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Infinitives They’re not just used as bases anymore!

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1 Infinitives They’re not just used as bases anymore!

2 Objectives I can: – Form and translate the five infinitives – Recognize and translate the uses of the infinitive: subjective, historical, objective, complementary, and indirect statement – Determine which types of verbs require infinitive structures – Use the correct tense of infinitive to show relationship in time to main verb of indirect statement

3 Objectives I can: – Translate a present infinitive to show concurrent action with the main verb – Translate a perfect infinitive to show action occurring before the main verb – Translate a future infinitive to show occurring after the main verb

4 Cultural Objectives I can: – Describe the effect of the Punic Wars on the development of Rome – Identify the major personalities of the late Republic and describe their contributions to the end of the Republic – Explain the reasons behind the assassination of Julius Caesar and the consequences of the action – Describe the civil war between Octavian and Antony and how Octavian rose to power

5 I can: – Describe the principate of Augustus and his political propaganda – Explain the fatal flaw set by Augustus not having an heir and the effect this had on the rest of Roman history

6 FORMING INFINITIVES Present active, present passive, perfect passive, perfect actice, future active

7 Present Active Infinitives Second principal part of the verb – Amo, amare, amavi, amatus Usually ends with re Translation – To verb i.e. amare = to love Most commonly used as a complementary infinitive which completes an incomplete verb like possum, debeo, or volo – Debemus amare nostras vicinas. We ought to love our neighbors.

8 Possible confusion with “re” “ere” can be substituted for “erunt” in the perfect active tense – amaverunt = amavere – If the “ere” is attached to the third principal part of a verb, it is not an infinitive. Remember that many third principal parts end with “u” or “v” or “s” or “x”; this will help you recognize this alternate form.

9 Present Passive Infinitives Present passive infinitives are made from the present active infinitive (2 nd principal part) – For most verbs, remove the final e and replace it with an i Amare becomes amari Videre becomes videri Scire becomes sciri

10 3 rd conjugation present passive infinitives For third conjugation (ere) and 3 rd IO, (io,ere) remove the ere and add i Emere becomes emi Accipere becomes accipi

11 Perfect active Infinitives Start with the third principal part Remove the “i” Add “isse” – amavisse Translation : to have ________ most commonly used in indirect statements – Scivit se interfecisse suum amicum – He knew that he had killed his friend

12 Perfect Passive Infinitives Begin with the 4 th principal part Remove the “us” or “um” whichever is there. – You will have to adjust this part to agree with whoever is receiving the action; most commonly it will be accusative because of the indirect statement – UM/OS MASCULINE – AM/AS FEMININIE – UM/A NEUTER Add “esse” as a separate part – amatam esse to have been loved Most commonly used in indirect statement – Scivit suum amicum interfectum esse a se. – He knew that his friend had been killed by him.

13 Future Active Infinitive Begin with the fourth principal part. Remove the “us” and add”ur”; you will have to adjust this part to agree with whoever is doing the action. It will usually be accusative because of the indirect statement. – UM/OS MASCULINE – AM/AS FEMININE – UM/A NEUTER Add “esse” as a separate part. – amaturam esse to be about to love Translation “to be about to_________”

14 Formation Practice Choose five infinitives from your vocabulary list and form the five infinitives with translation. You must choose at least one 2nd conjugation (ēre) and at least one 3 rd conjugation (ere) verb.

15 Uses of the Infinitive Historical, subjective, objective, complementary, and the indirect statement

16 Historical infinitives usually used for a series of actions translated as an imperfect tense verb to show a continuous series Example – Caesar circumvenire Gallos, obstare copias, et non sinere ullum exitus e castris. – Caesar was encircling the Gauls, blocking supplies, and not allowing any exit from the camp.

17 Subjective Infinitives functions as the subject of the sentence grammatically treated as a neuter singular noun in English can be translated as a gerund or an infinitive Example – Regere aeque est difficillima res. – To rule fairly is a most difficult thing.

18 Objective Infinitives functions like a direct object most commonly used with iubeo, iubēre, iussi, iussus (to order) treated like a neuter noun example – Marius iubet milites oppugnare Sullam – Marius orders the soldiers to attack Sulla.

19 Complementary Infinitives complete the meaning of an incomplete verb most commonly used with a form of possum, debeo, paro, coepit, volo, nolo, cupio, incipio, necesse est, prohibeo and many other verbs that leave the reader hanging as to what is happening Example – Caesar poterat vincire Galliam. – Caesar was able to conquer Gaul.

20 The Indirect Statement used to report a statement follows a verb of mental action such as saying, thinking, understanding, knowing, perceiving, et al. subject of the indirect statement will used the accusative verb of the indirect statement will be an infinitive example – Scio Caesarem mortuus esse. – I know that Caesar is dead.

