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The Causes of WWI Militarism Militarism Alliances Alliances Imperialism Imperialism Nationalism Nationalism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Causes of WWI Militarism Militarism Alliances Alliances Imperialism Imperialism Nationalism Nationalism."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Causes of WWI Militarism Militarism Alliances Alliances Imperialism Imperialism Nationalism Nationalism

3 WWI: The Great War Causes 1. Imperialism: France, Great Britain, Russia, Germany Kaiser Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm II IndustrializationIndustrialization Germany can compete through “blood and iron” Germany can compete through “blood and iron”

4 Kaiser Wilhelm II Kaiser Wilhelm II Kaiser Wilhelm II Built up German army and navy Built up German army and navy Aggressive foreign policy Aggressive foreign policy Determined to make Germany a top nation. Determined to make Germany a top nation. Distrusted by other powers Distrusted by other powers “Germany must have its place in the sun” “The world belongs to the strong.”

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6 2.Militarism Define: build up of armed forcesDefine: build up of armed forces 1890: Germany has strongest military

7 Militarism Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. The British feared an attack on their Empire The British feared an attack on their Empire Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies

8 3.Alliance System Triple Entente: France, Great Britain, and RussiaTriple Entente: France, Great Britain, and Russia Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman EmpireTriple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire Global securityGlobal security Balance of power Balance of power Imperialism caused many countries to form alliances Imperialism caused many countries to form alliances

9 1879 The Dual Alliance Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia 1881 Austro-Serbian Alliance Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia 1882 The Triple Alliance Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia 1914 Triple Entente (no separate peace) Britain, Russia and France agreed not to sign for peace separately Franco-Russian Alliance Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary 1907 Triple Entente This was made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increasing threat from Germany Anglo-Russian Entente This was an agreement between Britain and Russia 1904 Entente Cordiale This was an agreement, but not a formal alliance, between France and Britain.

10 The Two Sides Triple Alliance GermanyAustria-HungaryItaly Central Powers GermanyAustria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Triple Entente EnglandFranceRussia Allied Powers England, France, Russia, United States, Italy, Serbia, Belgium, Switzerland

11 Leaders Triple Alliance Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) Franz Joseph I (Austria-Hungary) Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Triple Entente David Lloyd George (England) Raymond Poincare (France) Czar Nicholas II (Russia)

12 Major Colonies Triple Entente Triple Entente France- Vietnam, Parts of AfricaFrance- Vietnam, Parts of Africa England- Africa, Australia, Hong Kong, India, Canada, S. AmericaEngland- Africa, Australia, Hong Kong, India, Canada, S. America Triple Alliance Triple Alliance Germany- Africa, Parts of Asia

13 Alliance Structure

14 Alliances tested Alliances tested Archduke Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand June assassinated June assassinated Black Hand-Serbian Nationalists Black Hand-Serbian Nationalists Gavrillo Princip is the assassin Gavrillo Princip is the assassin

15 July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia July 28, 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Russia is allied with SerbiaRussia is allied with Serbia Germany is allied with Austria-HungaryGermany is allied with Austria-Hungary August 1: Germany declares war on Russia August 1: Germany declares war on Russia Russia is allies with FranceRussia is allies with France August 3: Germany declares war on France August 3: Germany declares war on France Great Britain is allies with FranceGreat Britain is allies with France Great Britain immediately declares war on Germany……..WWI has BEGUN!!!!Great Britain immediately declares war on Germany……..WWI has BEGUN!!!!

16 4. Nationalism- Deep Devotion to One’s NationDeep Devotion to One’s Nation Competition and Rivalry developed between European nations for territory and marketsCompetition and Rivalry developed between European nations for territory and markets (Example France and Germany- Alsace-Lorraine) (Example France and Germany- Alsace-Lorraine)

17 Nationalism + Imperialism= Extreme hatred for other nations Extreme hatred for other nations Causes build-up of arms Causes build-up of arms Battles of WWI begins August 4, 1914 Battles of WWI begins August 4, 1914 Germany invades BelgiumGermany invades Belgium

18 Schlieffen Plan Hold off Russia, ATTACK France Hold off Russia, ATTACK France Start in Belgium, drive to ParisStart in Belgium, drive to Paris Once France falls, German forces focus on Russia Once France falls, German forces focus on Russia Trench Warfare: fortified ditches Trench Warfare: fortified ditches “No Mans Land” “No Mans Land” Early fighting=stalemate Early fighting=stalemate

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21 Britain’s Reaction UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium. Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports. Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports. Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next? Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next? UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August

22 World War I Assignment 1.Create a poster/document of the causes of WWI. Include key facts about each cause. Include key facts about each cause. Include key countries, individuals, and vocabulary Include key countries, individuals, and vocabulary Use internet and notes as a resource Use internet and notes as a resource 2.Create a timeline of the events preceding WWI. Include key countries, individuals, vocabulary Include key countries, individuals, vocabulary Include declarations of war and reasons for those declarations. Include declarations of war and reasons for those declarations.

