What is critical thinking? (1/2) 批判性思考 or 嚴謹的思考 The term “analytical thinking" may seem to convey the idea more accurately. Critical thinking involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, in addition to analysis.
What is Critical Thinking? (2/2) Healthy skepticism (Lipman, 1991) Reasonable and reflective thinking that is focused upon deciding what to do (Norris & Ennis, 1989) The ability to take charge of one’s own thinking and develop criteria for analyzing and assessing one’s own thinking (Elder & Paul, 1994) To achieve understanding, evaluate viewpoints and solve problems (Maiorana, 1992)
Why Critical Thinking in the Senior High School Curriculum? Reciprocal interaction of thinking and language Language as a logical system Logical thinking and information processing/ presentation Critical thinking unique to language education, or across the board? Critical thinking at elementary school, or college? Thinking skills in EFL materials: concept map, fact vs. opinion, “odd word out”
1. Good readers are active readers. 2. Good readers have clear goals in mind for their reading. 3. Good readers look over the text before they read. (preview) 4. As they read, good readers frequently make predictions about the next part of the text. 5. Good readers read selectively. 6. Good readers construct, revise, and question the meanings they make.
7. Good readers try to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and concepts in the text. 8. Good readers integrate their prior knowledge with material in the text. 9. Good readers think about the authors of the text. 10. Good readers monitor their understanding of the text. 11. Good readers evaluate the text’s quality and value and react to the text. 12. Good readers read different kinds of text differently.
Reference Farstrup, A; & Samuels, S. (2002). What research has to say about reading instruction. Newark, DE: IRA.
What is Reciprocal Teaching? instruction and the four comprehension strategies – predicting, questioning, clarifying, summarizing a special kind of cognitive apprenticeship
Four Roles Predictor Clarifier Questioner Summarizer
Predictor Predict what is likely to happen next based on clues from the text or illustrations Stop to predict during reading Use what they know (from text and prior knowledge) to help make a prediction Continue to make logical predictions based on clues from the text
The language of prediction that students use I think…because I’ll bet…because I wonder if…because I imagine…because I suppose…because
Clarifier Give strategies for clarifying words that are difficult to pronounce or understand Express confusion with specific portions of text, such as ideas or events, that are difficult to understand Tell strategies for clarifying ideas, and tell how clarifying helps them to understand text.
The language of clarification that students use ( Ⅰ ) I didn’t understand the part about…, so I.. I didn’t understand the part about…, so I … and… I can’t figure out…, so I
The language of clarification that students use ( Ⅱ ) So I… reread, reread, reread; read on for clues; checked the parts of the word I knew reread the sentence to see if it made sense tried another word
Questioner Ask questions based on the text (that is, the answers are in the text); Ask questions that are based on the main idea or question of the story; Ask some detail-oriented questions; and Ask some inferential questions.
The language of questioning that students use who, what, when, where, why, how, what if.
Summarizer (Reread to remember main ideas ) Give only key points in a logical order. Summarize in one or two sentences. Refer to illustrations to retell or summarize the text. Retell the story in their own words and include the setting, characters, problem, key events, and resolution.
The language of summarizing that students use First,… Next,… Then,… Finally,… The most important ideas in this text are… The story takes place… The main characters are… A problem occurs when… A key event is when… This part is about… This book is about…
Students’ Perceptions of Reciprocal Teaching The Effects of Reciprocal Teaching.doc
Predicting 1. Why do you suppose the author choose….? What is his intent? 2. After reading the page (paragraph), what do you expect to learn from this story? 3. What is likely to happen next? 4. What happens to ….during…? 5. Based on what you have known already, how will this character respond?
Clarifying 1.Are there any words or phrases that confused you? 2. If you were the character, how might you respond in that situation?
Summarizing 1. What is important /or not important in this section of the text? 2. What do you suppose was the writer’s intent in this chapter? 3. How would you characterize the overall tone of this opening section?