21 The Infinitive of the Indirect Statement The choice of the tense of the infinitive is relative to the main verb – same time = present – before = perfect – after = future – The first part of the perfect passive and future active infinitive will be in the accusative and will agree with the accusative subject.

22 Examples scio Caesarem pugnare in Galliā. – I know that Caesar is fighting in Gaul. same time Scio Caesarem pugnavisse in Galliā.. I know that Caesar was fighting in Gaul. before Scio Caesarem pungaturum esse in Galliā – I know that Caesar will fight in Gaul. after

23 Indirect Statement issues The subject cannot be left understood; the accusative noun must be there. If the subject of the indirect statement is the same as the main clause, you will use the reflexive pronoun. – example Caesar scivit se debere non ferre Cleopatram Romam. Caesar knew that he ought not to bring Cleopatra to Rome – debere is the indirect statemnent; ferre in complmentary, se is the subject accusative reflexive.

24 Infinitives Issue #2 A LATIN infinitive cannot ever be used to show purpose. To show purpose, you must use a subjunctive or a gerund/gerundive. – Example Caesar went to Gaul to make his reputation Caesar ivit ad Galliam facere famam. WRONG Caesar ivit ad Galliam ut faceret famam. right

25 Activity Based on your notes about the Late Republic and your vocabulary list, write ten English sentences that would be translated using infinitives. You must have at least one example of each type.

26 Make the infinitive chart for regno, regnare, regnavi, regnatum rule

27 Make the infinitive chart for duco, ducere, duxi, ductus

28 Application: Using the chart you made, write the correct form of the infinitive for each sentence. 1. Tiberius Gracchus thought the senators had ruled long enough. 2. Gaius Gracchus believed that the senators were not ruling fairly. 3. Marius thought that he would rule well. 4. Sulla thought that he would rule better. 5. The Romans learned that Marius and Sulla were leading the country to civil war.

29 6. Caesar’s soldiers knew that he led from the front. 7. Caesar’s men felt that Caesar was leading them to victory. 8. Pompey’s men felt that he had led them well. 9. Pompey knew that Caesar was leading his soldiers in Gaul very well. 10. Pompey suspected that Caesar would lead his troops against him.

30 Translate the subject accusatives for the previous sentences

31 Ancient Rome How a small group of very well-organized people ran the Western World for over 700 years and influenced even America

32 Unit Objectives Establish the chronology of Ancient Rome Analyze the geographical extent and impact of the Romans Trace the rise of Rome from city to superpower and the cause and effect of the Punic Wars

33 Examine the causes and individuals involved in the fall of the Republic and compare to USA Identify the characteristics of Imperial Rome from the rise of Augustus through the fall

34 Analyze the role of entertainment in Roman culture Trace the development of Christianity, its impact on Rome, and Rome’s impact of Christianity

35 Chronology of Ancient Rome Three time periods – BCE The Monarchy Rome was ruled by 7 kings beginning with Romulus and ending with Tarquinius Superbus – 509 BCE- 31 BCE The Republic Rome was ruled by the Senate who was elected by the people – 31 BCE – AD 476The Empire Rome was ruled by emperors

36

37 The Punic Wars: Dido’s Curse How Rome went from a small city on seven hills to the Mediterranean superpower

38 “War is the crucible of mankind.” War is always bad but can bring about good things. forces change and speeds up development because of the life or death struggle forces people to find their leadership abilities development of weapons often leads to technology then used for peacetime

39 WAR speeds up development of medical care for treatment of wounds and infectious diseases forges close friendships between soldiers and those not fighting because of shared struggles and the intensity of the experience exposes people to new ideas from other cultures

40 The Downside of war widespread death and destruction extreme violence and hatred torture and inhumane acts some soldiers permanently psychologically damaged; all soldiers are changed by combat

41 Roman Army Rome became the ruler of the Mediterranean World because their army was so much better than everybody else. better weapons, training, organization, technology to be successful in politics, you had to have military experience Roman army spread Roman culture and language The Punic Wars developed the Roman army into the impressive fighting force it would become.

42 The First Punic War Roman ingenuity and tenacity triumphs over Carthage

43 First Punic War Carthage and Rome both want to control trade in the Mediterranean conflict starts over who will control island of Sicily Carthage naval power, Rome land power Rome had no real navy and losing on the sea

44 First Punic War Carthaginian boat washed up on Roman shore Romans took it apart, used it as a model to build their own ships quickly built huge fleet Romans as land army trained for hand to hand combat – invented the Crow = little drawbridge with spike on the end shaped like a crow’s beak – holds the ships together Rome defeats Carthage, takes over Sicily, and makes Carthage pay reparations ( huge fine to pay for war)

45 Second Punic War BC A tale of two boys and some elephants

46 Second Punic War After defeat in first war, Carthage still powerful and now hated Rome Hannibal, son of a Carthaginian general, made to swear as a little boy that he would always hate the Romans – constantly reminded by his father – Family moved to New Carthage, a colony on Spain where his father died – at age 26 Hannibal became general

47 Second Punic War Treaty from first war breaks down when Hannibal invades towns in Spain Hannibal leads marches toward Rome with 100,000 men and 36 elephants – Why bring elephants? – marches over the Alps which no one expected Why?

