Presentation on theme: "YEAR 11 ANCIENT HISTORY CASE STUDY 2 ENTOMBED WARRIORS FROM XIAN AIS ANNUAL HISTORY CONFERENCE, THE KINGS SCHOOL 14 MARCH 2008 Jan Brady, Arden Anglican."— Presentation transcript:
YEAR 11 ANCIENT HISTORY CASE STUDY 2 ENTOMBED WARRIORS FROM XIAN AIS ANNUAL HISTORY CONFERENCE, THE KINGS SCHOOL 14 MARCH 2008 Jan Brady, Arden Anglican School
CHINA Xian (shee an [a as in car]) Zhengzhou (djung jo) Yellow River (Wei He) Valley (weigh hu [as in fur])
QIN SHI HUANG - OVERVIEW Qin (family/dynasty) Shi Huang (first emperor) took the throne aged 13 years, under a regency crowned King of Qin in 238 BC aged 22, and ruled on his own by 221 BC he had unified the other six states with the Qin to become the first emperor of China died 210 BC
BACKGROUND King Zheng (djung) the Tiger of Qin (chin) son and grandson of Kings of Zheng born Ying Zheng in 259 BC in Handan the period of The Warring States one of many sons mother - a minor concubine
UNIFICATION OF CHINA Qin expansion took over the other states Han (hahn) 230 BC Zhao (djow) ( 228 BC Wei (weigh) 225 BC Chu (dchu) 223 BC Yan (yahn) 222 BC Qi’in (chee oon) 221 BC One China, one Emperor
Is this the Emperor? Probably not, but it is the most commonly used image Based on a Ming dynasty image (c.1368 to 1644) Showing Ming clothes
LOCATION OF QIN PALACE AND MAUSOLEUM Qin Shi Huangdi Tomb site and Lishan Apang Palace Wei He Valley The home of emperors – the Wei He Valley approx. 600 km Eastern Zhou ( BC) Eastern Han (25-220), Wei ( ) and Western Jin ( ) capital 5 Dynasties and Sung capital
Apang Palace Apang Palace Home of the emperor Outside Xian Unfinished at the time of his death but still huge 1300 metres from north to south and 500 paces from east to west (odd measurements?) More than courtiers could assemble and be seated on its outer platform
The site of the mausoleum of Qin Shihuang Lishan is in the distance on the right The lines of pines follow the inner and outer walls which originally surrounded the mountain Three tiered pyramid shape
SIMA QIAN HAN HISTORIAN
FIRST ‘MODERN’ DISCOVERY 1948 A small figure of a servant, possibly a eunuch, found near Lishan Nowhere near life size, stands about 50 c. high
The discovery of the Warriors Discovered by a group of farmers digging a well thought they had dug into an old kiln then thought they had found an ‘earth god’ when the first soldier appeared next they found Qin bricks, which they knew from past diggings were valuable then found arrowheads, which were sold for scrap by the kilo local governor informed site commandeered by Zhao Kangmin, local historian and curator of Lintong Museum
PAST DIGGINGS Same site used for five Han tombs (1 st and 2 nd century AD) and 20 Ming tombs (15 th to 18 th century) Before 1974 not much was said about the warriors. As they were considered bad luck, they were simply dug over
THE RESCUE Zhao Kangmin, local museum director in Lintong was called to assess the find Began an exploratory dig within two months and revealed Pit 1 Took 20 days to reveal the width of the pit Another four years revealed only one fifth of the pit Work began on Pits 2 and 3 There are other pits – the Chinese view is that they can wait until more is known about how to preserve them
TERRACOTTA WARRIORS–PIT 1
Horses from the excavation of Pit 1
Warrior Site Lishan Lintong Village Mausoleum Servants Carriages Animals and birds Clerks Known discoveries cover an area of 57 square kilometres
Other finds – bronze carriages – half real size Open carriage Defensible carriage – the Emperor’s Both are complete in every possible detail
OTHER FINDS Bronze lamp from the Apang Palace Metal bolts and fasteners from the Palace
OTHER FINDS Hundreds of pits with a single horse skeleton, some with a groom Many single tombs with skeletons, and precious objects of gold, silver, jade and laquer Everyday objects such as bells, bowls and tiles A water garden A workshop producing stone flakes for armour Statues of officials In all 180 pits and several hundred graves have been found – so far
Construction and structure of the burial vaults Began immediately Zheng took the throne Pit 1 dug and extended as the figures were created. Pit 2 created for the cavalry Pit 3 appears to be the Army’s headquarters Pit 4 empty, purpose unknown
Concealment Buried – it WAS a tomb Covered pits, wooden supports and roof Straw matting on top Then 3 metres of soil was used to cover the whole area – most of it from the diggings themselves but also from a ‘pond’ some distance away
Unexcavated parts of Pit 2 – the original beam roof and matting is shown
Layout of Pit 2 Previous image taken from here The parts marked in outline are the only parts excavated in this pit
Purpose To demonstrate the magnificence and power of the Emperor forever To defend the Emperor for eternity As part of the Emperor’s needs in the afterlife just as they were needed in his real life
