2 ObamaAre individual personalities now more important than parties?
3 BushCan the President control public discussion?
4 Clinton, Reagan, NixonDoes a president have to be “moral” in order to be a good president?
5 NixonDo Americans need a President to have trustworthy character?
6 EisenhowerMust the modern President always be involved in everything or have a solution for everything?
7 Franklin Delano Roosevelt What role does confidence in the President have on American morale?
8 FDR Does a lot of action and policy creation make a President “great”? Can a President be “great” if not much is changed during their Presidency?
9 Constitutional Requirements QualificationsArt. II“natural-born citizen”14 years of US residency35 years of ageTHAT’S IT!!!
10 Qualifications of Presidency Informal qualifications:Government experience—Congress, Governor, VP, cabinet member, etcMilitary experienceMoney $$$$$$$33.78 million in primaries & $67.56 million in general election on average in modern electionsPolitical beliefs—moderatePersonal characteristics and background
11 Take Five What “informal” characteristics are required to be President today?
12 Duties of the President Appointing heads of executive departments, federal ct judges etc. (with Senate consent)Commander in chiefManages a $400 billion defense budgetConducting foreign policyLawmaking abilitiesState of the Union address
13 Take FiveWhat are some of the perks tobeing President today?
14 Benefits of Presidency Most powerful man in the free worldSalary $400,000 + $100,000 travel allowanceAir Force One—planes, trains and automobilesFree medical, dental, health care etcThe White House = home!Camp David = vacationLifetime retirement pension $148,400 per year + free office space + free mailing service + $96,000 for office support + Presidential Library and other honors
27 Constitutional Powers Powers/duties are very limited“executive power” – enact/enforce lawMilitary PowerDiplomatic PowerAppointment PowerVeto Power
28 Presidential Powers“The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America”Too vague…
29 The top 10 BEST Presidents (1) Abraham Lincoln(2) Franklin D. Roosevelt(3) George Washington(4) Thomas Jefferson(5) Theodore Roosevelt(6) Andrew Jackson(7) Woodrow Wilson(8) Harry S. Truman(9) James K. Polk(10) Dwight D. Eisenhower
30 The top 10 WORST Presidents James BuchananWarren G. HardingAndrew JohnsonFranklin PierceMillard FillmoreJohn TylerUlysses S. GrantWilliam H. HarrisonHerbert Hoover in a tie withRichard NixonZachary Taylor
31 Presidential traditions George WashingtonMr. President2 terms and stepping downSalaryFranklin D. Roosevelt22nd Amendment
32 Strengthening the Presidency Washington – set precedent for futureJackson – frequent use of veto powerLincoln – Commander and Chief to new levels of power during the Civil WarFDR – huge influence on policy with New Deal, checked by Supreme Court
33 Strong executives Thomas Jefferson Abraham Lincoln Theodore Roosevelt LA Purchase= “inherit powers”Abraham LincolnSuspended the writ of habeas corpus & raised an armyTheodore Roosevelt“president’s right and duty to do anything that the needs of the Nation demanded unless such action was forbidden by the Constitution or by the laws”Franklin D. RooseveltSocial welfare programsLyndon JohnsonGulf of Tonkin incident & the blank checkGeorge W. BushHomeland security
34 Roles of the President Head of State Chief Executive Ceremonial duties—living symbol of the nationChief ExecutiveEnsures the laws of Congress are carried outRight to appoint or remove federal officialsAppoints all federal judges and justices of the Supreme CourtGranting Amnesty—group pardonGeorge Washington & the Whiskey RebellionIssues repreives and pardonsFord pardoned NixonClinton pardoned numerous individuals before leaving officeImpoundment—refusing to spend money that Congress has authorizedJefferson refused to spend money on gunboatsNixon refused to spend money on social programsIssues exectutive ordersDesegregation of armed forces under Truman
35 Roles of the President Chief Legislator Economic Planner Party Leader State of the Union addressInfluencing Congress for supportPolitical favorsPower of vetoLine item veto—ruled unconstitutional in Clinton v City of NYEconomic PlannerCouncil of Economic AdvisorsNixon control to freeze prices and wagesPrepares the federal budgetParty Leader
36 Veto Power Veto – return the bill to house it originated (no action within 10 days – bill becomes law)