48 Second Punic War The Bad Battles – Trasimene: Hannibal trapped Romans between lake and hill in the fog; Romans lost over 20,000 men – Cannae: 40,000 Romans killed in one day Romans just kept building another army Fabius the Delayer avoided battle with Hannibal – fought by constantly harassing Hannibal’s troops from sides and rear – Romans embarrassed but needed to train new armies

49 Second Punic War Hannibal can’t get Romans to come out and fight another big battle – Why? – stays in Italy nearly 20 years – Romans are afraid of him Hannibal at the Gates becomes statement meaning that disaster is coming Roman mothers would threaten their children with “Hannibal will get you”

50 Second Punic War Earlier in the war in Spain, a young man named Scipio had rescued his own father in battle – Scipio only 18, could easily have been killed – Fought with Roman army against Hannibal from very beginning – watched Hannibal and analyzed his techniques – eventually he becomes Roman general

51 Second Punic War: Africa Scipio convinces senate to allow him to take a Roman army to Carthage in Africa – knows Carthage will recall Hannibal from Italy to protect the city – knows how Hannibal will fight and is not afraid of elephants Why would elephants be both good and bad? Scipio and Hannibal fight at Battle of Zama – Scipio won, called Scipio Africanus afterwards

52 Third Punic War BC A Grumpy Old Man just can’t be satisfied

53 Third Punic War Carthage severely crippled by second war By treaty, not supposed to build another army Cato the Elder a Roman senator hates Carthage – had fought against Hannibal – thought Scipio Africanus had let Hannibal off to easily – ultra-conservative; thought everything too soft

54 Third Punic War Cato ended every speech, regardless of what it was about, with the statement “Karthago delenda est” ( Karthage must be destroyed) eventually Rome went back to war – claimed Carthage was rebuilding an army – burned city – threw salt into ground as sign of destruction – Carthage will later be rebuilt by Julius Caesar because its location too good to waste

55 Assessment 1. Who is the general who nearly destroyed the Romans? 2. What did the Romans learn from the First Punic War? 3. Which was the worst battle for the Romans? the best? 4. Who ended every speech with “Carthage must be destroyed” and led the Romans into a third war with Carthage? 5. What general defeated the Carthaginians using their own battle tactics?

56 1. Quis est dux qui paene Romam vastavit? 2. Qui docti sunt Romani a Carthaginis militibus in primo bello contra Carthaginem? 3. Quod proelium erat pessimum Romanis? Optimum? 4. Qui confecit omnem orationem dicens “Karthago delenda est”? 5. Qui dux vicit Carthaginem modis doctis de Carthaginis duce?

57 The Aftermath of the Punic Wars Bona et Mala Romanis

58 Aftermath of Punic Wars well-trained army – went on to conquer Greece, parts of Africa, parts of Asia No real competition – increased trade, wealth Displaced farmers had lost farms while away fighting – farms bought cheap by wealthy landowners

59 Aftermath of the Punic Wars Displaced farmers become urban poor – social unrest – Patricians had used war to grab land and become more powerful against plebians The Gracchi – two brothers Tiberius and Gaius mother daughter of Scipio Africanus – Tiberius elected as tribune to protect the plebians

60 Tiberius developed plan to take public land owned by Rome but used by wealthy senators at little or no cost and give to the soldiers who had lost their land to predatory buyers during the war – Is this fair? What are the problems with this? – Compare this the BLM in our country? – Senate furious, attack Tiberius in the senate with their chairs and beat him to death

61 Gaius Gracchus: The Little Brother Several years later, the problem of the urban poor has increased – now wandering gangs of ex-soldiers prowling the streets robbing and beating Gaius gets elected tribune – tries to pass the same laws Tiberius did – Senate causes a riot in which Gaius Gracchus is killed

62 Rome now has a permanent class of poor people living in the city who will be a drain on the economy and a source of political instability – eventually will become the first welfare state because they have to provide free food for these people

63 Fall of the Roman Republic What went wrong and why? Can we avoid the same issues?

64 Review of the Roman Republic System Why did the Romans move from monarchy to republic? What are the patricians and plebians? What is a republic? How did they separate the powers of government? Why? How did the Punic Wars change Rome? For only what crime could a Roman citizen be executed?(Junnius Brutus executed his own sons.)