Nature of Qin Warfare Large peasant-based armies Society based on military principles Efficient agriculture Committed bureaucracy Professional army Status and progress depended on military performance Tough, mobile, highly disciplined Gongs, drums, banner and flags used for communication on the battlefield Crossbowmen, the shock troops, led the infantry
Armour Made of leather Plated in large pieces (lower ranks) or buckled together in small pieces (upper ranks) Some sleeve armour Charioteers in full armour Cavalry lightly clad
Weapons Mostly in bronze and wood, iron just developing Crossbows and standard bows Spears and lances Swords Dagger axes Halberds
Crossbows and ordinary bows A new crossbow using evidence from the warrior site and an original trigger New wood attached to original arrow points
Bronze Officer’s sword
Features and status of the army - Seven grades High ranking (generals?); middle ranking officers; armoured soldiers; unarmoured soldiers; charioteers; cavalrymen; and archers both kneeling and standing.
Hairstyles were of social, military and aesthetic significance, so there are many differences shown Beards and moustaches were marks of beauty and status and showed individuality within the conformity
Manufacture of the warriors On average, made in 10 parts for the body and two halves for the head Greatest problem is balance 3 solutions On a base Make them kneeling Make the legs heavy and the body light Made in moulds, left for a few days, then fired, though some of the heavier bodies are made of coiled clay Local clay used and cooked in kilns built into the loess walls The warriors are idealized, calm, limited in their individuality Each rank of officer is taller than the lower rank
The creators of the warriors Estimated that about 100 foremen supervised about 1000 workers Some names are known and 87 different foremen identified Many identified as having worked on the Apang palace Artisans made the final adjustments to each head to make it individual How many were made? Not 8000, probably closer to plus. So where are the others?
The Museum of the Terracotta Warriors and German scientists have digitally recreated what the warriors would have looked like. This is a General of the Army. The colours are based on residues found on the clay Source: John Man, The Terracotta Army: China’s First Emperor and the Birth of a Nation, Bantam, London, 2007, p. next to 193.
Horses in Pit 3
Metallurgy and military science - technology The Terracotta Army was created at the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age It demonstrates the most advanced bronze technology of the period Military science was also well-developed with several well-known theories about warfare having been published, in particular Sun Zi’s The Art of War which had been written during the early Warring States Period and is still quoted today Avoid battle unless you are assured of victory Plan well and avoid risks Use psychological methods to overawe your enemy Strike hard and fast
World Heritage Site Criteria met to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius; to exhibit an important interchange of human values within a cultural area of the world, on developments in monumental arts; to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared; to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history; to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SOURCES Clements, Jonathan, The First Emperor: Conqueror of China. Lonely Planet, China. Luo Zhewen, World Cultural and Natural Hieritage Sites. Man, John, The Terracotta Army: China’s first emperor and the birth of a nation. Pancella, Peggy, Qin Shi Huangdi: First Emperor of China. Portal, Jane, The First Emperor: China’s Terracotta Army Silk Road Photo Collection, NHK. Wu Xiaocong and Guo Youmin, The First Emperor of China. Yang Yang and Zhao Gushan, Chinese Archeology. Video: The Emperor and the Assassin, starring Gong Li (not bad historically but it is a movie), Hong Kong/China made. Video: Tomb of the Terracotta Warriors, National Geographic. Video: IMAX, First Emperor of China.
Just some last thoughts This bronze, sand cast, pot has pride of place in Xianyang City Museum (Xianyang Shi Bowuguan. It was found on the site of the Apang Palace It stands about half a metre tall and it is stunning! What intrigues the viewer are the obvious influences from Egypt in both the style and decorations of the ‘hat’/‘crown’/‘helmet’. Alexander the Great had reached the Amu Darya River in modern day Uzbekistan approximately one hundred years before Shi Huangdi took power. China bordered the area then as it does now. Is this the contact? If not …..? What did the Chinese mean by calling their country The Middle Kingdom? The middle of what? Jan Brady