Presentation on theme: "Critics of Capitalism Utopian Socialism Robert Owen (1771- 1858) New Lanark, 1799- 1824 New Harmony, 1824- 8 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union,"— Presentation transcript:
Critics of Capitalism Utopian Socialism Robert Owen (1771- 1858) New Lanark, 1799- 1824 New Harmony, 1824- 8 Grand National Consolidated Trades Union, 1832-4
Critics of Capitalism Utopian Socialists, cont. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) Phalanstery or phalanx Claude Saint- Simon (1760-1825) Charles Fourier
Marx and Engels The Communist Manifesto, 1848 Materialist dialectic Bourgeoisie and proletariat Theory of class struggle Karl Marx (1818-1883)
The Rise of Mass Politics: The Legalization of Trade Unions, 1790-1917
The Rise of Mass Politics, 1870- 1920: The Franchise CountryUniversal Manhood Suffrage Female Suffrage United Kingdom 19181928 Austria- Hungary 19071919 France 18481944 Germany 18761919 Italy 19121945 Russia/USSR 1917 U.S.A. 18701920
The Rise of Mass Politics: Working- Class Political Parties German Social Democratic Party (SPD), 1875 Federation of the Socialist Workers’ Party(1879) + French Workers’ Party (1883) = S.F.I.0., 1905 Labour Party (U.K.), 1901
L’Internationale (1871) Arise ye starving workers from your slumbers Arise ye criminals of want For reason in revolt now thunders and at last ends the age of cant. Now away with all your superstitions Servile masses arise, arise! We'll change from now onthe old conditions And spurn the dust to win the prize. CHORUS Then come comrades rally And the last fight let us face The Internationale Unites the human race. (repeat). We peasants, artisans and others, Enrolled amongst the sons of toil Let's claim the earth henceforth for brothers Drive the indolent from the soil. On our flesh for too long has fed the raven We've too long been the vultures prey. But now farewell to spirit craven The dawn brings in a brighter day. CHORUS No saviour from on high delivers No trust we have in prince or peer Our own right hand the chains must shiver Chains of hatred, greed and fear. Ere the thieves will out with their booty And to all give a happier lot. Each at his forge must do his duty And strike the iron while its hot.
The Rise of Mass Politics: Radical Movements of the Left and Right Anarchism Michael Bakunin (1814-1876): “Destruction is a creative passion.” Syndicalism Georges Sorel (1847- 1922) Racism H.S. Chamberlain (1855-1927) Michael Bakunin
Symbols of Nationalism, I Spain, 1785-1927 France, 1794 United Kingdom, 1801 Italy, 1861-1946 Germany, 1871-1918
Symbols of Nationalism, II Germany, 1919-1933 Germany, 1933-1945 E. Germany, 1949-90 W. Germany, 1949-90 Germany, 1990-pres
Nationalism and Music Franz Liszt, 1811-1886 Giuseppe Verdi, 1813-1901 Hungarian Rhapsody No. 12 (1853) “Va, pensiero…” from Nabucco (1842)
“Va, Pensiero…” from Nabucco Va, pensiero, sull'ali dorate;Go, my thoughts on golden wings; Va, ti posa sui clivi, sui colliGo, settle on the slopes, the hills Ove olezzano tepide e molli,Where, soft and warm, the sweet breezes L'aure dolici del suolo natal! Of our native land are fragrant! Del Giordano le rive saluta,Greet the banks of the Jordan, Di Sionne le torri atterrate.And, Zion’s razed towers…. Oh, mia patrie si bella e perduta!Oh, my country so lovely and lost! Oh, Membrenza si cara e fatal!Oh remembrances, so dear and ill-fated! Arpa d'or del fatidici vati,Golden harp of the prophetic bards, Perché muta dal salice pendi? Why do you hang mute on the willows? Le memorie nel petto raccendi,Re-kindle the memories in our breasts, Chi favella del tempo che fu!Speak to us of the times of yore! O simile di Solima ai fatiJust as for the cruel fate of Jerusalem, Traggi un suono di crudo lamento,Intone a strain of bitter lamentation, O t'ispiri il Signore un concentoOtherwise, let the Lord inspire you with Che ne infonda al patire virtu!With a melody to give us strength to suffer!