65 The Beginning of the End Gaius Marius – Urban poor with nothing to do Why did Rome now have the urban poor? – Marius cancelled the property requirement to be in the army Serve 25 years and you get free land – Why would this appeal to the urban poor? Army becomes loyal to individual commanders who allow them to share the “booty” (Define booty in this context.)

66 Gaius Marius

67 Why is it a problem for the army to be loyal to its commander, not the country? Why would soldiers feel this way? The Marian Spear – specialized tip that “fish-hooks” when it hits a shield – Why is this an improvement? – How would this affect the soldiers and their feelings about Marius?

68 Gaius Marius breaks the cursus honorum You are supposed to wait 10 years between consulships. – Marius was allowed to hold consecutive consulships – Why is this problem? – How will this contribute to the fall of the republic? The Social Wars: Italians who were not citizens rebelled until they were granted citizenship. – This conflict is where Marius gained most of his power.

69 Lucius Cornelius Sulla came from old but bankrupt family got his start serving with Marius but later turned on Marius because he thought Marius was giving too much power to the plebians Civil War against Marius – marched his army on Rome – first time an elected official had attacked his own city

70 Lucius Cornelia Sulla Since Marius had established the precedent of breaking the cursus honorum, Sulla wanted multiple, consecutive consulships. Instead became dictator – Did not follow example of Cinncinnatus the Dictator who left his farm, defeated the enemy, and retired in three days

71 Sulla passed laws to give the patricians more power established the precedent of using the army for personal power established the precedent of using proscription – proscription is publishing a list of people considered enemies of the state and guilty of treason – anyone on the list can be killed by anyone; the killer would not be punished but rewarded with part of dead person’s property Sulla retired eventually after wrecking havoc on the system, became a farmer who grew cabbages, and died two years later

72 Lucius Cornelius Sulla the Dictator

73 Julius Caesar B.C. Marius and Sulla and their civil wars had severely undermined the Republic. This is the best documented time period in Roman history – Caesar wrote almost daily commentaries (Ancient Tweets) – letters and speeches of Cicero – Roman historians wrote much about this period – Why? ( Think about WWII versus 1950s)

74 Gaius Julius Caesar who destroyed the Republic; from old, rich family who claimed descent from Venus

75 Gaius Julius Caesar his father died when he was a teenager; nephew to Gaius Marius Sulla tried to make him divorce his first wife but he refused and left Italy always very ambitious; his role model was Alexander the Great Completed the cursus honorum

76 Julius Caesar Master at manipulation – gave great funeral games for his aunt to win popularity with the common people – said that the best source of information about enemies was their wives and daughters – could convince people to do what he wanted without them seeming to know they were being manipulated – military genius beloved by his troops

77 The First Triumvirate Rome in general mess with massive corruption leads to formation of informal rule by a three man alliance called a triumvirate Pompey the Great = military experience Crassus = money Caesar = popular support To cement alliance, Pompey married Caesar’s daughter, Julia

78 Caesar’s Career in Gaul After consulship, became governor of Gaul – needed money and military experience – conquered Gaul (France and surrounding area) which almost doubled the size of the empire, even invaded Britain – sold conquered people into slavery $$$$$$$$$ – built loyal army led by example shared with soldiers; knew the name of every centurion spent 10 years with his army

79 Caesar as a Threat Triple threat – Money from Gaul – Political support in Rome from plebians especially – loyal army who would follow him to %^& and back wants another consulship – Crassus now dead; tried to invade Parthia; head became a toy for king – Julia died in childbirth; Caesar blamed Pompey so no longer have personal connection – Senate demands he disband his army before he can run for office

80 Civil War...again Pompey and Senate insecure about Caesar’s growing power, especially his army Caesar crosses the Rubicon and invades Italy Pompey and the Senate flee to Greece so that Pompey can gather his troops which are mostly in the Eastern provinces – forgot to take the treasury from Rome so Caesar gets all the money

81 Civil War: Caesar versus Pompey and the Senate Big battle at Pharsalus – Caesar outnumbered – Pompey had senators bothering him; already had camp prepared for victory celebrations – Caesar told troops to go for faces of patricians – Caesar won; Pompey ran to Egypt to King Ptolemy who owed him favors – Caesar pardoned everyone who fought against him to avoid the problems that had followed Marius/Sulla war

82 Civil War and its aftermath Ptolemy just a kid; his advisors convince him to kill Pompey – Gives Caesar a “present” Pompey’s head and signet ring – Caesar very angry but decided to stay in Egypt to help settle dispute between Ptolemy and his sister/wife Cleopatra VII Why would Caesar be angry?