23 Key Ideas of WWI Mobilization- The gathering and movement of troops for war Mobilization- The gathering and movement of troops for war Isolationism- A policy of non- intervention into intercontinental violence Isolationism- A policy of non- intervention into intercontinental violence Pacifists- Opposed war and violence as a mean of diplomacy Pacifists- Opposed war and violence as a mean of diplomacy Monroe Doctrine- Europeans were no longer to interfere with American affairs Monroe Doctrine- Europeans were no longer to interfere with American affairs Protectionism- The theory of protecting domestic markets by placing tariffs and quotas on imports Protectionism- The theory of protecting domestic markets by placing tariffs and quotas on imports

24 American Neutrality why fight? why fight? Opposition to the war Opposition to the war Sympathy for GermanySympathy for Germany Sympathy for AlliesSympathy for Allies Germany=Imperial Bully Germany=Imperial Bully Economics Economics U.S. enters the war U.S. enters the war British Blockade: prevent contrabandBritish Blockade: prevent contraband

25 Reasons we couldn't remain neutral: 1. Friendship with France and G.B. 2. British propaganda had large influence 3. Economic ties to European nations Allies depended on U.S. suppliesAllies depended on U.S. supplies Economic boom in the U.S.Economic boom in the U.S. 1916, he ordered a major defense buildup 1916, he ordered a major defense buildup National Defense Act: called for a larger army and a navy second to none National Defense Act: called for a larger army and a navy second to none most people still favored peace though most people still favored peace though Wilson campaign: “man who had kept the nation out of war” Wilson campaign: “man who had kept the nation out of war”

26 German U-Boats German U-Boats Counter to blockadeCounter to blockade Any ship is fair gameAny ship is fair game No warning needed No warning needed Lusitania: British linerLusitania: British liner Sank by U-boat 1915 Sank by U-boat Americans killed 128 Americans killed Americans are furious Americans are furious

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28 America still neutral: Wilson wants peace America still neutral: Wilson wants peace 1916: Germany breaks promise 1916: Germany breaks promise Sussex: unarmed French passenger boatSussex: unarmed French passenger boat Attacked by German U-boat Attacked by German U-boat 80 people killed80 people killed U.S. issues another warning for breaking the Sussex Pledge U.S. issues another warning for breaking the Sussex Pledge

29 Zimmermann Note: British intercepts message Jan 16, 1917 Zimmermann Note: British intercepts message Jan 16, 1917 Germany asks Mexico to declare war on U.S.Germany asks Mexico to declare war on U.S. Mexico would gain Texas, New Mexico, and ArizonaMexico would gain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona U.S. enters war: make world “safe for democracy”U.S. enters war: make world “safe for democracy”..\World Civilization\Zimmerman Telegram.doc..\World Civilization\Zimmerman Telegram.doc

30 American war effort April 1917: U.S. officially in war April 1917: U.S. officially in war 200,000 men in army----Draft or Recruit? 200,000 men in army----Draft or Recruit? Selective Service Act: men required to register for military Selective Service Act: men required to register for military Set minimum draft age of 18Set minimum draft age of 18 Resulted in 3 million drafteesResulted in 3 million draftees U-boat resistance U-boat resistance Convoy System: merchant ships provided defenseConvoy System: merchant ships provided defense American troops fresh American troops fresh

31 Gearing up for War U.S. was short on supplies U.S. was short on supplies Pres. Wilson created War Industries Board to organize the country for war Pres. Wilson created War Industries Board to organize the country for war Increased production & controlled limited resourcesIncreased production & controlled limited resources Railroad Administration— organized all RR lines into one network that serviced the entire nation Railroad Administration— organized all RR lines into one network that serviced the entire nation Shipping Board— oversaw the building of a merchant marine Shipping Board— oversaw the building of a merchant marine Gained govt. support thru increased taxes & war bonds Gained govt. support thru increased taxes & war bonds

32 Feeding the Allies Food Administration Board— headed by Herbert Hoover Food Administration Board— headed by Herbert Hoover Controlled food production & distributionControlled food production & distribution Top needs were wheat, pork, & sugarTop needs were wheat, pork, & sugar Americans were encouraged to cut back to save costAmericans were encouraged to cut back to save cost Volunteered to participate in saving techniquesVolunteered to participate in saving techniques (Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays, Porkless Thursdays & Saturdays)(Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays, Porkless Thursdays & Saturdays) Children grew vegetables on playgrounds Children grew vegetables on playgrounds People planted "victory gardens" in their backyards People planted "victory gardens" in their backyards

