 The Duma was Russia’s first legislative assembly which would limit the Tsar’s supreme authority Things quieted for a time Nicholas really gave the Duma little power He was still in control Conditions for peasants were still poor Then Russia entered World War I hoping it would unite the Russian people It did not

55 Russia had some early victories followed by many losses Soldiers were poorly armed and poorly led – food prices rose – not enough food for the people – long hours in factories – soldiers deserted – angry marches in the capital

56 – angry peasants and mutinous troops – Nicholas refused to share power – Nicholas’ troops joined the demonstrators, and Nicholas knew it was over – Tsar Nicholas II abdicated the throne in late February 1917 – He and his family were placed under house arrest – The Duma formed a Provisional Government led by Alexander Kerensky

57 This Provisional Government had little experience governing There were no plans Provisional Government kept Russia in World War I There were many problems and the new government could not stop the chaos Lenin believed this was the time for revolution and returned from exile in April of 1917

58 His followers weren’t able to seize control until October 1917 when Leon Trotsky, Lenin’s lieutenant, seized control of key installations in the capital Kerensky fled The Bolsheviks and Lenin now had control Power had passed from the moderates to the extremists

59 A civil war then broke out that lasted for 4 years : White Army (Tsar backers) vs. Red Army (Lenin backers) Bolsheviks were renamed Communists: – carried out the will of a determined minority of revolutionaries in the “interests of the masses” – established a proletariat dictatorship that would later become corrupted by power

60 Foreign Policy: – The first thing Lenin did was to seek peace with Germany, so he could concentrate on Russia – He signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 Gave away nearly ¼ of Russia’s territory and 1/3 of the population, minerals, and factories This gave Lenin what he needed – time. Time to defeat the White Army of Tsar supporters

61 Then Lenin started to make changes His policy War Communism changed to become the N.E.P., New Economic Policy: – nationalized the banks – nationalized industry – created universal education – established rights for women – allowed for some free enterprise

62 Russia was renamed the U.S.S.R., the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922 Lenin died in 1924 He was succeeded by Joseph Stalin, a brutal leader As of 1991, Communism is no longer in power in Russia

63 The Russian Revolution of 1917 The ideas of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution did not reach Russia by the beginning of the 20 th century The Industrial Revolution only reached Russia by the 1890s When most western European nations were becoming modernized politically, economically, and socially, Russia remained feudalistic It was a land of peasants, aristocrats, and the Tsars

64 The rigid policies of most tsars especially frustrated the intelligentsia who turned to revolution and terrorism to bring about change Many of the intelligentsia were exiled in 1900 as a result With the revolution of 1905, also known as Bloody Sunday, Nicholas II was forced to give concessions: give Duma some power but that did not last long

65 The country did pull together, unite, at the beginning of World War I But when losses seemed too great and the civilian population suffered too much, the people began to blame the corrupt bureaucracy of the Tsar The Duma asked for more power Nicholas refused

66 March 1917: demands for bread turned into strikes and riots, and some troops refused to fire on the people; some joined the people 12 March 1917: Duma organized a Provisional Government 15 March 1917: Nicholas II resigned, was held captive, and was later shot

67 The Provisional Government passed laws giving: – civil liberties – religious freedom – equality before the law – union rights There were problems with the Provisional Government. There were differing factions coupled with its inexperience at governing

68 They had to share power with the Soviets – political organizations of workers, soldiers, and radical intellectuals Provisional Government also chose to continue the war with Germany and that drained Russia of men and resources

69 The Rise of the Bolsheviks Marxism influenced many of the intellectuals of the 19 th century Marxists formed the Social Democratic Party led by Gregory Plekhanov and Vladimir Lenin Repression of the tsar forced the Social Democrats into exile by 1900 In London in 1903, a split came in the party: the radical Bolsheviks of Lenin and the more moderate Mensheviks

70 Bolsheviks were a minor irritant until 1917 Members in Russia were hunted down, imprisoned, exiled, or shot Lenin remained in exile for 17 years living in Switzerland – He made plans to overthrow the tsar – He developed principles and goals for his party His party would not be open and democratic His party would be elite and a highly trained group of Marxist revolutionaries

71 Lenin wanted a dual revolution in Russia of both workers and peasants He wanted the revolution to spread to other nations He was opposed to World War I In April 1917, Lenin made a deal with Germany: Germany would transport Lenin from Switzerland to the Russian border if Lenin created chaos in Russia and took Russia out of the war

72 When Lenin returned, he made himself known with slogans like “peace to the army”, land to the peasants”, and ownership of the factories to the workers” Interest in the Bolsheviks began to grow Kerensky had many arrested and other Bolsheviks fled Lenin fled to Finland for awhile

73 But the Kerensky government was weakening – It couldn’t extract Russia from the war – There was a threatened ouster of General Kornilov – Kerensky then released Bolsheviks hoping they would help him defend the capital from Germans and revolutionaries in September 1917 – By October, Lenin and his followers had gained control of the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets

74 6 November 1917: Trotsky, a follower of Lenin, seized control of the power centers of government Trotsky then arranged to transfer the power to the Soviets and Lenin 7 November 1917: the Bolshevik majority elected Lenin as head of their new government

75 The Bolsheviks in Power Bolsheviks immediately strove to consolidate their power They set up a bureaucracy: – They had a pyramid of soviets or people’s councils who were elected by universal suffrage – The party was dominated by a few Communists, as the Bolsheviks now called themselves – It was “arranged” that Communists would be dominant in all elections

76 Changes Made Capitalism was abolished Barter system replaced money Industry and commerce were placed under the committees of workers Land was nationalized and management was given to the local peasants Crop surpluses were turned over to the state Church lands were confiscated by the state