83 Cleopatra VII actually a blue-eyed, blonde Greek not Egyptian very smart but ruthless knew how to make the best out of what she had

84 Only image of Cleopatra to survive except coins

85 Caesar in Egypt Cleopatra sneaks into palace rolled up in a rug Caesar impressed by her intelligence and willingness to learn spends too much time in Egypt playing with Cleopatra – she gives birth to son Caesarion but Caesar smart enough not to recognize him legally leads war to get Cleopatra the throne – Ptolemy killed – Library of Alexandria burned – Caesar returns to Rome but makes plan to have Cleopatra join him

86 Caesar the Dictator Veni, vidi, vici changed calendar to Julian calendar cancelled debts Cleopatra and her son come to Rome and live nearby – big insult to his wife Calpurnia – big insult to people of Rome Why? appoints new senators to fill out ranks from war Senate very resentful

87 The Conspiracy Caesar planning a war against Parthia – Being dictator not so much fun; sick with epilepsy getting worse Senate plans to kill him – conspiracy led by Cassius and Brutus – both had been pardoned by Caesar – Brutus owed his career to Caesar but had issues with him because of his mother Brutus key figure because his ancestor had overthrown last king

88 The Murder of Caesar Caesar was warned by a soothsayer to “Beware the Ides of March” Went to senate meeting anyway – held in Theater of Pompey because senate house had been burned – separated him from Marc Antony his lieutenant surrounded by senators pretending to ask him questions – stabbed times – Brutus the last assassin “Et tu, mi fili”

89 After the Murder Conspirators rush out into Forum with bloody knives yelling “Sic semper tyrannis” – John Wilkes Boothe will say the same thing when he kills Lincoln Not very well-planned; had no plan of what to do next – attacked by plebians who loved Caesar – burned the houses of conspirators who had to flee Rome – created a power vacuum that will led to the third civil war and one man rule

90 What can we learn from this? loyalty of army to country not individuals don’t let people be exceptions to the structure of the government If you remove a ruler, especially by force, always have a plan for the new government Be careful about pardoning people; they don’t usually forgive you. Don’t insult the public by having your girlfriend live close to your wife.

91 The Rise of Augustus and Transition to Rule by Emperor What happens when people give up their civil liberties

92 Legacy of Julius Caesar Remember what happened to Julius Caesar Everyone, especially Marc Antony, thought Caesar would name Marc Antony, his second- in-command, as his heir – Antony had been working with Caesar throughout his career – Antony had military experience and was well liked by Caesar’s troops – Antony was a drunk.

93 Caesar’s Will Caesar had no legitimate children (remember his daughter Julia died in childbirth) named his great-nephew Octavius as his heir and adopted him as his son in his will What did Octavius get? – huge amount of money – loyalty of army who adored Caesar and would want to support whomever he named as successor – hatred of Marc Antony and many senators, especially Brutus and Cassius

94 Octavius’ Dilemma only 18 years old; no government or military experience damned if he does accept – Marc Antony and most of the senate will not support him damned if he doesn’t accept – Marc Antony and most of the senate will have him killed to remove him as a threat to their rule decides with help of two close friends to go for it – goes to the army and makes a speech about needing to punish the assassins of his father Julius Caesar – the army backs him against the senate and Antony

95 Octavius’ Rise to Power Step one was to get recognition for senate – fights a battle against Marc Antony who was fighting the senate; surprisingly wins – orders senate to appoint him consul Senate refuses until Octavius brings his very loyal army to Rome to convince them Step Two was to punish Brutus and Cassius – forms the Second Triumvirate of Octavius, Marc Antony, Lepidus – Defeats Brutus and Cassius ( both commit suicide) at the battle of Phillippi

96 Octavius’ Continued Rise Step Three was to get rid of Antony – divide the empire into two parts Octavius gets the Western part (Europe) Antony gets the Eastern part (Asia, Africa, Egypt) cement the alliance by having Antony marry Octavius’ sister Octavia – Antony goes to Egypt because it’s the richest part of the East

97 Antony and Egypt Antony meets Cleopatra who arrives on a golden boat Cleopatra is very ambitious; all she wants is to rule the world – had tried with Caesar and that didn’t work out – plans to use Antony to get herself into world power Antony not thinking with the right body parts – hooks up with Cleopatra; divorces Octavia Remember Romans already don’t like Cleopatra

98 Octavius’ Continued Rise to Power Antony’s behavior with Cleopatra perfect excuse for conflict with Octavius – Octavius claims Antony is controlled by Cleopatra a foreign queen Romans do not trust powerful women Antony actually gave Cleopatra (with whom he was busily having children) parts of the Roman Empire as a present How would the Roman react to this? Antony and Octavius meet at the Battle of Actium to decide who will rule

