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Chapter 12 The Age of Religious Wars. French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) Catholics v. Huguenots (Calvinists) Catherine de Medicis v. the Guises Political/Social/Religious.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 The Age of Religious Wars. French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) Catholics v. Huguenots (Calvinists) Catherine de Medicis v. the Guises Political/Social/Religious."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 The Age of Religious Wars

2 French Wars of Religion ( ) Catholics v. Huguenots (Calvinists) Catherine de Medicis v. the Guises Political/Social/Religious Thought

3 Introduction & Background 1 st ½ 16 th Century—Central Europe Lutherans 1 st ½ 16 th Century—Central Europe Lutherans 2 nd ½ 16 th Century—Western Europe Calvinists 2 nd ½ 16 th Century—Western Europe Calvinists Peace of Augsburg—Lutherans & HRE Peace of Augsburg—Lutherans & HRE Cuius regio eius religio

4 IMPORTANT! Calvinists Presbyterian Presbyterian –Church boards represent individual churchES Restrained art Restrained art –Wren –Rembrandt Roman Catholic Episcopal Episcopal –Hierarchical –Pope  Priest –One King/One Church/ One Law –Baroque art  Rubens  Bernini

5 Pope  priest –One King/One Church/One Law Baroque art Baroque art –Rubens –Bernini

6 *French—Anti Protestant (until Henry IV) * Francis I captured by Charles V (curry favor & released  protestant persecution) *Shift in power from France to Spain *Internal conflict—3 families

7 Guise Strongest Strongest Militant Catholicism Militant Catholicism Firm control Firm control Connection to crown through Francis II wife—Mary Stuart (we’ll learn about her later) Connection to crown through Francis II wife—Mary Stuart (we’ll learn about her later) you can’t swing a dead cat in Europe without hitting somebody’s royal relative! you can’t swing a dead cat in Europe without hitting somebody’s royal relative!

8 Bourbon Huguenot (Protestant) for political reasons Huguenot (Protestant) for political reasons Louis I (Conde) –political leaders of French protestant resistance Louis I (Conde) –political leaders of French protestant resistance Eventually rises to top (Louis XIV, etc) Eventually rises to top (Louis XIV, etc)

9 Montmorency-Chatillon Huguenot (Protestant) for political reasons Huguenot (Protestant) for political reasons Coligny—political leader of French protestant resistance Coligny—political leader of French protestant resistance

10 Appeal--Huguenots: Many aristocrats and townspeople joined the Huguenots in opposition to Guise-dominated French monarchy. Many aristocrats and townspeople joined the Huguenots in opposition to Guise-dominated French monarchy. Indirectly served forces of political decentralization. Indirectly served forces of political decentralization.

11 1561 – more than 2,000 Huguenot congregations existed 1561 – more than 2,000 Huguenot congregations existed 1/15 total population 1/15 total population –Majority of population in:  Dauphine  Languedoc Over 2/5 aristocracy became Huguenots Over 2/5 aristocracy became Huguenots

12 Calvin & Beza curried favor w/ aristocrats Beza - Converted Jeanne d’Albert, future mother to Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) Beza - Converted Jeanne d’Albert, future mother to Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) Calvinism used as aids to achieve long-sought political goals Calvinism used as aids to achieve long-sought political goals –Benefited both political & religious dissidents

13 Calvinism gave political resistance justification & inspiration, and the forces of political resistance made Calvinism a viable religious alternative in Catholic France. KOT 391

14 Religious conviction was neither the only nor always the main reason for becoming a Calvinist in France in the second half of the 16 th century. KOT 391

15 Catherine de Médicis and the Guises

16 Who was Catherine? Florence 1519-Blois 1589 Power behind the throne  3 sons  Francis II (r )  Charles IX (r )  Henry III (r )

17 January Edict Influenced by Beza & Coligny Influenced by Beza & Coligny Granted protestants freedom to worship publicly outside town and hold synods Granted protestants freedom to worship publicly outside town and hold synods

18 However…. March 1562 March 1562 Duke of Guise ordered massacre of a Protestant congregation Duke of Guise ordered massacre of a Protestant congregation Beginning of French wars of Revolution Beginning of French wars of Revolution

19 Protestants—fear of annihilation International measure of struggle International measure of struggle –Hesse & Palatinate fought w/ Huguenots 1 st war ( )  Duke of Guise assassinated 1 st war ( )  Duke of Guise assassinated 2 nd war ( )  resumption of hostilities 2 nd war ( )  resumption of hostilities 3 rd war (Sept 1568-Aug 1570)  3 rd war (Sept 1568-Aug 1570)  BLOODIEST of all conflicts BLOODIEST of all conflicts

20 3 rd war  Condè was killed Leadership was passed to Coligny  a blessing in disguise Coligny  better military strategist

21 Peace of Saint-Germain-En-Laye  Ended the 3 rd war  The crown acknowledged the power of the Protestant nobility  Granted the Huguenots religious freedoms within their territories and the right to fortify their cities

22 Catherine…. Plot w/ Guise faction to assassinate Coligny??? Plot w/ Guise faction to assassinate Coligny??? Coligny struck (not killed) by assassin’s bullet Coligny struck (not killed) by assassin’s bullet Fear King’s reaction to her complicity & Huguenot response to assassination attempt Fear King’s reaction to her complicity & Huguenot response to assassination attempt

