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A Taste of the Middle East and Asia in Words Created by Margaret H. Holt Coordinator, Center for International Studies and Languages C. D. Hylton Senior.

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Presentation on theme: "A Taste of the Middle East and Asia in Words Created by Margaret H. Holt Coordinator, Center for International Studies and Languages C. D. Hylton Senior."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Taste of the Middle East and Asia in Words Created by Margaret H. Holt Coordinator, Center for International Studies and Languages C. D. Hylton Senior High School Spriggs Road, Woodbridge, VA Tel:

2 Three Countries Pakistan Iran Jordan

3 Capital Cities Pakistan: Islamabad Iran: Tehran Jordan: Amman

4

5 Area and Location Pakistan is located in South Asia. Its neighbors are Iran and Afghanistan in the west, China to the north and India to the east. Iran’s neighboring countries are clockwise from the north: Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan- Naxcivan exclave, Armenia, Azerbaijan-proper Jordan is located in the Middle East. Its neighbors are Israel to the west, Syria to the north and Iraq and Saudi Arabia to the east.

6 Languages Pakistan: Urdu (national language) –English (official language); Regional languages include Punjabi (Punjab), Pushto, Balochi or Brahwi (Balchistan), Sindhi (Sind) and Kashmiri (Kashmir). Iran: Farsi (official language) –Turkic and Turkic dialects, Kurdish Luri, Balochi, Arabic, Turkish Jordan: Arabic (official language) – English widely understood in middle and upper classes

7 Religion Pakistan: 97% Muslims Also, Christians and Hindus Iran: 99% Muslims Jordan: 95% Muslims

8 Vocabulary of Islam Allah – God Zakat – ‘Purification’ and ‘growth’. All Muslims calculate their own ‘zakat’, a payment to those in need so that their own possessions are purified. 2.5% of annual wealth is given to charity. Salat – Obligatory prayers performed five times per day Shahada – Declaration of faith Ramadan – In this month, all Muslims fast for self purification. Because the Islamic year is lunar this can be either in summer or winter. Hajj – The annual pilgrimage to Makkah begins in the 12 th month of the Islamic year. Eid al-Adha – Celebration at the end of the Hajj, in memory of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son to God Eid al Fitr – Celebration at the end of the month’s fasting, Ramadan

9 Salat Fajar – prayer before sunrise Zuhar – prayer at noon Asar – prayer in the afternoon Magrib – prayer at sunset Aisha – prayer at night

10 Vocabulary of Festivals of Pakistan Shab-e-Barat – religious festival, 14 th of Shaaban, 8 th Islamic month Pakistan Day – March 23 Mela Chiraghan (Festival of Lamps) – 1 week’s festivities outside Shalimar Garden, Lahore Ashura – 2 days of mourning on the anniversary of the death of Prophet Muhammad on 9 th and 10 th of Moharram, 1 st Islamic month Independence Day – August 14 Eid-e-Miland-un-Nabi – Birthday of Prophet Hazrat Mohammad, 12 th of Rabi-ul-Awwal, 3 rd Islamic month September 11 – Anniversary of the death of the father of the nation: Quaid-e-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah Basant- Festival of Kites, a spring-time festival December 25 – Birthday of Quaid-e-Azam

11 Vocabulary of dress - Pakistan Shalwar Kameez – a long, loose, non- revealing garment worn by both men and women (Pakistan) Hijab – headscarf for women

12 Vocabulary of food - Pakistan Roti, chapattis, puri, halwa, nan – baked and deep-fried breads Dhal – lentil mush Samosas Tikkas – spiced and barbecued beef, lamb or chicken Barfi – dessert made from dried milk solids Basmati – type of rice

13 Language of Iran: Farsi Counting YEK6SHISH 2DO7HAFT 3SHE8HASHT 4CHAHAR9NOH 5PANJ10DAH

14 Counting: YAZDAH16SHANSDAH 12DAWAZDAH17HEVDAH 13SISDAH18HIZHDAH 14CHAHARDAH19NOOZDAH 15PONSDAH20BEEST

15 Days of the Week SHANBEHSaturday YEKSHANBEHSunday DOSHANBEHMonday SEHSHANBEHTuesday CHAHARSHANBEHWednesday PANGSHANBEHThursday JOMEHFriday

16 Months of the Year March 21 st = New Year FARVARDIN MEHR MarchSeptember ORDIBEHESHTABAN AprilOctober KHORDADAAZAR MayNovember TIERDAY JuneDecember MORDADBAHMAN JulyJanuary SHAHRIVARESFAND AugustFebruary

17 Farsi in a Few Words! Fahmidy? – Did you understand? Man fahmidam – I understood. ‘merci’ – thank you (use the French version of thank-you) or mo tashakeram-am verb ending = I tashkor – to thank khahesh – please raah – road Koja ast…..? Where is…..? inja – here khaylee – very khaab – asleep boodan – to be Man khaab boodam – I was asleep!

18 And More! shab – nightdishab – last night sard – cold Dishab khaylee sard bood. Last night it was very cold. (verb to the end of the sentence) Esmeh man ______ ast. My name is ______. Man Amrikaee hastam. I am American. Shoma Irany hastid? Are you (formal) Iranian? madreseh – schoolkhanneh – house daneshgah – university (danesh – science gah – place) pesar – girlbozorgha - adults dokhtar – boydoost – friend (like/love) khorshied – sunmah – moon (mouth)

19 Colors in Farsi sephied zard sabz sorkh suraty seeyaa aabie Aasemaan aabie ast. The sky is blue.

20 Seasons and Descriptions…. abri – cloud abri + e – cloudy surat – facesurat + y – pink bozorg – bigkutchak – small khoob - niceemrooz – today farda – tomorrow dirooz - yesterday bahaar – spring tabestaan – summer paeez – autumn zemestan – winter

21 Simple Phrases in Farsi khoshamadi – welcome (kh = /h/) salam – hello (Assalam = Arabic) Tchebry? – How are you? Khoda Hafez – goodbye Man khoob hastan. – I am fine. ghanah – coffeesharab – wine (forbidden) nun – bread sobraaneh – breakfast nahaar – lunch shaam – dinner

22 Swirls and curls of Arabic to taste different foods! Qater ﻗﻄﺮ syrup Leban ﻠﺒﻦ yogurt Zaytoon ﺰﻴﺘﻭﻦ olives Baathenjaanﺒﺎﺬﻨﺠﺎﻦ aubergine Hummosﺤﻤﺺ chickpea paste

23 Some Arabic words in English admiral alcohol alcove algebra alkali almanac amalgam apricot arsenal arsenic artichoke assassin aubergine azure bedouin calibre camel candy cane carafe check cipher coffee cotton crimson crocus cumin damask elixir garble gauze gazelle ghoul giraffe grab guitar harem hazard influenza jasmine lacquer lake lemon lilac lime magazine marzipan massacre massage mattress mocha mohair monsoon mosque muslim muslin myrrh orange racket safari saffron sash scallion sequin sesame shackle sheikh sherbet shrub sofa spinach sugar syrup tabby talc tambourine tariff tarragon typhoon zenith zero

24 Useful Websites An introduction to the Arabic language, how to study it and common English words which find their roots in Arabic. World fact book: all countries represented People of Pakistan Iran Tourism and Touring

25 Resources Information received in the NOVA course ‘Introduction to Middle Eastern and Asian Languages/Cultures’ and from the following instructors: Nasim Khawaja Firouz Hejazi Sarah Eqab


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