99 Battle of Actium 31 BC Octavius actually doesn’t command the troops – sick; never very physically strong – Marcus Agrippa, his friend since childhood, commands troops During battle when it looks like Cleopatra and Antony are losing, she sails off with all the money – Antony follows her and abandons his troops – not going after the money, going after his lover his troops think he’s “whipped” and join Octavius

100 Final Removal of Antony After Actium, Antony joins Cleopatra in Alexandria they both know they are beaten when Octavius arrives both commit suicide – Antony stabs himself (manages to screw that up too) – Cleopatra by legend has herself bitten by a snake smuggled into her tomb in a basket of figs Probably really used poison since she practiced with poisons Octavius now sole ruler of Rome

101 Octavius becomes first emperor Romans had been through three civil wars less than 60 years People just wanted someone who could stabilize the government – Octavius very smart – never had himself named dictator; called himself “princeps” which mean “first citizen” – held successive consulships but claimed his official role only a tribune (which gave him veto power) – real source of power = army and money Named Augustus by senate

102 Augustus’ Reign Very stable time – begins the Pax Romana= 200 years of relative peace – supports the arts and literature pays for the Aeneid which is the most important book in Roman literature poets Horace and Ovid also wrote during this time but Ovid was exiled for writing a seduction manual started the first fire brigades and police pays for lots of building projects – “I found Rome a city of bricks, I leave it a city of marble – ruled until 14 AD

103 Problems with Augustus’ Reign lost over 10,000 soldiers in Battle of Teutoberg Forest in Germany when defeated by Arminius whom the Romans had trained succession issues because only had one child Julia – she had five children including three boys but they all died young – she was super slut who had to be exiled because she went against Augustus’ family values policy – had to name his stepson Tiberius as his successor couldn’t stand Tiberius – Lack of a natural heir will lead to instability of succession throughout Roman history Beginning of emperor worship which will lead to crazy emperors

104 Vocabulary for Late Republic Indirect Statements

105 Aestas, aestatis f. summer

106 Beneficium, beneficii n. Kindness, favor, service

107 Captivus, captivi m. prisoner

108 Celeritas, celeritatis f. speed

109 Cupiditas, cupiditatis f. Desire, longing, passion

110 Dictator, dictatoris m. dictator

111 Diligentia, diligentiae f. diligence

112 Donum, doni n. gift

113 Gens, gentis f. Clan, tribe, nation

114 Genus, generis n. Birth, descent, origin, class, kind

115 Gloria, gloriae f. glory

116 Ignis, ignis m. fire

117 ius, iuris n. Right, law

118 Modus, modi m. Method, manner, way

119 Regnum, regni n. kingdom

120 Res, rei f. Thing, affair, event

121 Sacrificium, sacrificii n. Sacrifice, victim

122 Appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatum Name, call

123 Appropinquo, appropinquare, appropinquavi, appropinquatum Approach ( takes dative for direct object)

124 Ascendo, ascendere, ascendi, ascensum climb

125 Cedo, cedere, cessi, cessum Yield, leave

126 Doleo, dolēre, dolui Suffer pain, grieve

127 Duco, ducere, duxi, ductum lead

128 Emo, emere, emi, emptum buy

129 Eo, ire, ii/ivi, itum go

130 Faveo, favēre, favi, fautum Support, favor, help (takes dative for direct object)

131 Fluo, fluere, fluxi, fluctum Flow, drip, pour, spread

132 Iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum throw

133 Neglego, neglegere, neglexi, neglectum Neglect, disregard

134 Numero, numerare, numeravi, numeratum count

135 Regno,regnare, regnavi, regnatum Rule, reign

136 Soleo, solēre, solitus Be accustomed to

137 Studeo, studēre, studui Be eager, be enthusiastic, strive for, study

138 Volo, volare, volavi, volatum fly

139 Augustus

140 Primus princeps erat Octavius appellatus Augustus. Iulius Caesar erat frater Octavii aviae. Octavius putavit se futurum esse heredem Iulii Caesaris quod Caesar nullos liberos habuit post mortem Iuliae. Saepe dixit amicis se recturum esse Romanum Imperium sed nemo credidit adulescenti audaci.

141 Multi populi cogitaverunt Marcum Antonium, Magistrum Equi Iulio Caesari in testamento appellaturum esse heredem Caesaris. Certe Marcus Antonius putabat se accepturum esse a Caesare imperium sed errabat. Post Caesar interfectus est a Bruto et Cassio cum multis amicis et hostibus, Marcus Antonius Romam regnabat Senatores qui Caesarem interfecerant, non consilia ceperant bona Romano imperio post mortem Caesaris.

142 Senatores non intellexerunt populos Romae amare Caesarem. Hi cogitaverunt populos futuros esse felices ubi senatus Romam rursus regnabat. Marcus Antonius cogitavit populum cupiturum esse sibi regere. Senatus et Marcus Antonius errabant.

143 Ubi testamentum Caesaris lectum erat in Foro, Octavius appellatus est Caesaris heres. Antonius erat iratissimus et cupivit delēre Octavium. Senatus erat iratissimus sed non cupivit regi vel a Antonio cui nemo credidit vel a Octavio qui vixerat vix septemdecim annos.

144 Octavius novit se esse in magno periculo. Senatus cupivit necare eum quod volebat regere et Antonius eum necare cupivit quod regere volebat. Octavius decrevit se iturum esse Romam et capturum esse imperium de senatu et Antonio. Narravit suis amicis se debēre capere illa quae suus pater sibi dederat.

145 Pauci crediderunt Octavium posse fieri Caesaris heredem sed hi non intellexerunt hunc adulescentem. Octavius novit se favorem Caesaris militum debēre petere. Igitur occurrit cum militibus et sua consilia explicavit eis. Senatus tantum odium contra Antonium habuit ut daret Octavio imperium exercituum.

146 Iusserunt Octavium vincere Antonium. Fatue senatus credidit se posse continēre Octavium quod erat adulescens. Rursus errabant senatores. Octavius Antonium in proelio vicit sed tum se cum Antonio et altero duce nomine Lepido iunxit contra senatum. Hi duces appellati sunt triumviri.

147 Iter fecerunt Romam et ceperunt urbem. Octavius praesertim Brutum et Cassium volebat punire. Publice scripserunt nomina hostium et similis Sullae hos interficerunt. Deinde ducentes suos execitus, Antonius et Octavius qui fuerant hostes nunc exercitus Bruti et Cassii in proelio prope Philippos oppugnaverunt.

148 In hoc proelio vicerunt illos qui interfecerant Caesarem. Brutus et Cassius se necaverunt. Post proelium, Antonius et Octavius imperium Romanum dividēre decreverunt. Removerunt potestatem Lepidi et Antonius regnabat in provinciis orientibus dum Octavius regnabat in Roma et provinciis occidentibus.

149 Stultus Antonius etiam putabat se posse vincere Octavium facile; consensit se ducere ad matrimonium Octavii sororem Octaviam. Sed nesciebat Octavium iam consilia capere et mox bellum civile reventurum esse Romanis populis. Antonius constituit se regnaturum esse suos provincias de Aegyptio cum reginā Cleopatrā.

150 Octaviam quam multi Romani suspexerunt repudiavit; in hoc modo offendit multos Romanos. Octavius explicavit senatui Antonium et Cleopatram consilia cepisse contra Romam. Dixit Cleopatram barbaram reginam ducere Antonium et debēre vastari. Explicavit Antonium dedisse magnas partes Romani imperii. Senatus decrevit gerere bellum contra Antonium et Cleopatram.

151 Iusserunt Octavium ducere Romanum exercitum contra Antonium et reginam Cleopatram. Prope Actium, Antonius et Octavius bellum gerebant ubi subito Cleopatra e proelio navigavit. Antonius reliquit suos milites quod cupivit ire cum uxore suā Cleopatrā. Milites senserunt Antonium amississe eius fortitudinem.

152 Celeriter Antonii milites se iunxerunt cum Octavio et nunc Octavius erat solus imperator Romae. Antonius et Cleopatra se interfecerunt in Aegyptio. Octavius sensit Caesarionem, filium Iulii Caesaris e Cleopatrā futurum esse periculum sibi.

153 Igitur iussit puerum necari, sed licet Octaviae alere Antonii et Cleopatrae alteros liberos. Octavius simulavit favēre senatui sed iussit se appellari consulem et tribunum. Milites favebant Octavio et erant genus potestatis optimae principi. Senatus cupivit appellare eum dictatorem perpetuum sed Octavius scivit illum officium fuisse causam mortis Caesaris.

154 Igitur senatus nomen Augustum ei dedit. Octavius erat primus princeps Romae. Regnabat viginti et septem annos ut princeps; Romana Res Publica erat mortua.

155 Augustus mutat Romam Augustus multa mutavit. Coepit legere milites custodi privato sibi. Hi milites erant Praetoriani Custodes qui altos ordines et salaria magna habuerunt et iverunt cum Augusto ubique. Auxilio Agrippae et Maecenae Augustus bene regnabat et correxit vitam plebiam.

156 Augustus multa aedificavit. Dixit se invenisse Romam factam laterum et mutavit ad urbem factam marmoris. Dedit favorem poetis et scriptoribus praesertim Verilio, Ovidio qui sero misit in exsilium, et Horatio et Livio. Sed duo discrimina paene vastaverunt Augusti regnum.

157 Primum discrimen erat proelium in Germania ubi XV milia militum necata sunt et tria aquilae amissae sunt. Augustus saepe dixit se cupere suas aquilas; hi victi milites vexabant principem maxime. Secundum discrimen erat inopia liberis. Augusti uxor Livia duos filios habuit cum primo marito sed nullos liberos cum Augusto.

158 Similis Iulio Caesari, Augustus solam unam filiam Iuliam habuit. Amavit suam filiam carissime sed Iulia erat scortilla. Habuit quinque liberos cum marito Agrippā sed tres pueri mortui sunt ante Augustum. Ubi Agrippa mortuus est, Augustus coegit Iuliam esse uxorem filii vitrici eius Tiberium cui habuit multum odium.

159 Augustus didicit Iuliam habuisse plurimas res amoris publice et misit filiam in exsilium. Non sivit Iuliae nomen dici in suo domo. Deinde coactus est appellare Tiberius ut heredem. Augustus est etiam hodie exemplar optimi principis. Senatus fecit edictum Augustum adoratum esse in omnibus provinciis. Multi dixit Augustum factum esse deum a Romanis.

160 Augustus Mutat Romam QUiz 1. What two things did the Praetoriam Guard have? 2. What was the purpose of the Praetorian Guard? 3. Who helped Augustus rule? 4. Who benefitted from his rule?

161 5. What change did Augustus say he made to the city of Rome? 6. Whom did he support? 7. What was the first crisis of his reign? 8. Why did he say he wanted his eagles? 9. What was the second crisis of his reign?

162 10. How did he feel about his daughter? 11. Why did her children not inherit the throne? 12. What did he force Julia to do? 13. What did he learn about Julia? 14. After her exile, what would he not allow?

163 15. Of what is Augustus considered an example? 16. What did the senate decree? 17. What did many people believe about Augustus?

164 Writing with infinitives 1. Caesar wanted to rule Rome. 2. It was necessary for him to lead soldiers and to have money. 3. He knew that Gaul would be his opportunity. 4. To rule is life for Caesar.

165 Writing With Infinitives 2 1. Octavius knew that Antonius wanted to destroy him. 2. Antony felt that Cleopatra would always love him. 3. Octavius understood that the Romans did not like Cleopatra. 4. Octavius wanted to rule Rome. – Octavius, Octavii m. – Antonius, Antonii m. – Cleopatra, Cleopatrae f.

166 Writing Practice Explain who Augustus was, what he wanted to do, what he had to do to reach his goal, and where he gained power. Please utilize your four sentence types discussed earlier.

167 Listening Practice 1. rex dux princeps regina 2. Iuliam Liviam Livillam Drusillam 3. Iulia Livia Agrippina Drusilla 4. Agrippam Cleopatram Sullam Marium 5. vicit duxit necavit amavit

168 Historical Heroes: Julius Caesar 1. Prior to beginning his quest, has Julius Caesar been given any special talents or help? 2. What motivates his quest? 3. What skills and resources does he use to accomplish his goal? 4. How does he obtain the skills and resources he needs for success? 5. What is his leadership style? 6. What dangers does he face? 7. What sacrifices does he make? 8. How does he utilize his success? 9. What could he have done differently? 10. What can we learn from his life that is applicable to the 21 st century?

169 Historical Heroes: Augustus 1. Prior to beginning his quest, has Augustus been given any special talents or help? 2. What motivates his quest? 3. What skills and resources does he use to accomplish his goal? 4. How does he obtain the skills and resources he needs for success? 5. What is his leadership style? 6. What dangers does he face? 7. What sacrifices does he make? 8. How does he utilize his success? 9. What could he have done differently? 10. What can we learn from the life of Augustus that is applicable to the 21 st century?

170 Historical Heroes: Cleopatra 1. Prior to beginning her quest, has Cleopatra been given any special talents or help? 2. What motivates her quest? 3. What skills and resources does she use to accomplish her goal? 4. How does she obtain the skills and resources she needs for success? 5. What is her leadership style? 6. What dangers does she face? 7. What sacrifices does she make? 8. How does she utilize her success? 9. What could she have done differently? 10. What can we learn from the life of Cleopatra that is applicable to the 21 st century?

171 Historical Heroes: Marc Antony 1. Prior to beginning his quest, has Antony been given any special talents or help? 2. What motivates his quest? 3. What skills and resources does he use to accomplish his goal? 4. How does he obtain the skills and resources he needs for success? 5. What is his leadership style? 6. What dangers does he face? 7. What sacrifices does he make? 8. How does he utilize his success? 9. What could he have done differently? 10. What can we learn from the life of Antony that is applicable to the 21 st century?


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