33 Wartime Propaganda Committee on Public Information- Wilson Committee on Public Information- Wilson 75,000 men spoke around the country75,000 men spoke around the country were called "Four Minute Men"were called "Four Minute Men" War was fought for democracy & freedomWar was fought for democracy & freedom Those criticizing the war were treated poorly, sometimes beatenThose criticizing the war were treated poorly, sometimes beaten Espionage Act (1917)—fines & jail sentences for aiding the enemy or blocking recruitment Espionage Act (1917)—fines & jail sentences for aiding the enemy or blocking recruitment Sedition Act (1918)--punished those using disloyal or abusive language about the American govt., flag, or military uniforms Sedition Act (1918)--punished those using disloyal or abusive language about the American govt., flag, or military uniforms 1,500 citizens lost their civil liberties 1,500 citizens lost their civil liberties People were arrested for everything from criticizing the draft & the Red Cross to complaining about taxes People were arrested for everything from criticizing the draft & the Red Cross to complaining about taxes

34 Replacement soldiers Replacement soldiers General Pershing: “old glory”General Pershing: “old glory” Separate army Separate army Russia drops out of war Russia drops out of war April 1918: U.S. independent army April 1918: U.S. independent army New weapons: tanks, poison gas, airplanes New weapons: tanks, poison gas, airplanes War is mechanizedWar is mechanized

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36 Germany collapses Germany collapses Mutiny amongst the soldiersMutiny amongst the soldiers Rebellion in BerlinRebellion in Berlin November 11, 1918 at 11:00: Germany surrendersNovember 11, 1918 at 11:00: Germany surrenders 26 million total deaths 26 million total deaths Russia- 9 millionRussia- 9 million Germany- 7 millionGermany- 7 million U.S.- 325,000U.S.- 325,000

37 Post-war Fourteen Points Fourteen Points II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas XIV. A general association of nations must be formed League of Nations: provide national security without war

38 “Big Four”: “Big Four”: Woodrow Wilson- United StatesWoodrow Wilson- United States Georges Clemenceau- FranceGeorges Clemenceau- France David Lloyd George- Gr. BritainDavid Lloyd George- Gr. Britain Vittorio Orlando- ItalyVittorio Orlando- Italy “Make Germany pay” “Make Germany pay” Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles Germany must pay for war: $28 billion in totalGermany must pay for war: $28 billion in total

39 German military: German military: 100,000 soldiers100,000 soldiers no airplanesno airplanes no submarinesno submarines War Guilt Clause: Germany must take responsibility for starting the war War Guilt Clause: Germany must take responsibility for starting the war Humiliation---Adolf Hitler uses Treaty of Versailles as a rallying cry for Germany prior to WWII Humiliation---Adolf Hitler uses Treaty of Versailles as a rallying cry for Germany prior to WWII

40 End of the War Treaty of Versailles- Made Germans accept reparations (compensation to cover war damages) worth 132 billion gold marks = $28 Billion Dollars) Initial sum of 50 billion gold marks was 330% of national income from previous year Treaty of Versailles- Made Germans accept reparations (compensation to cover war damages) worth 132 billion gold marks = $28 Billion Dollars) Initial sum of 50 billion gold marks was 330% of national income from previous year^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Main cause for World War II

41 Opposition to treaty Opposition to treaty Too much imperialismToo much imperialism Too harsh on GermanyToo harsh on Germany U.S. never ratifies Treaty of Versailles or joins League of Nations U.S. never ratifies Treaty of Versailles or joins League of Nations Opposition in Congress: Henry Cabot Lodge Opposition in Congress: Henry Cabot Lodge November 11, 11 am November 11, 11 am The date to end the war.The date to end the war.

42 Changes in America Industry jobs increase Industry jobs increase Wages increaseWages increase Food conservation: Food conservation: “Victory Gardens”“Victory Gardens” Women in workforce Women in workforce Civil liberties Civil liberties Espionage andEspionage and Sedition Acts Sedition Acts

43 U.S. Economics of WWI United States economy was in a recession prior to 1914 United States economy was in a recession prior to 1914 Recession- Period of reduced economic activity Recession- Period of reduced economic activity United States economy improved following start of war and the sale of goods to Europe- Agriculture and Industrial equipment United States economy improved following start of war and the sale of goods to Europe- Agriculture and Industrial equipment Following World War I, the United States was member in the international market Following World War I, the United States was member in the international market

44 Military:1917: 200,000 Military:1917: 200, : 4.5 million 1918: 4.5 million Total labor: 1916: 40 million Total labor: 1916: 40 million 1918: 44 million 1918: 44 million Financing the war Financing the war Raise taxesRaise taxes Borrow from public (war bonds)Borrow from public (war bonds) Print money (Uh-Oh!)Print money (Uh-Oh!) Economic boom in 1920’s Economic boom in 1920’s


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