L’InternationaleL’Internationale (1871) Arise ye starving workers from your slumbers Arise ye criminals of want For reason in revolt now thunders and at last ends the age of cant. Now away with all your superstitions Servile masses arise, arise! We'll change from now on the old conditions And spurn the dust to win the prize. CHORUS Then come comrades rally And the last fight let us face The Internationale Unites the human race. (repeat). We peasants, artisans and others, Enrolled amongst the sons of toil Let's claim the earth henceforth for brothers Drive the indolent from the soil. On our flesh for too long has fed the raven We've too long been the vultures prey. But now farewell to spirit craven The dawn brings in a brighter day. CHORUS No saviour from on high delivers No trust we have in prince or peer Our own right hand the chains must shiver Chains of hatred, greed and fear. Ere the thieves will out with their booty And to all give a happier lot. Each at his forge must do his duty And strike the iron while its hot.
Nationalism and State- Building: Italy Il Risorgimento, 1859-70 Camilio di Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont- Sardinia (1852-61) King Victor Emmanuel III (r. 1861-78) Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)
Bismarck and German Unification, I: Background Holy Roman Empire, 962-1806 Confederation of the Rhine, 1806-1815 German Confederation, 1815-1866 Zollverein, 1834 Frankfurt Parliament, 1848 Franz von Lehnbach, Otto von Bismarck, 1879. German Historical Museum, Berlin.
Bismarck and German Unification, II: Realpolitik Wars of Unification Danish War, 1864 Austro-Prussian War, 1866 Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1 Decree establishing Paris Commune, 1871
Constitution of the 2 nd Reich Signature of Otto von Bismarck
Problems of Unification Kulturkampf, 1871- 1878 Anti-Socialist Laws, 1878-1890 The State as Provider: Accident Insurance Disability Insurance Old Age Insurance SPD Banner, 1863
Germany’s Drive to World Power Kaiser Wilhelm II (r.1888-1918) Dismissal of Bismarck, 1890 The ‘New Course’ ‘A Place in the Sun’ The Navy Plan The Schlieffen Plan Krupp Naval Armaments Production, Essen, 1906. German Historical Museum, Berlin
Austria-Hungary 1867 : Creation of Dual Monarchy under Emperor Franz Joseph Population: 50 Million People 11 Nationalities
The Balkans & Central Europe 1389-1878: Ottoman rule 1908: Austro- Hungarian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina Creation of Narodna Odbrana (National Defense) and Black Hand 1912-13: Serbian victories in Balkan Wars
The July Crisis, 1914 June 28: Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand July 5-6: The Blank Check July 23 : Austrian 48- Hour UltimatumAustrian 48- Hour Ultimatum July 28 : Austrian declaration of war with Serbia August 1: German declaration of war with Russia Gavrilo Princip, assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Austrian Ultimatum & Reply To suppress any publication which incites to hatred and contempt of the Monarchy... To dissolve immediately the society styled Narodna Odbrana.. and to proceed in the same manner against the other societies.. which engage in propaganda against [Austria] To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Serbia, both as regards the teaching body and the methods of instruction, all that serves or might serve to foment the propaganda against Austria- Hungary To remove from the military service and the administration in general all officers guilty of propaganda against [Austria--names to be given over by the Austrian govt.] To accept the collaboration in Serbia of organs of [A-H govt.] in the suppression of the subversive movement directed against the territorial integrity of the Monarchy To take judicial proceedings against the accessories to the plot of 28 June who are on Serbian territory; Organs delegated by [A-H] will take part in the investigations relating thereto To proceed without delay to the arrest of [two named persons implicated according to the preliminary investigation undertaken by Austria] To prevent by effective measures the cooperation of [Serbia] in the illicit traffic in arms and explosives across the frontier.... To furnish [Austria] with explanations regarding the unjustifiable utterances of high Serbian officials both in Serbia and abroad, who...have not hesitated since the outrage of 28 June to express themselves..in terms of hostility towards [Austria] To notify [Austria] without delay of the execution of the[se] measures.. [Serbia will] introduce.. a provision into the press law providing for the most severe