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Spyware and Trojan Horses Computer Security Seminar Series [SS1] Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown,

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Presentation on theme: "Spyware and Trojan Horses Computer Security Seminar Series [SS1] Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Spyware and Trojan Horses Computer Security Seminar Series [SS1] Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

2 Your computer could be watching your every move! Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

3 Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Introduction

4 Seminar Overview Introduction to Spyware / Trojan Horses Spyware – Examples, Mechanics, Effects, Solutions Tracking Cookies – Mechanics, Effects, Solutions Trojan Horses – Mechanics, Effects, More Examples Solutions to the problems posed Human Factors – Human interaction with Spyware “System X” – Having suitable avoidance mechanisms Conclusions – Including our proposals for solutions Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

5 Definitions A general term for a program that surreptitiously monitors your actions. While they are sometimes sinister, like a remote control program used by a hacker, software companies have been known to use Spyware to gather data about customers. The practice is generally frowned upon. – Google definition Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai An apparently useful and innocent program containing additional hidden code which allows the unauthorized collection, exploitation, falsification, or destruction of data. – Google definition SPYWARE TROJAN HORSE

6 Symptoms Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Targeted Pop-ups Slow Connection Targeted (Spam) Unauthorized Access Spam Relaying System Crash Program Customisation SPYWARE SPYWARE / TROJAN SPYWARE TROJAN HORSE SPYWARE / TROJAN SPYWARE

7 Summary of Effects Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Collection of data from your computer without consent Execution of code without consent Assignment of a unique code to identify you Collection of data pertaining to your habitual use Installation on your computer without your consent Inability to remove the software Performing other undesirable tasks without consent

8 Similarities / Differences Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai SpywareTrojan Horses Commercially Motivated Malicious Internet connection required Any network connection required Initiates remote connection Receives incoming connection Purpose: To monitor activity Purpose: To control activity Collects data and displays pop-ups Unauthorized access and control Legal Illegal Not Detectable with Virus Checker Detectable with Virus Checker Age: Relatively New (< 5 Years) Age: Relatively Old ( > 20 Years) Memory Resident Processes Surreptitiously installed without user’s consent or understanding Creates a security vulnerability

9 Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Spyware Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

10 Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Software Examples GAIN / Gator Gator E-Wallet Cydoor BonziBuddy MySearch Toolbar DownloadWare BrowserAid Dogpile Toolbar

11 Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Advantages Precision Marketing –Relevant pop-ups are better than all of them! –You may get some useful adverts! Useful Software –DivX Pro, IMesh, KaZaA, Winamp Pro –(Experienced) people understand what they are installing. Enhanced Website Interaction –Targeted banner adverts –Website customisation User Perspective - I

12 Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Disadvantages Browsing profiles created for users without consent –Used for target marketing and statistical analysis Unable to remove Spyware programs or disable them Increased number of misleading / inappropriate pop-ups Invasion of user privacy (hidden from user) Often badly written programs corrupt user system Automatically provides unwanted “helpful” tools “20 million+ people have Spyware on their machines.” Source - Dec ’02 GartnerG2 Report User Perspective - II

13 Example Pop-up Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Misleading Pop-up User Perspective - III

14 Network Overview Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Technical Analysis - I Push Advertising Pull Tracking Personal data

15 Client-Side Operation Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Technical Analysis - II

16 Server-Side Operation Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Technical Analysis - III Server-side operation is relatively unknown. However, if we were to develop such a system, it would contain…

17 Spyware Defence Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Technical Initiatives... Spyware Removal Programs Pop-up Blockers Firewall Technology Disable ActiveX Controls –Not Sandboxed Filters Download Patches User Initiatives… Issue Awareness Use Legitimate S/W Sources Improved Technical Ability Choice of Browser Choice of OS Legal action taken against breaches of privacy –Oct ’02 Doubleclick

18 GAIN Case Study Installed IMesh, which includes Gator Installation We accessed multiple internet sites We simultaneously analyzed network traffic (using IRIS) We found the packets of data being sent to GAIN Packets were encrypted and we could not decrypt them See Example -> Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

