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THE CRISIS OF THE IMPERIAL ORDER: WORLD WAR I AP World History
Armenian genocide In 1915, when some Armenians welcomed Russian armies as liberators after years of persecution, the Ottoman government ordered a genocidal mass deportation of its Armenian citizens from their homeland to the empire's eastern provinces. This photo, taken in Kharpert in 1915 by a German businessman from his hotel window, shows Turkish guards marching Armenian men off to a prison, where they will be tortured to death. A million Armenians died from murder, starvation, and disease during World War I. (Courtesy of the Armenian Library & Museum of America, Watertown, MA) Armenian genocide Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand This photograph depicts the capture of the assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Habsburg throne, on a visit to Sarajevo in Austrian-ruled Bosnia. A young Bosnian nationalist, Gavril Princip, was arrested minutes after he had assassinated the archduke and his wife, on June 28, 1914. This political murder helped unleash World War I. (Gernsheim Collection, Harry Ransom Humanities Center, University of Texas, Austin) Assassination of Franz Ferdinand Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Canadians in trench warfare This painting, The Princess Patricias at Frezenberg by the Canadian artist W.B. Wollen, depicts fighting on the Western Front on May 8, 1915. When all other officers of the regiment had been killed or wounded in this German attack near Ypres, in northern France, Lieutenant Hugh Niven took command. The remnants of this Canadian battalion beat back every German attack, but at the end of the day only 150 men remained. (Courtesy, The Princess Patrice's Canadian Light Infantry, Regimental Museum and Archives) Canadians in trench warfare Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Delegates to Peace Conference, 1919 The Arab Prince Faisal (1885-1993) (foreground)--who would later become king of Iraq--attended the Paris Peace Conference, where he lobbied for the creation of an independent Arab kingdom from part of the former Ottoman Turkish holdings in the Middle East. Among his supporters was the British office Colonel T.E. Lawrence (middle row, second from the right), on his way to becoming the legendary "Lawrence of Arabia." (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Delegates to Peace Conference, 1919 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"Freedom" poster, 1905 This peasant woman, who appears as the symbol of radical demands in the Russian countryside in the revolution of 1905, holds aloft a red socialist banner that reads "Freedom!" This vibrant drawing is on the first page of a new review featuring political cartoons from the rapidly growing Russian popular press. (New York Public Library, Slavonic Division) "Freedom" poster, 1905 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Harlem Hellfighters Returning to New York in 1919 aboard the USS Stockholm, these black men of the famed U.S. 369th Division had fought in the bloody battle of the Meuse-Argonne during World War I. The French government awarded 150 of them the coveted Croix de Guerre. Yet, since the United States practiced strict racial segregation at that time, these soldiers couldn't be served in any restaurant south of Philadelphia. (Corbis) Harlem Hellfighters Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Indians at front Indian soldiers from the so-called warrior castes had long been a critical factor in imperial Britain's global power. These Indian troops, preparing for the Battle of the Somme in 1916 during World War I, ironically appear to be out for a pleasant bicycling excursion. Dispatched to France in October 1914, most Indian soldiers were moved to western Asia in 1915 to fight against the Ottoman Empire. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Indians at front Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Lenin as orator, 1920 The Bolsheviks were a small but tightly disciplined group of radicals obedient to the will of their leader, Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924). Here he is addressing Red Army soldiers in Sverdlov Square, Moscow, in 1920. At the time, the Bolsheviks were mopping up the last of the anti-Bolshevik forces and were fully engaged in a war with Poland. The fate of the Revolution depended on the fighting spirit of the Red Army soldiers and on their loyalty to Lenin. (David King Collection) Lenin as orator, 1920 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Mustafa Kemal In 1919 Mustafa Kemal, a hero of the Gallipoli campaign, had formed a nationalist government in central Anatolia with the backing of fellow army officers. After World War I, he was determined to modernize Turkey on the western model. Here he is shown wearing a European-style suit and teaching the Latin alphabet. (Stock Montage) Mustafa Kemal Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"N'Oublions Jamais" This 1915 French poster with its passionate headline--Never Forget!-- dramatizes Germany's brutal invasion of Belgium in 1914. Neutral Belgium is personified as a traumatized mother, assaulted and ravished by savage outlaws. The "rape of Belgium" featured prominently, and effectively, in anti-German propaganda. (Mary Evans Picture Library) "N'Oublions Jamais" Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Palestinian Arabs protest In the early twentieth century, Great Britain and France had agreed to divide up the Arab lands; at Versailles President Wilson had insisted that the right of self-determination should be applied to the conquered Ottoman territories. To present their view to the Americans, Arab nationalists passed a resolution on July 2, 1919 that called for political independence, and talked of possible French rule under a League of Nations mandate and the establishment of a Jewish national home. This wasn't the view of all Arabs. In this photo, Palestinian Arabs protest against large-scale Jewish migration into Palestine. (Roger-Viollet/Getty Images) Palestinian Arabs protest Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Russian demonstrations, 1917 The mass demonstrations in Petrograd, June 1917, showed a surge of working-class support for the Bolsheviks. In this photo, a few banners of the Mensheviks and other moderate socialists are drowned in a sea of Bolshevik slogans. (Sovfoto) Russian demonstrations, 1917 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Russian munitions worker All over Europe, governments recruited women to work in munitions factories. This Russian government poster uses an image of a working woman to rally support for the war. The text reads, "Everything for the war effort! Subscribe to the war loans at 5- 1/2 percent." (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Russian munitions worker Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Suffragist poster This 1910 poster protested the force feeding of suffragettes on hunger strike in Britain. It invited voters to reject the Liberal government, guilty of what suffragettes viewed as state torture. (Library of Congress) Suffragist poster Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Versailles Treaty signed This group portrait by the painter William Orpen (born in Dublin, 1878) features the three principal Allied leaders, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson (all seated in the center), who have finally reached an agreement at Versailles, June 28, 1919. Like Paul Nash, Orpen had been recruited by the War Propaganda Bureau to paint on the Western Front. He was later commissioned to paint this portrait of politicians at the Versailles Peace Conference. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the Imperial War Museum) Versailles Treaty signed Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
"The War As I Saw It" The War As I Saw It was the title of a series of grotesque drawings that appeared in 1920 in Simplicissimus, Germany's leading satirical magazine. Nothing shows better the terrible impact of World War I than this profoundly disturbing example of expressionist art. (Caroline Buckler) "The War As I Saw It" Map: The First World War in EuropeMap: Territorial Changes in Europe After World War I Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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