punishment of incitement to hatred and contempt of the [A-H] Monarchy... [The Serbian govt.] possesses no proof.. that the Narodna Odbrana and other similar societies have committed up to the present any criminal act of this nature.. Nevertheless, [Serbia] will.. dissolve the Narodna Obrana and every other society which... [Serbia will] eliminate without delay from public instruction.. everything that serves or might serve to foment the propaganda against [A-H], whenever [Austria] furnish them with facts and proofs.. [Serbia] also agree to remove from the military service all such persons as the judicial inquiry may have proved to be guilty of acts directed against the integrity of the territory of [A-H], and they expect [Austria] to communicate..the names and acts of these officers for the purpose of the proceedings which are to be taken against them [The Serbian govt. does] not clearly grasp the meaning or the scope of the demand.. that Serbia shall undertake to accept the collaboration of the representatives of [A-H], but they declare that they will admit such collaboration as agrees with the principle of international law, with criminal procedure, and with good neighborly relations... As regards the participation in this inquiry [which Serbia intends to hold] of Austro-Hungarian agents.......... [Serbia] cannot accept such an arrangement, as it would be a violation of the Constitution... [states it has not yet been possible to arrest one of the persons named; request proofs of guilt from Austria] [ agrees to reinforce measures against illegal trafficking of arms and explosives across the frontier with Bosnia-Herzegovine] [offers explanations of anti-Austrian comments by Serb officials if Austria sends examples of their actually having been made] [Serbia will duly notify the measures taken, but if Austria is not satisfied with the reply] the Serbian government.. are ready.. to accept a pacific understanding, either by referring this question to the decision of the International Tribunal of the Hague [i.e., the World Court], or to the Great Powers..
World War I Begins August 1: German Declaration of War on Russia August 2-3: German invasion of Luxembourg and Belgium August 3: German declaration of War on France August 4: British declaration of war with Germany Belgian Refugees, 1914
The Western Front Animated Map of the Western Front
Stalemate, 1914 1 st Battle of the Marne, September 1914 French & German Losses = 400,000 dead 600,000 wounded Trench Warfare Somme Trenches, 1916
The Birth of Propaganda Belgian Atrocities Propaganda Posters Censorship and misinformation Songs It’s A Long Way to Tipperary It’s A Long Way to Tipperary You’re a Grand Old Flag Over There
Out of Stalemate? Nationalisms Lawrence of Arabia Balfour Declaration Irish Independence British Naval Blockade Submarine Warfare German submarine U-14
Second Year of the War, 1915 Gallipoli Campaign 55,000 killed Battle of Neuve Chapelle +1,000 yds - 13,000 casualties Battle of Artois- Champagne 565,000 German & French killed or wounded Eastern Front 1,792,000 Russian killed or wounded Sinking of the Lusitania Imperial soldiers come ashore at Gallipoli
Third Year of the War, 1916 Battle of Verdun 970,000 French & German casualties Easter Rising Battle of the Somme 400,000 French & German casualties Restricted submarine warfare Remains of a town near the Verdun battlefield
Fourth Year of the War, 1917 Battle of Passchendale 400,000 casualties US entry Resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare (31 January) Cessation of US-German diplomatic relations (3 February) 1 st Russian Revolution (15 March) Zimmerman Telegram Declaration of War (6 April The Zimmerman Telegram
Russian Revolutions 1905 Revolution Russo-Japanese War Father Gapon Duma (National Assembly) February Revolution, 1917 Abdication of the Tsar Dual Power (soviets) Alexander Kerensky Gen. Kornilov’s Coup Tsar’s abdication letter, 1917
The Bolshevik Revolution The Bolsheviks Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin) Lev Bronstein (Trotsky) Storming of the Winter Palace Lenin
The War’s End, 1918 The 14 Points (January) Treaty of Brest- Litovsk (3 March) German ‘Spring Offensive’ (March-July) Armistice with Turkey (October) Austro-Hungarian Armistice (3 November) Remains of Cathedral at St. Quentin, France
The November Revolution, 1918 Naval Mutinies (3-5 Nov) Räte Movement Bavarian Republic (7 Nov) Abdication of the Kaiser (9 Nov) German (Weimar) Republic founded (9 Nov) Armistice Signed (11-11- 11) Philipp Scheidemann announces the founding of the German Republic in Berlin, November 9, 1918.