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The President.

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Presentation on theme: "The President."— Presentation transcript:

1 The President

2 Obama Are individual personalities now more important than parties?

3 Bush Can the President control public discussion?

4 Clinton, Reagan, Nixon Does a president have to be “moral” in order to be a good president?

5 Nixon Do Americans need a President to have trustworthy character?

6 Eisenhower Must the modern President always be involved in everything or have a solution for everything?

7 Franklin Delano Roosevelt
What role does confidence in the President have on American morale?

8 FDR Does a lot of action and policy creation make a President “great”?
Can a President be “great” if not much is changed during their Presidency?

9 Constitutional Requirements
Qualifications Art. II “natural-born citizen” 14 years of US residency 35 years of age THAT’S IT!!!

10 Qualifications of Presidency
Informal qualifications: Government experience—Congress, Governor, VP, cabinet member, etc Military experience Money $$$$$$ $33.78 million in primaries & $67.56 million in general election on average in modern elections Political beliefs—moderate Personal characteristics and background

11 Take Five What “informal” characteristics
are required to be President today?

12 Duties of the President
Appointing heads of executive departments, federal ct judges etc. (with Senate consent) Commander in chief Manages a $400 billion defense budget Conducting foreign policy Lawmaking abilities State of the Union address

13 Take Five What are some of the perks to being President today?

14 Benefits of Presidency
Most powerful man in the free world Salary $400,000 + $100,000 travel allowance Air Force One—planes, trains and automobiles Free medical, dental, health care etc The White House = home! Camp David = vacation Lifetime retirement pension $148,400 per year + free office space + free mailing service + $96,000 for office support + Presidential Library and other honors


16 Lincoln’s Bedroom & the Rosewood Bed

17 The Red Room & The China Room

18 Balancing work and home


20 Oval Office in the 1960’s

21 Oval Office under George W.


23 Obama’s Oval Office

24 Camp David


26 Malia & Sasha Obama’s Playhouse

27 Constitutional Powers
Powers/duties are very limited “executive power” – enact/enforce law Military Power Diplomatic Power Appointment Power Veto Power

28 Presidential Powers “The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America” Too vague…

29 The top 10 BEST Presidents
(1) Abraham Lincoln (2) Franklin D. Roosevelt (3) George Washington (4) Thomas Jefferson (5) Theodore Roosevelt (6) Andrew Jackson (7) Woodrow Wilson (8) Harry S. Truman (9) James K. Polk (10) Dwight D. Eisenhower

30 The top 10 WORST Presidents
James Buchanan Warren G. Harding Andrew Johnson Franklin Pierce Millard Fillmore John Tyler Ulysses S. Grant William H. Harrison Herbert Hoover in a tie with Richard Nixon Zachary Taylor

31 Presidential traditions
George Washington Mr. President 2 terms and stepping down Salary Franklin D. Roosevelt 22nd Amendment

32 Strengthening the Presidency
Washington – set precedent for future Jackson – frequent use of veto power Lincoln – Commander and Chief to new levels of power during the Civil War FDR – huge influence on policy with New Deal, checked by Supreme Court

33 Strong executives Thomas Jefferson Abraham Lincoln Theodore Roosevelt
LA Purchase= “inherit powers” Abraham Lincoln Suspended the writ of habeas corpus & raised an army Theodore Roosevelt “president’s right and duty to do anything that the needs of the Nation demanded unless such action was forbidden by the Constitution or by the laws” Franklin D. Roosevelt Social welfare programs Lyndon Johnson Gulf of Tonkin incident & the blank check George W. Bush Homeland security

34 Roles of the President Head of State Chief Executive
Ceremonial duties—living symbol of the nation Chief Executive Ensures the laws of Congress are carried out Right to appoint or remove federal officials Appoints all federal judges and justices of the Supreme Court Granting Amnesty—group pardon George Washington & the Whiskey Rebellion Issues repreives and pardons Ford pardoned Nixon Clinton pardoned numerous individuals before leaving office Impoundment—refusing to spend money that Congress has authorized Jefferson refused to spend money on gunboats Nixon refused to spend money on social programs Issues exectutive orders Desegregation of armed forces under Truman

35 Roles of the President Chief Legislator Economic Planner Party Leader
State of the Union address Influencing Congress for support Political favors Power of veto Line item veto—ruled unconstitutional in Clinton v City of NY Economic Planner Council of Economic Advisors Nixon control to freeze prices and wages Prepares the federal budget Party Leader