Questioning 1. …(state the details in the reading), why? 2. How does the writer’s diction reveal his tone? (What is the tone of the speaker?) 3. How does this chapter relate to our essential question? 4. What connection can we make to our daily life?
My Reading Journal Name of the Book: Author: Date: Chapter: Clarify I don’t understand the part about so I ___________________________________________________ Question Write down some questions for your friends to see if they have understood this chapter. _______________________________________________________ Summarize Retell this part of the story in your own words. First,___________________________________________________ Next,___________________________________________________ Then___________________________________________________ Finally,_________________________________________________ Predict I think/wonder if/imagine/suppose/predict ________________________because_________________________ Appreciate/Acquire I. The sentences/expressions I like are__________________________ II. The new words I have learned in this chapter are _______________
Bloom’s Taxonomy Bloom's Taxonomy divides the way people learn into three domains. One of these is the cognitive domain, which emphasizes intellectual outcomes. This domain is further divided into categories or levels. The key words used and the type of questions asked may aid in the establishment and encouragement of critical thinking, especially in the higher levels.
Questions: What is... ? How is... ? Where is... ? When did ______ happen? How did ______ happen? How would you explain... ? Why did... ? How would you describe... ? When did... ? Can you recall... ? How would you show...? Can you select..? Who were the main.. ? Can you list three. ? Which one... ? Who was... ?
Bloom's Taxonomy Level 2: Comprehension demonstrating understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and stating main ideas. Key words: compare, contrast, demonstrate, interpret, explain, extend, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate, summarize, show, classify
Questions: How would you classify the type of.. ? How would you compare.. ? contrast.. ? Will you state or interpret in your own words….? How would you rephrase the meaning.. ? What facts or ideas show. ? What is the main idea of.. ? Which statements support. ? Can you explain what is happening.. ? What can you say about..? Which is the best answer... ? How would you summarize... ?
Bloom's Taxonomy Level 3: Application solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way. Key words: apply, build, choose, construct, develop, interview, make use of, organize, experiment with, plan, select, solve, utilize, model, identify
Questions:. How would you use... ? What examples can you find to... ? How would you solve _______ using what you have learned... ? How would you organize _______ to show... ? How would you show your understanding of... ? What approach would you use to... ? How would you apply what you learned to develop... ? What other way would you plan to... ? What would result if... ? Can you make use of the facts to... ? What elements would you choose to change... ? What facts would you select to show... ? What questions would you ask in an interview with.. ?
Bloom's Taxonomy Level 4: Analysis examining and breaking information into parts by identifying motives or causes; making inferences and finding evidence to support generalizations. Key words: analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, discover, dissect, divide, examine, inspect, simplify, survey, take part in, test for, distinguish, list, distinction, theme, relationships, function, motive, inference, assumption, conclusion
Questions: What are the parts or features of... ? How is _______ related to... ? Why do you think... ? W hat is the theme... ? W hat motive is there... ? C an you list the parts... ? What inference can you make... ? What conclusions can you draw... ? How would you classify... ? How would you categorize... ? Can you identify the difference parts... ? What evidence can you find... ? What is the relationship between... ? Can you make a distinction between... ? What is the function of... ? What ideas justify... ?
Bloom's Taxonomy Level 5: Synthesis compiling information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. Key Words: build, choose, combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, estimate, formulate, imagine, invent, make up, originate, plan, predict, propose, solve, solution, suppose, discuss, modify, change, original, improve, adapt, minimize, maximize, delete, theorize, elaborate, test, improve, happen, change
Questions: What changes would you make to solve... ? How would you improve... ? What would happen if... ? Can you elaborate on the reason... ? Can you propose an alternative... ? Can you invent... ? How would you adapt ________ to create a different... ? How could you change (modify) the plot (plan)... ? What could be done to minimize (maximize)... ? What way would you design... ? What could be combined to improve (change)... ? Suppose you could _______ what would you do... ? How would you test... ? Can you formulate a theory for... ? Can you predict the outcome if... ? How would you estimate the results for... ? What facts can you compile... ? Can you construct a model that would change... ? Can you think of an original way for the... ?