37 Appointment PowerPower to appoint ambassadors, public officers, and Supreme Court Judges with Senate approval (advice and consent)Civil Service – most gov jobs under executive filled based on merit systemHarriet MiersJohn BoltonJohn Roberts
38 Roles of the President Chief Diplomat Directs foreign policy Directs CIA, State Department, Defense Department & NSCPower to make treaties (w/ Senate approval)Recognition of foreign governmentsWilson refused to recognize the leader of MexicoKennedy refused to recognize the leader of CubaPower to make Executive AgreementsFDR and G. Britain in WWIINixon’s secret deal to N. VietnamCongress makes it illegal in 1972
39 Diplomatic PowerCreate treaties with foreign nations with Senate permission, 2/3 Senate approval (advice and consent)Executive agreement – not permission needed, deal between heads of state, not binding to next administrationDiplomatic Recognition – power to officially recognize foreign gov as legitEx – USSR not recognizedEx s – China not recognized
40 Roles of the President Commander in Chief Power to make war Korea, Vietnam, Gulf War, Panama (overthrow of dictator Manuel Noriega) War on Terror—Afghanistan & IraqMilitary operations and strategyDay to day operationsMilitary backgrounds of PresidentsAtomic capabilitiesNagasaki and Hiroshima
41 Military Power Commander in Chief (civilian control) Prez can send armed forces abroadCongress has not declared war since 12/8/1941Korea, Vietnam, Iraq? – all ConstitutionalWar Powers Resolution, 1973Prez must report to Congress within 48 hours after deploymentIf Congress does not OK in 60 days, must withdrawCheck on president, attempt to limit president
42 Presidential deaths in office (Tecumseh’s curse?) 8 Presidents have died in officeWilliam Henry Harrison - April 4, 1841, died of pneumonia after giving a long inaugural address in the cold and rain.Zachary Taylor - July 9, 1850, died of cholera after eating tainted cherries and milk in the middle of the summer.Abraham Lincoln - April 15, 1865, died a few hours after being shot by an assassin.James Garfield - September 19, 1881, died of blood poisoning two months after being shot by an assassin.William McKinley - September 14, 1901, died eight days after being shot by an assassin.Warren G. Harding - August 2, 1923, died of pneumonia.Franklin D. Roosevelt - April 12, 1945, died of a cerebral hemorrhage.John F. Kennedy - November 22, 1963, died a few hours after being shot by an assassin.25th Amendment establishes Presidential Succession
43 Order of Succession…Succession Act of 1947 established order of succession based on creation of cabinet positionsVP; Speaker of the House; President Pro Tempore; Sec. of State; Sec of Treasury; Sec of Defense….First applied in 1973 (Nixon administration)Spiro Agnew resignedGerald Ford becomes newly appointed VPRichard Nixon resignedGerald Ford becomes PresNelson Rockefeller becomes newly appointed VP
44 Take FiveWhat happens if the President isNOT dead, but disabled?
45 Presidential disabilities James GarfieldWoodrow WilsonDwight D. EisenhowerRonald Reagan25th amendmentPresident informs Congress of disability orVP & majority of cabinet informs Congress of disabilityCongress has 21 days to settle disputes in favor of Pres or VP by 2/3 vote
46 Presidential Disability and Succession 22nd Amendment – limited President to 2 terms, serving no more than 10 years25th Amendment – If the VP office is vacated, then the President can select a new VP
47 Role of the Vice President All qualifications of President applyPresides over Senate—tie breaker25th Amendment—waiting for the President to die (14 VP’s have become President in this fashion)Modern day—diplomatic responsibly, foreign policy, lawmakers, extension of President
48 Vice President Preside over the Senate, tie breaking vote Takes over the presidency if the President cannot finish term12th Amendment – voters choose President and VP togetherPrevious to 1804, the losing candidate became VPWHAT A DISASTER!!!!
49 Electing the President Electoral collegePopular vote is actually a vote for either the Democrat or Republican electors of each state538 Electors determine the PresidentState electors = # of HOR + Senators in CongressWyoming = fewest electoral votes (3)California = largest electoral votes (55)Candidates must win 270 electoral votes to winMaine & Nebraska are exceptions (split the electoral vote)
50 Take Five…Is the “winner take all” system of the electoral college fair? Why or why not? What are some possibilities for reforming the current system?