19 Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

20 Spyware Removers Ad-aware (by Lavasoft) –Reverse Engineer Spyware –Scans Memory, Registry and Hard Drive for… Data Mining components Aggressive advertising components Tracking components –Updates from Lavasoft –Plug-ins available Extra file information Disable Windows Messenger Service Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

21 Vulnerable Systems Those with an internet connection! Microsoft Windows 9x/Me/NT/2000/XP Does not affect Open Source OSs Non - fire-walled systems Internet Explorer, executes ActiveX plug-ins Other browsers not affected Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

22 Tracking Cookies Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

23 Cookies A Cookie is a small text file sent to the user from a website. –Contains Website visited –Provides client-side personalisation –Supports easy Login Cookies are controlled by… –Website’s Application Server –Client-side Java Script The website is effectively able to ‘remember’ the user and their activity on previous visits. Spyware companies working with websites are able to use this relatively innocent technology to deliver targeted REAL TIME marketing, based on cookies and profiles. Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

24 Case Study - DoubleClick Most regular web users will have a “doubleclick.net” cookie. Affiliated sites request the DoubleClick cookie on the users computer. The site then sends… –Who you are –All other information in your cookie file In return for… –All available marketing information on you - collected from other affiliated sites which the you have hit. Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

25 Case Study – DoubleClick Site targets banner adverts, s and pop-ups to the user. If the user visits an affiliated site without a DoubleClick cookie, then one is sent to the user. The whole process is ‘opaque’ to the user and occurs without their consent. Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

26 Tracking Cookie Implementation Protocol designed to only allow the domain who created a cookie to access it. IE has a number of security holes… –Up to IE 5, domain names specified incorrectly. –Up to IE 6, able to fool IE into believing it is in another domain. Patches and IE 6 solved a number of problems Since then, tracking cookies are still proving a large problem, there are still a number of holes still open. Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

27 Tracking Cookie Implementation Spyware Web Server Client Browser Random Web Server Spyware Database Spyware Cookie Cookies Spyware Web page 1. Request Page 2. Return Page 3. Request Image Return Cookie 4. Return Image Return Updated Cookie Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

28 Tracking Cookie Defence Replace tracking cookies with write protected zero length files of the same name. DoubleClick offer an opt-out cookie, which can be obtained from their website. Disable cookies –Makes many websites unusable Delete cookies after session Spyware remover (Ad-aware) Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

29 Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Trojan Horses

30 Installation Secretly installed when an infected executable is run –Much like a virus –Executables typically come from P2P networks or unscrupulous websites ActiveX controls on websites –ActiveX allows automatic installation of software from websites –User probably does not know what they are running –Misleading descriptions often given –Not sandboxed! –Digital signatures used, signing not necessary Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

31 Installation Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Certificate Authority Misleading Certificate Description Who is trusted?

32 Effects Allows remote access –To spy –To disrupt –To relay a malicious connection, so as to disguise the attacker’s location (spam, hacking) –To access resources (i.e. bandwidth, files) –To launch a DDoS attack Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

33 Operation Listen for connections Memory resident Start at boot-up Disguise presence Rootkits integrate with kernel Password Protected Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

34 Example: Back Orifice Back Orifice –Produced by the “Cult of the Dead Cow” –Win95/98 is vulnerable –Toast of DefCon 6 –Similar operation to NetBus –Name similar to MS Product of the time Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

35 BO: Protocol Modular authentication Modular encryption –AES and CAST-256 modules available UDP or TCP Variable port –Avoids most firewalls IP Notification via. ICQ –Dynamic IP addressing not a problem Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

36 BO: Protocol Example (1) Attacker Victim ICQ SERVER CONNECTIONTROJANIP ADDRESS AND PORT INFECTION OCCURS Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

37 BO: Protocol Example (2) Attacker CONNECTIONCOMMAND COMMAND EXECUTED REQUEST FOR INFORMATIONINFORMATION Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Victim

38 BO: Protocol Example (3) Attacker CLEANUP COMMAND EVIDENCE DESTROYED Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Victim

