2“Pittura Metafisica” deChirico (1888-1978) The Child’s Brain (1914) subject: self-portraittheme: “metaphysical”to destabilize meaning of everyday objects by making them symbols offearalienationuncertainty
3Surrealism de Chirico (cont.) Ariadne (1913) motifs: childhood memory of Turin (Italy)architectural settingstowerspiazzatrainslight/shadow: Nietzschehidden realities seen in strange juxtapositionslong shadows cast by setting sun into large open city squares & public monuments
4Surrealism de Chirico (cont.) Mystery & Melancholy of a Street (1914) theme: isolation & sense of forebodingcomposition: dynamiccolor: limited rangelight/shadow: chiaroscuroperspective: linear & aerialMannerist exaggerationsbizarre spatial constructions
5Surrealism de Chirico (cont.) Great Metaphysician (1917) setting: Turinbackground architecturepiazzacentral figure:mannequinCubist assemblageurban monumentscale: deliberately disproportionatelight/shadow: Nietzschian
6Surrealism Surrealism (c. 1919/24-45) relation to de Chirico’s “Picturra Metaphysica”when Surrealists first discovered him, saw him as “a fixed point”became “a metaphysical or mystic rope to be placed afterwards round our necks” (Breton)represented in every number of La Révolution Surréaliste, but article devoted to him by Breton in June 1926 issue passed a crushing judgment on himdue to perceived shift in style post-1919declared de Chirico unworthy of the “marvels” of his metaphysical period
7Surrealism Surrealism (cont.) definition: 1924 “Surrealism rests in the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of association neglected heretofore; in the omnipotence of the dream”definition: Breton’s Second Manifesto of Surrealism (1930)“… a certain state of mind from which life and death, the real and the imaginary, past and future, the communicable and the incommunicable, height and depth, are no longer perceived as contradictory”
8Surrealism context: political André Breton’s lecture (June 1934) anti-Fascist (re: Hitler & Mussolini)“role of fascism to re-establish for the time being the tottering supremacy of finance-capital”anti-bourgeois & critical of capitalist society“hypocrisy & cynicism have now lost all sense of proportion & are becoming more outrageous…”aim: “to detach the intellectual creator from illusions with which bourgeois society has sought to surround him”
9Surrealism process: “automatism” definition: Breton intended to express, verbally, in writing, or by other means, the real process of thoughtabsence of all control exercised by the reasonoutside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations“a monologue poured out as rapidly as possible, over which the subject's critical faculty has no control”distinguished by high degree of immediate absurdity
10Surrealism context: Freudian psychology (c. 1895) Surrealists preoccupied w/ Freud’s methods of investigationFreud distinguishes different levels of consciousness, including the unconscious:repository for traumatic repressed memories;source of anxiety-provoking drives socially or ethically unacceptable to the individualmanifested in dreamsrelation to painting: “sublimation”energy invested in sexual impulses shifts to pursuit of socially valuable achievements
11Surrealism context: gender issues women important to the Surrealists as muses & loversinherited late 19C view polarized view:embraced both creative & subversive powers of the love instinctrejected popular image of women during 1920s as an independent, often androgynous, being who fled stifling domesticity of late Victorian cultureBretonFreud’s erotic desire & “pleasure principle”Sade’s revolutionary eroticismreintegration of male & female principles
12Surrealism Max Ernst definition: "Beyond Painting" (1936) “One rainy day in 1919, happening to be in a town on the banks of the Rhine, I was struck by the way my excited gaze became obsessed with the pages of an illustrated catalogue showing objects designed for anthropological, microscopic, psychological, mineralogical and palaeontological demonstrtions. There I found brought together such disparate elements of figuration that the sheer absurdity of this assemblage caused a sudden intensification of my visionary faculties and brought forth a hallucinating succession of contradictory images, double, triple and multiple images overlaying each other with the persistence and rapidity peculiar to love memories and the visions of half-sleep."