Bloom's Taxonomy Level 6: Evaluation presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Key Words: award, choose, conclude, criticize, decide, defend, determine, dispute, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, compare, mark, rate, recommend, rule on, select, agree, interpret, explain, appraise, prioritize, opinion,,support, importance, criteria, prove, disprove, assess, influence, perceive, value, estimate, influence
Questions: Do you agree with the actions/the outcomes... ? What is your opinion of.. ? How would you prove/disprove.. ? Can you assess the value or importance of... ? Would it be better if... ? Why did they (the characters) choose.. ? What would you recommend... ? How would you rate the... ? What would you cite to defend the actions... ? How would you evaluate... ? How could you determine... ? What choice would you have made... ? What would you select... ? How would you prioritize... ? What judgment would you make about... ? Based on what you know, how would you explain... ? What information would you use to support the view... ? How would you justify... ? What data was used to make the conclusion... ? Why was it better that.. ? How would you prioritize the facts.. ? How would you compare the ideas/people... ?
Samples of Reading and Thinking Background: A junior high school in Taoyuan Participants: 30+ students gifted in English Reading material: The Black River (a storybook) Methodology: Reciprocal Teaching Reading activities: pre-, during-, and post-reading
Summary of Black River Clint was rich but he was too snobbish. Mike was poorer than Clint and he wasn’t confident in himself. Both of them didn’t like each other. Happily Mike’s good friends, Wayne and Amy, were very positive, and they always gave him a lot of advice. Amy wanted Mike to write an article for the school newspaper and Wayne invited Mike to join the rowing team, but Mike wasn’t sure. After talking to his father, Mike decided to join the rowing team and practiced with Wayne on the Black River.
One day, it was still raining like the other days. The Black River was getting higher, and then Clint appeared with his new sports boat at a high speed! After a while, Clint fell into the river because of a tree floating in front of the boat. Finally, Clint was saved by Mike and Wayne. After the accident, Mike, Wayne and Clint became good friends! And Mike decided to be a writer! What a happy ending! By Alice
2005/1/27 Dear Clint, You have a lot of friends, really. You can do something for your friends because they really help you a lot. And also be friendly to your friends. Don’t fight with Mike every time, then you will be a nice person. If you are really rich, you can not always show off to friends. It is a bad thing to do. Or you can use money to help Mike and Wayne buy new boat.
Help your friends when they need help, just like what Mike and Wayne do to you. It will let your friendship be better. And tell your friend Jeff “Don’t be rude to Mike!”. That’s all what I want to say. If you really listen to what I say, I think you will change. Wish you are happy every day and make more friends. Your friend, Benjamin
Writing Sample: A letter to Lincoln written from the perspectives of a southerner (written by Jade Chen) Dear Lincoln, How do you feel about your assassinate? You wanted to save the black people. But in the end, you be skilled by a Negro. It sound satirized. Have you thought about the results? The south needs slaves. Since the civil war the economy has been down. The rich families in the south now become poor...
The farms have no one to plough and sow. The black people are everywhere on the road. No one would like to hire them. They can’t find jobs. The south has become a desert. Oh! Has a poet called you dear captain? Oh! Captain, my captain. Everything seems far from your dream From the South after the war
Writing Sample. A letter to Lincoln written from the slaves’ point of view (written by Iris Cheng) Dear Lincoln, I’m your supporter from Oregon. Today I write this letter to you because I really wish that you can crush the Confederacy. The event is: My husband and I are all black. Six months ago, we ran away from the plantation in California. Before fleeing there, we led a fearful life for ten years. During that period of time, we didn’t have any liberty, and our host control everything.