36 Veto Power Veto – return the bill to house it originated
(no action within 10 days – bill becomes law)

37 Appointment Power Power to appoint ambassadors, public officers, and Supreme Court Judges with Senate approval (advice and consent) Civil Service – most gov jobs under executive filled based on merit system Harriet Miers John Bolton John Roberts

38 Roles of the President Chief Diplomat Directs foreign policy
Directs CIA, State Department, Defense Department & NSC Power to make treaties (w/ Senate approval) Recognition of foreign governments Wilson refused to recognize the leader of Mexico Kennedy refused to recognize the leader of Cuba Power to make Executive Agreements FDR and G. Britain in WWII Nixon’s secret deal to N. Vietnam Congress makes it illegal in 1972

39 Diplomatic Power Create treaties with foreign nations with Senate permission, 2/3 Senate approval (advice and consent) Executive agreement – not permission needed, deal between heads of state, not binding to next administration Diplomatic Recognition – power to officially recognize foreign gov as legit Ex – USSR not recognized Ex s – China not recognized

40 Roles of the President Commander in Chief Power to make war
Korea, Vietnam, Gulf War, Panama (overthrow of dictator Manuel Noriega) War on Terror—Afghanistan & Iraq Military operations and strategy Day to day operations Military backgrounds of Presidents Atomic capabilities Nagasaki and Hiroshima

41 Military Power Commander in Chief (civilian control)
Prez can send armed forces abroad Congress has not declared war since 12/8/1941 Korea, Vietnam, Iraq? – all Constitutional War Powers Resolution, 1973 Prez must report to Congress within 48 hours after deployment If Congress does not OK in 60 days, must withdraw Check on president, attempt to limit president

42 Presidential deaths in office (Tecumseh’s curse?)
8 Presidents have died in office William Henry Harrison - April 4, 1841, died of pneumonia after giving a long inaugural address in the cold and rain. Zachary Taylor - July 9, 1850, died of cholera after eating tainted cherries and milk in the middle of the summer. Abraham Lincoln - April 15, 1865, died a few hours after being shot by an assassin. James Garfield - September 19, 1881, died of blood poisoning two months after being shot by an assassin. William McKinley - September 14, 1901, died eight days after being shot by an assassin. Warren G. Harding - August 2, 1923, died of pneumonia. Franklin D. Roosevelt - April 12, 1945, died of a cerebral hemorrhage. John F. Kennedy - November 22, 1963, died a few hours after being shot by an assassin. 25th Amendment establishes Presidential Succession

43 Order of Succession… Succession Act of 1947 established order of succession based on creation of cabinet positions VP; Speaker of the House; President Pro Tempore; Sec. of State; Sec of Treasury; Sec of Defense…. First applied in 1973 (Nixon administration) Spiro Agnew resigned Gerald Ford becomes newly appointed VP Richard Nixon resigned Gerald Ford becomes Pres Nelson Rockefeller becomes newly appointed VP

44 Take Five What happens if the President is NOT dead, but disabled?

45 Presidential disabilities
James Garfield Woodrow Wilson Dwight D. Eisenhower Ronald Reagan 25th amendment President informs Congress of disability or VP & majority of cabinet informs Congress of disability Congress has 21 days to settle disputes in favor of Pres or VP by 2/3 vote

46 Presidential Disability and Succession
22nd Amendment – limited President to 2 terms, serving no more than 10 years 25th Amendment – If the VP office is vacated, then the President can select a new VP

47 Role of the Vice President
All qualifications of President apply Presides over Senate—tie breaker 25th Amendment—waiting for the President to die (14 VP’s have become President in this fashion) Modern day—diplomatic responsibly, foreign policy, lawmakers, extension of President

48 Vice President Preside over the Senate, tie breaking vote
Takes over the presidency if the President cannot finish term 12th Amendment – voters choose President and VP together Previous to 1804, the losing candidate became VP WHAT A DISASTER!!!!

49 Electing the President
Electoral college Popular vote is actually a vote for either the Democrat or Republican electors of each state 538 Electors determine the President State electors = # of HOR + Senators in Congress Wyoming = fewest electoral votes (3) California = largest electoral votes (55) Candidates must win 270 electoral votes to win Maine & Nebraska are exceptions (split the electoral vote)

50 Take Five… Is the “winner take all” system of the electoral college fair? Why or why not? What are some possibilities for reforming the current system?

