Presentation on theme: "UNIT FOCUS: The focus of this unit begins with the geographic location of political and physical features that have had a major influence on the history,"— Presentation transcript:
UNIT FOCUS: The focus of this unit begins with the geographic location of political and physical features that have had a major influence on the history, culture, and economy of Asia. The social studies concept conflict and change will be used to help understand the historical events of Asia in the 20th century to include European colonization, independence movements, and communist revolutions. Students will also examine the role the United States has played in trying to spread democracy in Japan, the Koreas, and Vietnam. Once students are familiar with the history of Asia they will be able to compare and contrast the modern governments of India, China, and Japan using the concept of governance. UNIT 6 ASIA Geography – History - Government
Enduring Understandings and Unit Essential Questions The student will understand that… Conflict Creates Change: When there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result. What was Mao Zedong’s relationship to the Long March, the Great Leap Forward, and the Cultural Revolution? What factors led to the collapse of colonialism in India and Indo-China? What were some of the causes of the Korean War, and what factors led to the existence of North Korea and South Korea? What were the causes and results of the Vietnam War, and what led to the reunification of Vietnam? How would you explain the rebuilding of Japan after World War II? Governance: As a society increases in complexity and interacts with other societies, the complexity of the government also increases. How would you describe the modern governments of India, Indonesia, China, and Japan?
SS7H3a Describe how nationalism led to independence in India and Vietnam. Concepts: Conflict Creates Change
SS7H3b Describe the impact of Mohandas Gandhi’s belief in non-violent protest.. Concepts: Conflict Creates Change
The student will understand that when there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result. When you have conflicts with your friends does it change your friendship? What conflicts existed between India and Great Britain? Vietnam and France? What factors led to the collapse of colonialism in India and Indo-China? How has life changed in both India and Vietnam since gaining independence? Conflict Creates Change
Colonialism Western European countries' colonization of lands mainly in the Americas, Oceania, Asia, and Africa in order to capitalize on natural resources, cheap or slave labor, as well as creating another market for European goods and services. European countries also influenced the culture of the colonized areas; examples include Christianity, European languages, forms of government, and economic systems. European were often able to overpower their colonies with a superior military in order to enforce their rule.
Nationalism The strong devotion and patriotism for one’s own country OR The political movement to gain independence (freedom) from a colonizing country in order to govern themselves (sovereignty)
INDIA Country in South Asia that was colonized by Great Britain because India had an abundance of tea, gemstones, and other resources in addition to a large population that the British could market their goods.
Mohandas Gandhi given the title Mahatma (Great Soul); led non-violent protests against the British in a successful attempt to gain independence for India; tried to improve the lives of the lower castes in India; assassinated in 1948
Jawaharlal Nehru He was the first Prime Minister of independent India after they gained independence from Great Britain in 1947. After the massacre at Amritsar (1919), he devoted himself to the struggle for India's freedom along with his friend Mohandas Gandhi. Nehru is best known for helping shape India’s modern government (which is the largest democracy in the world because of its 1 billion plus population).
The British are coming, the British are coming!
British in India A group of British traders called the East India Company first came to India at the beginning of the 17th century. At this time, India was ruled by the Muslim Mughal Empire, who ruled from Delhi, in northern India. The British hoped to gain huge profits from their control of the Indian economy. To make sure that they profited from controlling trade with India, the British not only controlled the most valuable spice trade, but often pushed farmers to grow cash crops such as cotton and tea. Although many farmers agreed to Britain ’ s request and grew the cash crops, they didn ’ t end up sharing in the profits. Furthermore, because the farmers had devoted their lands to growing non-edible rather than edible crops, they soon found that they often couldn ’ t produce enough food to feed their own families.
British in India By the end of the 17th century it had effective authority over the three main ports in India: Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. The power of the British spread across India and by the 1850’s, almost the entire country was under its total control. The East India Company continued its business affairs and India came to be known as “The Jewel in the Crown” since it was the most profitable British colony.
The Sepoy Rebellion Sepoys were Indian troops that served under the British army. In 1857, the British issued new ammunition to the Sepoys. The new cartridges had to be bitten off before they could be used; however, the cartridges were greased in beef and pork fat. Most of the Sepoys were Hindus or Muslims; since cows are sacred to Hindus and pork is forbidden for Muslims, the Sepoys refused to use the new ammunition. General discontent with the increasing British domination over India turned the incident into a full- scale rebellion. Intense fighting often broke out, and it took the British ten months to put down the rebellion. Indian soldiers took over a British fort and massacred 200 women and children. However, in the end, the Sepoy Rebellion, also called the First War for Independence by Indians, or simply “The Mutiny” by the British, “strengthened the British hold on India.” Soon after that in the spring of 1858, the British crown used the rebellion as an excuse to take political and economic control of India. In 1858, India (and the East India Company) officially handed power over to the British crown giving Queen Victoria a new state and title, the Queen-Empress.
Battle for Independence The decades following the Sepoy Rebellion and the transfer of power to the actual British government, nationalism started to grow in India, followed by a boycott of British goods. World War I did not help the British in gaining back Indian support, and in 1919 Mohandas Gandhi gained control of the Congress. After a riot and the imprisonment of Gandhi in the late twenties, Jawaharlal Nehru was elected president of the Congress. Nehru was very supportive of the freedom cause, but was very Western in his ideas about technology and industry and was liked by the British. In August of 1947, after a long struggle for freedom and what some say was a WWII fighting/ally agreement between India and the British, India gained its independence and Nehru became its first prime minister.
Gandhi "Nonviolence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man." – Gandhi
Gandhi and the fight for independence in India Gandhi took the lead in the long struggle for independence from Britain. He never wavered in his unshakable belief in nonviolent protest and religious tolerance. When fellow Muslim and Hindu countrymen committed acts of violence, whether against the British who ruled India, or against each other, he fasted until the fighting stopped. Independence, when it came in 1947, was not a military victory, but a triumph of human will. To Gandhi's disappointment, however, the country was split into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. The last two months of his life were spent trying to end the horrible violence which followed, leading him to fast to the brink of death, an act which finally ended the riots. In January 1948, at the age of 79, he was killed by an assassin as he walked through a crowded garden in New Delhi to take evening prayers.
What other leaders have we talked about who remind you of Gandhi?