51 The role of third party candidates Third parties could win enough votes to prevent a majority for either partyThird party candidates then bargain to release votes to one side or the otherIn the event the House of Rep. has to decide, each state casts 1 vote, the candidate with 26 votes winsProblems with HOR voteEqual representationStates in disagreement lose their voteStates with strong third party favorites lose vote
52 The Inauguration Shift of power President and President elect ride together to the inauguration or “swearing in” ceremonyPresident elect takes the oath of officeCurrent President delivers a speech and ceremonies begin
53 The Cabinet 15 major executive departments Vice President Secretary of State, Sec. of Treasury etc…Vice PresidentTop officialsAll cabinet members must be approved by the SenateTypically has the background, education and qualifications for the job, race, and gender also play a roleSalary: $161,200
54 Role of the Cabinet Depends on the President “kitchen cabinet” & “brain trust”Aides & spouses“inner cabinet”Party loyalty, special interest groups, etcSecrecy and trust
55 The Executive Office Executive office agencies Attorneys, scientists, educators, financial advisors, etc1,500 full time employeesEnlarges each administrationEx: Reagan Office of national drug control policyLargest EOP = Office of management & budget
56 Executive Office of the President National Security Council – advises on military and foreign policyOffice of Management and Budget – prepares national budget, largest officeNational Economic Council – advises with economic planning
58 White House Staff President appoints w/o Senate approval Chief of StaffPress SecretaryG. Washington = 0F.D.R. = 50Nixon = 600Clinton = 380
59 The Cabinet 15 major department heads advising prez “Inner cabinet” – Secretary of State, treasury, attorney general, and defenseRobert Gates – Secretary of DefenseHillary Clinton – Secretary of State
60 White House Office“Pyramid” model – assistants answer to a hierarchy up to a chief of staff (few top advisors to prez, prez free but isolated)“Circular” model – direct contact with staff (many top advisors to prez, prez busy but connected)Significance: determines what aids have the most influence on presidential decisions
61 Take Five…How does the President get the mandate –popular support—of the people? What happens if a President does not receive a mandate?
62 Mandate of the PeopleMass media, press conferences, leaking informationOpinion pollsNixon—90% of the public wanted to see an end to the war in VietnamReagan—the “Great Communicator”George W.—90% approval rating after “declaring a war on terror” in 2001…but dropped significantly as the war in Iraq continued and Katrina hit
63 Limits on Presidential Powers Congressional override 2/3 vote to override a Presidential vetoSenate confirmation of appointeesCongressional power to ImpeachAndrew Johnson; Richard Nixon; Bill Clinton
64 Limits on Presidential Powers Supreme Court has authority to limit the President (Executive Branch)Marbury v MadisonYoungstown Sheet and Tube Co. v Sawyer
65 Executive privilegeThe right to privacy of conversation between advisors and prezWhy?Separation of powers prevents branches from sharing internal workingsPrivacy is needed for candid advice from advisors with out political pressure
66 Executive Privilege US v. Nixon Nixon refused to hand over recorded conversations, claiming Exec. PrivilegeCourt ruled in favor of USEP can’t be used to block the function of the federal court procedures
67 ImpoundmentPresidential practice of refusing to spend money appropriated by Congress.Budget Reform and Impoundment Act of 1974 – president must spend funds
68 The President as Morale Builder Symbolic importance (FDR – Great Depression, Bush – 9/11)Unify nation
69 Agenda SettingThe President can control public policy and discussion through…The mediaState of the Union speechMake policy proposalsEncourage the Congress
70 Executive Orders Prez issues executive orders that have force of law Ex – power to enforce the Constitution, treaties, laws, etc.FDR – allowed Japanese internmentTruman – integrate militaryEisenhower – desegregate public schools
71 Line-Item Veto???Should the President be able to veto certain parts of a bill, and not other parts?Line-Item Veto Act 1996Clinton v. City of New York (1997) – law found unconstitutional
72 GridlockDivided government – Prez and Congress majority represent different political parties“gridlock” – the inability to accomplish goalsCon – government operation shuts downPro – slows the decision making process, example of check and balance