51 The role of third party candidates
Third parties could win enough votes to prevent a majority for either party Third party candidates then bargain to release votes to one side or the other In the event the House of Rep. has to decide, each state casts 1 vote, the candidate with 26 votes wins Problems with HOR vote Equal representation States in disagreement lose their vote States with strong third party favorites lose vote

52 The Inauguration Shift of power
President and President elect ride together to the inauguration or “swearing in” ceremony President elect takes the oath of office Current President delivers a speech and ceremonies begin

53 The Cabinet 15 major executive departments Vice President
Secretary of State, Sec. of Treasury etc… Vice President Top officials All cabinet members must be approved by the Senate Typically has the background, education and qualifications for the job, race, and gender also play a role Salary: $161,200

54 Role of the Cabinet Depends on the President
“kitchen cabinet” & “brain trust” Aides & spouses “inner cabinet” Party loyalty, special interest groups, etc Secrecy and trust

55 The Executive Office Executive office agencies
Attorneys, scientists, educators, financial advisors, etc 1,500 full time employees Enlarges each administration Ex: Reagan Office of national drug control policy Largest EOP = Office of management & budget

56 Executive Office of the President
National Security Council – advises on military and foreign policy Office of Management and Budget – prepares national budget, largest office National Economic Council – advises with economic planning

57 Take Five… What is a modern day EOP?

58 White House Staff President appoints w/o Senate approval
Chief of Staff Press Secretary G. Washington = 0 F.D.R. = 50 Nixon = 600 Clinton = 380

59 The Cabinet 15 major department heads advising prez
“Inner cabinet” – Secretary of State, treasury, attorney general, and defense Robert Gates – Secretary of Defense Hillary Clinton – Secretary of State

60 White House Office “Pyramid” model – assistants answer to a hierarchy up to a chief of staff (few top advisors to prez, prez free but isolated) “Circular” model – direct contact with staff (many top advisors to prez, prez busy but connected) Significance: determines what aids have the most influence on presidential decisions

61 Take Five… How does the President get the mandate –popular support—of the people? What happens if a President does not receive a mandate?

62 Mandate of the People Mass media, press conferences, leaking information Opinion polls Nixon—90% of the public wanted to see an end to the war in Vietnam Reagan—the “Great Communicator” George W.—90% approval rating after “declaring a war on terror” in 2001…but dropped significantly as the war in Iraq continued and Katrina hit

63 Limits on Presidential Powers
Congressional override 2/3 vote to override a Presidential veto Senate confirmation of appointees Congressional power to Impeach Andrew Johnson; Richard Nixon; Bill Clinton

64 Limits on Presidential Powers
Supreme Court has authority to limit the President (Executive Branch) Marbury v Madison Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v Sawyer

65 Executive privilege The right to privacy of conversation between advisors and prez Why? Separation of powers prevents branches from sharing internal workings Privacy is needed for candid advice from advisors with out political pressure

66 Executive Privilege US v. Nixon
Nixon refused to hand over recorded conversations, claiming Exec. Privilege Court ruled in favor of US EP can’t be used to block the function of the federal court procedures

67 Impoundment Presidential practice of refusing to spend money appropriated by Congress. Budget Reform and Impoundment Act of 1974 – president must spend funds

68 The President as Morale Builder
Symbolic importance (FDR – Great Depression, Bush – 9/11) Unify nation

69 Agenda Setting The President can control public policy and discussion through… The media State of the Union speech Make policy proposals Encourage the Congress

70 Executive Orders Prez issues executive orders that have force of law
Ex – power to enforce the Constitution, treaties, laws, etc. FDR – allowed Japanese internment Truman – integrate military Eisenhower – desegregate public schools

71 Line-Item Veto??? Should the President be able to veto certain parts of a bill, and not other parts? Line-Item Veto Act 1996 Clinton v. City of New York (1997) – law found unconstitutional

72 Gridlock Divided government – Prez and Congress majority represent different political parties “gridlock” – the inability to accomplish goals Con – government operation shuts down Pro – slows the decision making process, example of check and balance

73 Take Five Which Presidents have been Impeached?

74 Impeachment House impeaches, Senate tries the prez, Chief Justice presides over the trial Two presidents impeached, neither removed (Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton)

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