23 Peace? Yeah, right! St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 24 August 1572—Paris 24 August 1572—Paris Coligny & 3,000 Huguenots butchered Coligny & 3,000 Huguenots butchered 20,000 slaughtered in next 3 days throughout France 20,000 slaughtered in next 3 days throughout France Pope Gregory II & Philip II (Spain) celebrated—why? Pope Gregory II & Philip II (Spain) celebrated—why? –France internal civil war  no French resistance in Netherlands

24 Catherine? NOT a politique NOT a politique Uneven balance between Catholics & Huguenots Uneven balance between Catholics & Huguenots Wanted CATHOLIC France Wanted CATHOLIC France Thwart Guise attempt at domination Thwart Guise attempt at domination

25 6º of separation Catherine flip-flopped Catherine flip-flopped –Bourbon faction grew in influence –Called on Guise to suppress Protestant support

26 International concerns REAL FEAR: REAL FEAR: Louis of Nassau—Netherlands— Protestant Louis of Nassau—Netherlands— Protestant –Coligny influenced King Charles IX  Invade Netherlands  assist protestants FRANCE v. SPAIN FRANCE v. SPAIN Controlled Netherlands

27 Meanwhile Henry III (r ) Henry III (r ) Steer course between 2 factions Steer course between 2 factions –Catholic League –Vengeful Huguenots –Therefore: gain support from moderates in both Save France—compromise religious creeds Save France—compromise religious creeds POLITIQUE POLITIQUE

28 The Peace of Beaulieu May 1576 May 1576 “Granted the Huguenots almost complete religious and civil freedom” “Granted the Huguenots almost complete religious and civil freedom” Less than seven months later, the Catholic League objected!! Less than seven months later, the Catholic League objected!! In order to maintain his political power, it was necessary for Henry III to revoke the Peace of Beaulieu in October In order to maintain his political power, it was necessary for Henry III to revoke the Peace of Beaulieu in October 1577.

29 Results of the Peace of Beaulieu After the Peace of Beaulieu After the Peace of Beaulieu –Protestants and the Catholics resumed a policy of military political resistance. In opposition to Henry III In opposition to Henry III –Catholic League assumed total power in Paris, with the help of Spain.

30 The Day of Barricades Henry III launched a “surprise attack” against the Catholic League in Paris in Henry III launched a “surprise attack” against the Catholic League in Paris in The attack failed miserably, and Henry was forced to retreat. The attack failed miserably, and Henry was forced to retreat.

31 Assassination The king’s position was seriously weakened, so he resorted to a drastic tactic: assassination. The king’s position was seriously weakened, so he resorted to a drastic tactic: assassination. He “plotted” the assassination of the duke and the cardinal of Guise. He “plotted” the assassination of the duke and the cardinal of Guise. Henry’s plot was successful. Henry’s plot was successful. Led by yet another member of the Guise family, the Catholic League revolted angrily. Led by yet another member of the Guise family, the Catholic League revolted angrily.

32 Henry III forms an alliance Henry of Navarre April 1589 April 1589 Weakened by the Catholic League, Henry III had only one remaining option: to join the Protestant Huguenots, who were led by Henry of Navarre. Weakened by the Catholic League, Henry III had only one remaining option: to join the Protestant Huguenots, who were led by Henry of Navarre.

33 Henry of Navarre—Henry IV Henry III murdered by Dominican monk Henry III murdered by Dominican monk Heir to French throne by marriage to Heir to French throne by marriage to Henry III’s sister Margaret Henry III’s sister Margaret PROTESTANT—oh NO! Say is ain’t so!! PROTESTANT—oh NO! Say is ain’t so!! Philip II & Pope panic Philip II & Pope panic POLITIQUE POLITIQUE “Paris is worth a mass” “Paris is worth a mass” Protestant AND Catholic Protestant AND Catholic

34 The Reign of Henry of Navarre Henry of Navarre was well-liked and supported by the French people. Henry of Navarre was well-liked and supported by the French people. On July 25, 1593, he denounced Protestantism and officially “embraced” Catholicism. On July 25, 1593, he denounced Protestantism and officially “embraced” Catholicism. He hoped that tolerant Catholicism would politically unite France. He hoped that tolerant Catholicism would politically unite France. The majority of the French people and church supported Henry’s decision. (They wanted unity too!) The majority of the French people and church supported Henry’s decision. (They wanted unity too!)

35 In The Catholic League was “dispersed.” The Catholic League was “dispersed.” The Catholic League’s ties with Spain were broken. The Catholic League’s ties with Spain were broken. The French Religious wars came to an end. The French Religious wars came to an end.

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37 Edict of Nantes Formal religious settlement Formal religious settlement France – officially CATHOLIC France – officially CATHOLIC –Recognize & SANCTION minority religious rights –Public worship/right to assemble/admission to public offices & universities/maintain fortified towns TRUCE—however, distrust/cold war TRUCE—however, distrust/cold war Henry IV—laid groundwork for absolute monarchy Henry IV—laid groundwork for absolute monarchy


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