Presentation on theme: " The First World War a.k.a. The Great War The War to end all Wars."— Presentation transcript:
The First World War a.k.a. The Great War The War to end all Wars
“MAIN” Causes of the Great War M ilitarism A lliances I mperialism N ationalism
Great Powers of Europe The Great Powers of Europe were: Great Britain Germany France Russia Austria-Hungary What makes a country a “great power”?
How did a country become ‘Great’? Large army and navy Strong ruler Had to control a large empire Empire building was a big thing in the 19 th Century know as Imperialism…think colonies It had to have strong industries at home Did a country need all these things to become a ‘Great Power’?
MAIN Causes Militarism – policy of building up an army to prepare for war. Alliances Imperialism – policy of a stronger nation extending control over weaker nations. Nationalism
Great Britain At the beginning of the 20 th Century, Britain was the greatest power in the world She was very rich and was a powerful industrialized country Britain had the largest and most powerful navy She had the largest overseas empire The British Empire covered over a quarter of the world’s surface
Empire: Land outside the border of a nation which is controlled by that nation. These are called colonies and a group of colonies make up an empire. The British Empire
Germany But soon Germany began to compete against Britain for this title Germany had a larger population that Britain Many of her industries were more advanced in comparison to Britain She had more natural resources Germany was expanding her trade throughout the world: by 1913 she was selling more goods in Europe than Britain Germany’s Army was on the increase This began to worry Britain
France France had been one of the most important countries in Europe until 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War: France was defeated and had to hand over Alsace and Lorraine France was not as industrialised as Germany or Britain as she produced less She had a large empire and army France wanted revenge for 1870-71
Russia At this time Russia was the largest country in the world! It had a population of 159 million She didn’t need an overseas empire Her empire was on her doorstep and consisted of many different peoples and languages Russia had a large army Russia wasn’t as industrialized as the other Great Powers
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary was a large empire in the center of Europe and consisted of many different people groups – some of whom did not get along Many of these groups had their own language, customs and way of life: this made the Empire difficult to rule Many of these groups wanted to be independent from Austria-Hungary – this was known as nationalism
Nationalism Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism - a feeling of pride in one’s country. A belief that there is something special about the people who live there, their language and customs. Extreme nationalism led to wanting independence, or led to powerful countries wanting to prove their greatness to others.
So why did this system contribute to the war? There is a contest to be the biggest, most powerful country on earth. Two ways to achieve that is to make a large military and many colonies. (militarism and imperialism) Some colonies wanted their independence and all the countries believed they were “the best” (nationalism) All it would take was for one ‘Great Power’ to do something that wasn’t deemed acceptable by the other for issues to arise
CountryBritainGermanyRussia Austria- Hungary France Population 40.8 million 65 million159 million 50 million 39.6 million Number of Colonies 5610//29 Population of colonies 390 million 15 million//58 million Size of army700,0004,200,0001,200,000800,0003,700,000 Size of navy38828116667207 Coal output each year (million tonnes) 29227736.24740 Steel output each year (million tonnes) 11143.654.6
Militarism Increase in spending on military 1910- 1914 France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
The need for Allies Militarism Alliances – an agreement formed between nations for their mutual benefit Imperialism Nationalism What do we mean when we speak of allies and alliances? Why do countries need alliances?
The situation in 1914 You see, Baldrick, in order to prevent a war in Europe, two super blocs developed: us, the French and the Russians on one side; and the Germans and Austro-Hungary on the other. The idea was to have two vast, opposing armies, each acting as the other's deterrent. That way, there could never be a war. Blackadder Goes Forth
The Triple Alliance The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Germany Austria-Hungry Italy – changes sides before the war The Triple Entente (Allies) Great Britain France Russia
Formation of the Triple Alliance In 1879, Bismarck (German leader) was afraid the Russia would attack Germany so he signed an alliance with Austria-Hungry They agreed that they would help each other militarily if Russia attacked either one of them This was known as the Dual Alliance Italy joined the Dual Alliance in 1882, making it the Triple Alliance This time the alliance was directed against France
Formation of the Triple Entente France and Russia were worried about the alliances which had been made against them So they decided to form their own alliance in 1895: Franco- Russian Alliance Both France and Russia promised to help each other if they were attacked by another power Now it was Britain’s turn to get worried, they needed an alliance too.
So by 1907, two opposing camps formed: The Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Germany Austria-Hungry Italy The Triple Entente (Allies) Great Britain France Russia Remember: An Entente means a friendly understanding – it is not a military alliance The Triple Alliance was a military Agreement. The Triple Entente was not
So if the alliances were designed to discourage war, why did one break out? In a way, the alliance system made war more likely When one of the members of either alliance declared war, the other members would lend their support This had the potential to mean that when a country in one alliance went to war against a country in the other alliance, all the countries would get involved to support their allies Domino effect This is what happened in the summer of 1914
MAIN Causes Review M ilitarism A lliances I mperialism N ationalism
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Born: 18 Dec. 1863 Position: Heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne Died: 28 Jun. 1914 Cause of Death: Assassination – gun shot in the neck
Why was he in Sarajevo? Franz Ferdinand and his wife had been invited to inspect the troops stationed there Little did he know that a terrorist group fighting with the aim of uniting Bosnia with Serbia, the Black Hand, had planned to kill him There were 7 assassins involved – each armed with a gun, bomb and a cyanide pill Franz Ferdinand arrived at 10am, June 28, 1914 and proceeded to make his way to the Town Hall in a motorcade
Assassination attempts 1 & 2 The Black Hand knew the route which Ferdinand was going to take, so they positioned the 7 assassins along the roadside The first assassin failed to kill him as he lost his nerve He used the excuse that a policeman was standing near him The next assassin threw his bomb at the car However Ferdinand’s driver saw the bomb and accelerated – it blew up under the car behind The assassin took his pill and jumped into the river but he failed to die – the pill just made him vomit and the river wasn’t deep enough to drown him The driver sped up to get to the town hall safely and the remaining assassins called the plot off
Third time’s the charm Ferdinand insisted upon going to the hospital to visit those injured in the blast so they got back into the car and drove off One of the assassins, Gavrilo Princip, had decided to go to a café after they called off the assassination plot To his amazement, Ferdinand’s car drove past him – the driver had taken a wrong turn! The driver then turned the car around and this time Princip was ready As soon as the car passed, he pulled out his gun and shot the Archduke and his wife – both died later that day Princip, then turned his gun on himself but a member of the public stopped him and the police arrested him
The spark that lit the fuse Austria-Hungary interrogated those involved and found out that the organizers were hiding in Serbia They demanded that Serbia hand them over so they could be tried, that Serbia takes the blame for the assassination and to allow Austria-Hungary to police anti- Austrian groups in Serbia Serbia refused to do so, and after gaining support and approval from Germany, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28 This began the domino effect