77 Lenin had been opposed to Russian involvement in World War I, so he immediately opened negotiations with Germany Germany dictated the terms because Russian soldiers were deserting in droves, and Germans threatened to attack Petrograd and Moscow The result was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

78 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Russia lost Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Ukraine, Bessarabia, and the Polish Provinces This added up to 1/3 of Russia’s European population, ¾ of its iron, 9/10 of its coal Russia had to pay a large sum of money to Germany to get out of the war

79 After this very harsh peace with Germany, Russia was thrown into 2 years of a civil war: The Red Army vs. The White Army The White Army was made up of aristocracy and army officers aided by French, Polish, Japanese, Czech, and American troops – who backed the Tsar The Red Army finally defeated the White Army and the Communists took back the Ukraine

80 After all the fighting, the Russian economy was in a shambles Lenin first tried to mobilize the economy and society with “war communism”, but there were problems – Peasants did not know how to run the factories – Peasants didn’t want to give food surpluses to the government

81 By 1921, 30 million Russians were threatened with starvation in spite of relief sent by other nations Many died So Lenin tried something new, The New Economic Policy (NEP) – Lenin allowed for some capitalism like private ownership – Money and credit were restored – All NEP programs were supervised and regulated

82 1923, Lenin suffered a paralyzing stroke He died in 1924 A power struggle ensued Joseph Stalin won out

83 Joseph Stalin Son of peasants Became a revolutionary and a terrorist Arrested and imprisoned several times Exiled to Siberia during World War I Given amnesty by Alexander Kerensky in 1917 Became a devoted associate of Lenin Became executive secretary of Communist Party 1927, became leader of Communist Party and dictator of the Soviet Union

84 5 Year Plans Stalin had a series of 5 Year Plans with specific goals for a planned economy First Plan Objectives – 1928 – End NEP – Eliminate remnants of capitalism – Industrialize USSR – Collectivize and mechanize agriculture – Set up national defense – Transform economy to Communist economy

85 Stalin got rid of private ownership He consolidated farms and mechanized them Farmers had to surrender land to the government but could keep animals and gardens for their private use Collective farms were supervised by Communist Party members

86 To mechanize farms meant to industrialize them This was practically non-existent in the USSR in 1928 With help from other nations, great strides were made: steel mills, power plants, foundries, mines, refineries, and railroads were built

87 1932, Stalin announced that the goals of his first 5-year plan had been met The 1930s brought his next 2 5-year plans – He stressed collective and mechanized farming – He stressed heavy industry – He began the production of consumer goods

88 Problems for Stalin Great resistance to collectivization because of mismanagement, drought, and starvation Collectivization cost the lives of 10 million people Resisters to collectivization were killed or exiled to Siberia By 1939, 90% of Soviet agriculture was collectivized and mechanized

89 Industry In each 5-year period, production doubled but it cost lives By 1941, the Soviet Union was the 4 th largest industrial power in the world The changes of Stalin cost many lives All opposition was destroyed, usually by killing millions and even within his own party By 1939, all the original Bolshevik leaders had been removed from power and from the party Most were killed; some just removed

90 Totalitarian Control By 1939 the USSR was under totalitarian control, dominated by the Communist Party It controlled the economic, social, religious, political, and cultural life of the nation Only the Communist Party could organize political activity: – name political candidates – set policies – produce propaganda

91 Opposition was considered to be disloyalty and would be crushed by the police – secret and regular police Within the government, there was the Politburo: – 16 men – met in secret – made all decisions to be accepted and carried out without question Obedience was demanded of all Party members

92 Society and Culture 1917 – 60% of all Russians were illiterate 1928 – there was free, compulsory, secular education: elementary, high school, and higher Scholarships were given to talented Party members By 1941, Stalin decreed that illiteracy had been banished from the Soviet Union

93 The Arts were supported by Stalin’s programs Musicians, dancers, architects, and painters were all subject to the Communist ideology All liberal, bourgeois, or capitalist literature was heavily censored

94 Soviet Society Made egalitarian Party members enjoyed more privileges Women benefitted: – no discrimination tolerated – equal pay – equal educational and professional opportunities At home it was different; the man dominated

95 Social organizations were saturated with the Party line and were carefully watched Religion: – Church property was confiscated – Churches were turned into museums and sometimes rented out for certain occasions – There was no religious instruction in schools and no religious instructors Religion was perceived as a problem. Communists thought it could get too powerful and overthrow government.

96 Soviet Union and the World The USSR expected other capitalist societies to fall after World War I and turn to Communism The only country to embrace Communism was Hungary that set up a Communist dictatorship in 1919; it only lasted 4 months The USSR started the Comintern, or Communist International, to guide and aid other Communist Parties in other nations in the common cause of world revolution

97 In 1917 and 1918, other Western nations felt Communism would not last To help with its collapse, France, Great Britain, Japan, and the U.S. sent in troops in 1918 and gave aid to the White Army For several years, no Western nation would recognize the new government of the USSR or accept it into the League of Nations

98 But when Communist leaders recognized they needed the knowledge, technology, and aid of capitalist nations, they toned down their rhetoric against them The result: – 1922, Germany recognized USSR – 1924, Great Britain and France recognized USSR – 1933, the U.S. recognized USSR

99 One reason why they recognized the USSR was that they wanted to sell them what USSR wanted to buy The Depression years softened the West’s stance against it During World War II, USSR allied itself with Great Britain, France, and the U.S. against Germany – only after Germany broke its treaty with USSR USSR joined with Western nations out of necessity against Germany

100 After World War II, USSR’s relations with the West cooled rather quickly This resulted in the Cold War which lasted until the 1990s

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