We couldn’t choose what kind of jobs that we want to do. Even though we were sick, we still have to work. If we affronted our host by careless, then they may hit us. Sometimes we were tied together and they even didn’t admit us to urinate. They were really cruel. I consist and believe that all men are created equal. So, I hope you can really help those poor black in the south. They need liberty and ownership. Pease flight for freedom. May you succeed. Your supporter form the north (pre-war)
Writing Sample. A letter from the perspective of Lincoln’s wife (written by June Chen) Dear husband, My dear, we have not talked to each other for a long time. Not only me but also the kids miss you very much. I know how busy you are and that’s why decide to write you this letter which won’t take you a long time to read. I just want to tell you I can realize how important a president is. I know the country needs you now, and I know how you want to carry out your ideal. You won’t give up and leave the people behind, will you? So, as your wife, I definitely wish you can have more time to stay with children and me.
But as a first lady, I hope you can do your best to save millions of southerners, let the hard time go quickly. Both we know that time is hard. And I deeply believe that you are the one. You are my hero, and you are also the hero of this nation. I know someday soon you will lead both North and South to liberty because I am sure of you ability. Believe what you believe. Do what you want to do. Don’t worry about your family, but you can forget us. I admit we need you, but the country needs you more. So go for it. Trust me, you can make it. World peace, Your love, Mary.
Writing Sample. A letter from the perspective of Lincoln’s wife after his death. (TW Ma) Dear Abram, It has been a long time since you died. Recently, you usually come into my dream without any word. Do you have something want to talk to me? Or is it just that I miss you too much? All Americans have treasured the victory we got. There are not slaves in America any more. All I can see is Love and Peace, Justice and Freedom. It’s your life-long hope, right?
Although you have been dead for a great time, I always feel like you company with me. Even though your body was dead, your spirit will live a long life. Not only all Americans but also all people in the world will remember what you had ever done. I am proud of you! You are not only my captain, but also all people’s captain! It’s a deep night now, are you really in my side? I wish the answer were yes. Maybe one day not too later than now, I will go to the heaven and stay with you forever. Wait with patience. Love you forever! Sincerely, Your Mary 6,12,1880
Writing Sample. A letter to Lincoln from the perspective of the assassin, John Booth (written by Yin Chen) Last words from John W. Booth With a single bullet, I made the hero of the north to rest in peace forever. I know perfectly well what consequences I may cause, and I clearly understand that I will soon be executed for this assassination. Still, I have no regret for this action. Abraham my brother, you will never know how painful I felt to kill a man of my own kind. But why o why do you keep insisting on freeing the slaves who work on our farm? Without them, the pride of our race will soon be fading away.
The sorrow in my heart will be covered by the passion of guarding the southern states. Watching my people losing the power and pride is the last thing I want to see. Just like you passed away with your unfilled wishes remaining in this world, my faith, too, shall never be perished from the earth even after I died.
Reflection on the theme of Columbus The main idea I’ve learned in this class is that I should always be critical and open-minded about what I see and hear. Knowing the sources of information is a very important issue. It helps you to read information correctly. Although it might be hard to find the truth behind an event, it is still very important to ask, “Is that real?” (Sheng, J) After I chewed these questions, I think that Columbus was so ambitious that the cruel things he did were comprehensible. His cruel treatment of the natives demonstrated that he shared the 15th century European views that people of the world could be exploited. The movie “Gladiator” reminds me of that European view. (Wang, S)
After reading these articles, I know much about Columbus. I also think many sides of this thing. Before it was just a historic event. Now, I know much about him. From this class, I think about many things that I never did before. (Chen, S-C) It is hard to know the truth of history because history is presented mostly through the perspectives of the power. The story of Columbus has this problem too. (Chen, S-L) Even history could be biased. (Sheng, J)
Of course, this kind of cold blood behavior is totally disgusting. From the present viewpoint of international community, this behavior should be put on trial according to international laws and be condemned by the whole international society. Unfortunately, at that time there were no international laws and power was the only law. (Wu, M-C)