39 Trojan Horse Examples M$ Rootkit –Integrates with the NT kernel –Very dangerous –Virtually undetectable once installed –Hides from administrator as well as user –Private TCP/IP stack (LAN only) Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

40 Trojan Horse Examples iSpyNOW –Commercial –Web-based client Assassin Trojan –Custom builds may be purchased –These are not found by virus scanners –Firewall circumvention technology Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

41 Trojan Horse Examples Hardware –Key loggers –More advanced? Magic Lantern –FBI developed –Legal grey area (until recently!) –Split virus checking world Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

42 Demonstration Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

43 Vulnerable Systems DANGEROUS Number of trojans in common use… RELATIVELY SAFE Linux/Unix Win 9x MacOS WinNT MacOS X WinNT refers to Windows NT 4, 2000, XP and Server Win9x refers to Windows 95, 95SE, 98 and ME. Source: McAfee Security Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

44 Vulnerable Systems DANGEROUS Ease of compromise… RELATIVELY SAFE Win 9x Linux/Unix WinNTMacOS MacOS X WinNT refers to Windows NT 4, 2000, XP and Server Win9x refers to Windows 95, 95SE, 98 and ME. Source: McAfee Security Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

45 Conclusions Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

46 Security Implications Divulge personal data Backdoors into system System corruption Disruption / Irritation Aids identity theft Easy virus distribution Increased spam Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Mass data collection Consequences unknown Web becomes unusable Web cons outweigh pros Cost of preventions More development work More IP addresses (IPv6) Short TermLong Term

47 Solutions Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Firewall Virus Checker Spyware Remover Frequent OS updates Frequent back-up Learning problems Add Spyware to Anti-Virus Automatic maintenance Legislation Education on problems Biometric access Semantic web (and search) Short TermLong Term

48 Firewalls 3 Types… –Packet Filtering – Examines attributes of packet. –Application Layer – Hides the network by impersonating the server (proxy). –Stateful Inspection – Examines both the state and context of the packets. Regardless of type; must be configured to work properly. Access rules must be defined and entered into firewall. Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Network / Standalone

49 Web ServerFirewall http - tcp 80 telnet - tcp 23 ftp - tcp 21 http - tcp 80 Allow only http - tcp 80 Firewalls Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Network / Standalone PC Firewall : : 1025 Only allows reply packets for requests made out Blocks other unregistered traffic : : 1025 Packet Filtering Stateful Inspection

50 Intrusion Detection Systems Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Network PC Server IDSFirewall Switch Intrusion Detection – A Commercial Network Solution An “Intelligent Firewall” – monitors accesses for suspicious activity Neural Networks trained by Backpropagation on Usage Data Could detect Trojan Horse attack, but not designed for Spyware Place IDS before the firewall to get maximum detection In a switched network, place IDS on a mirrored port (gets all traffic) Ensure all network traffic passes the IDS host

51 “System X” Composed of… –Open Source OS –Mozilla / Opera / Lynx (!) Browser (Not IE) –Stateful Inspection Firewall –Anti-Virus Software –Careful and educated user –Secure permissions system –Regularly updated (possibly automatically) Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai Network / Standalone

52 Questions… Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai

53 Bibliography / Links [1] "Spyware" - Google Definition Tool – [2] "Trojan Horse" - Google Definition Tool – [3] Zeinalipour-Yazti, D. “Exploiting the Security Weaknesses of the Gnutella Protocol”, University of California. [4] Joshi, R. “Network Security Applications”, Merchantile Communications, CANIT Conference [5] CERT Advisory CA [6] Spyware Guide – [7] Trojan Horses - [8] Trojan Horse - Back Orifice - [9] NetBus - [10] BBC News - [11] Wired News – “Judge takes bite out of Gator” [12] Tracking Cookies – Demonstration at [13] BonziBuddy - [14] Unwanted Links (Spyware) – [15] Ad-aware - Spyware and Trojan Horses – Computer Security Seminar 12 th February 2004 Andrew Brown, Tim Cocks and Kumutha Swampillai


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