13Surrealism Ernst (cont.) Elephant of Celebes (1921) theme: scatologicallong hose --> urinateholes for excrementfigure: monstrouscrafted from various inanimate objectslandscape: bareness mixed w/ absurdity of flying fish formsiconography: metaphysicale.g., mannequin
14Surrealism Ernst (1891-1976) Oedipus Rex (1922) subject: Freudian loving & hostile wishes children experience towards parents at height of phallic phasetheme: sadismstyle: illusionisticscale: disjointedarchitecture: dislocated
15Surrealism Ernst (cont.) Two Children Threatened by a Nightingale (c. 1924)theme: childhood fears & anxiety produced by dreamstechnique: tromp l’oeil visual pun
16Surrealism Max Ernst (cont.) The Virgin Spanking the Christ (1926) aim: to destroy all myths about art that for centuries have permitted economic exploitation of painting, sculpture, literature, etc.subject: voyeurism & masochismforms: derived from Parmigianino’s Mannerist Madonna w/a Long Neck (c. 1525)
19Surrealism Rene Magritte (1898-1967) nationality: Belgian style: illusionistic; deliberate literalismsubject: “preconsciousness”the state before and during waking updid not draw on hallucinations, dreams, occult phenomena, etc.method: disjunction between context, size, or juxtaposition of objectseffect: simplicity is suspect
22Surrealism Magritte (cont.) Rape (1934) medium: drawing theme: sadistic aggressionsubject: relate to fear produced by Freud’s perception of women as harbinger of death & destructionfacial features: witty sexualized re- formulation
23Surrealism Magritte (cont.) Human Condition (1935) theme: artistic creationsubject: perception, eternity & ambiguityforms: illusionisticstrategy: wit/humorsignificance: absence of muse
25Surrealism Dalí (1904-89) style: illusionistic training: studied at the Academy of Fine Arts (Madrid)mastered academic techniquesexpelled for indiscipline in 1923
26Surrealism Dali (cont.) method: “paranoiac-critical” “… it will be possible (simultaneously with automatism and other passive states) to systematize confusion and thus to help to discredit completely the world of reality.”“uninterrupted becoming”the ultra-confusing activity rising out of the obsessing ideaallows the paranoiac who is the witness to consider the images of the external world unstable and transitory, or suspect
27Surrealism Dalí (cont.) The Persistence of Memory (1931) subject: landscapetheme: decayalso relate to current scientific speculations about universeenvironment: extraordinary universeshapes/figures: distorted
28Surrealism Dalí (cont.) Premonition of Civil War (1936) political sympathies:fascination for Hitlerrelations w/ Surrealists strained c. 1934break came when Dali supported Spanish dictator, Franco, in 1939
29Surrealism Dalí (cont.) Crucifixion (1954) relate to Renaissance: figure along CVAaerial & linear persp.naturalistic drapery, shadows, musculaturevariance from Renaissancefloating formsmisplaced nails & absence of woundsfigures’ scale reversedviewer deprived of C’s human emotion
30Surrealism Miró (1893-1983) Dutch Interior (1928) aim: to cast viewer adrift in one’s own unconscious mindsubject: woman as musecolor: vibrantlight/shadow: absentforms: abstractspatial order: compressed
35Surrealism Yves Tanguy biography: French-born American painter originally a merchant seamanimpelled to take up painting after seeing pictures by de Chiricojoined Surrealist group in 1925emigrated to USA in 1939 where he lived for the rest of his lifemarried American Surrealist painter Kay Sage in 1940
38IMAGE INDEXSlide 2: DE CHIRICO, Giorgio. The Child’s Brain (1914), Oil on canvas, Moderna Museet, Stockholm, SweedenSlide 3: DE CHIRICO, Giorgio. Ariadne (1913), Oil and graphite on canvas, 53 3/8 x 71 in., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Slide 4: DE CHIRICO, Giorgio. Mystery and Melancholy of a Street (1914), Oil on canvas, Private Collection.Slide 5: DE CHIRICO, Giorgio. The Great Metaphysician (1917).
39IMAGE INDEXSlide 13: ERNST, Max. The Elephant of Celebes (1921), oil on canvas, 4’ 1” x 3’ 6”, Tate Gallery, London.Slide 14: ERNST, Max. Oedipus Rex (1922), Oil on canvas, 93 x 102 cm., Private collection, Paris.Slide 15: ERNST, Max. Two Children Threatened by a Nightingale (c. 1924).Slide 16: ERNST, Max. The Virgin Spanking the Christ Child before Three Witnesses: Andre Breton, Paul Eluard, and the Painter (1926), Oil on canvas, 196 x 130 cm., Museum Ludwig, Cologne (Germany).
40IMAGE INDEXSlide 17: (Left) ERNST’s Surrealist The Virgin Spanking the Christ Child (c. 1925); and (right) PARMIGIANINO’s Mannerist Madonna with the Long Neck (c. 1525).Slide 18: ERNST, Max. The Eye of Silence ( ), Oil on canvas, 42 1/2 x 55 1/2 in., Washington University Museum of Art, St. Louis, MO.Slide 20: MAGRITTE, Rene. The False Mirror (1926).Slide 21: MAGRITTE. The Menaced Assassin (1927), Oil on canvas, 59 1/4 x 76 7/8 in., The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York.
41IMAGE INDEX Slide 22: MAGRITTE, Rene. Rape (1934). Slide 23: MAGRITTE, Rene. Human Condition (1935).Slide 24: MAGRITTE, Rene. Golconde (1953), Oil on canvas, 31 1/2 x 39 1/2 in., The Menil Collection, Houston, Texas.Slide 25: MAN RAY. Salvador Dali (1929), photograph.Slide 27: DALI. The Persistence of Memory (1931), oil on canvas, 9 1/2” x 13”, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York.
42IMAGE INDEXSlide 28: DALI. Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War (1936), Oil on canvas, 39 3/8 x 39 in., Philadelphia Museum of Art.Slide 29: DALI. Crucifixion ('Hypercubic Body') (1954), Oil on canvas, x 124 cm., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.Slide 30: MIRO, Joan. Dutch Interior (1928), Oil on canvas, 36 1/8 x 28 3/4 in., Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York.
43IMAGE INDEXSlide 31: MIRO. Carnival of Harlequin (1925), Oil on canvas, 66 x 93 cm ., Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, N.Y.Slide 32: (Left) Detail from MIRO’s Carnival of Harlequin (1925); and (right) detail from MATISSE’s Harmony in Red (1910).Slide 33: MIRO, Joan. Dog Barking at the Moon (c. 1930).Slide 34: MIRO, Joan. Still-Life with Old Shoe (1937).Slide 36: TANGUY, Yves. Indefinite Divisibility (1942), Oil on canvas, 40 x 35 in., Albright- Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY.