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THE TRUMAN YEARS 1945-1952 HARRY S TRUMAN “Give ‘em hell Harry!” “The buck stops here!” “If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.”

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Presentation on theme: "THE TRUMAN YEARS 1945-1952 HARRY S TRUMAN “Give ‘em hell Harry!” “The buck stops here!” “If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.”"— Presentation transcript:

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2 THE TRUMAN YEARS 1945-1952 HARRY S TRUMAN “Give ‘em hell Harry!” “The buck stops here!” “If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the kitchen.”

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4 YALTA CONFERENCE February 1945 February 1945 Yalta, U.S.S.R. Yalta, U.S.S.R. Agreements: Agreements: –Eastern European countries would be free to choose their own form of gov’t –Germany to be divided into 4 zones of occupation by the 4 Allies –Berlin, in the Soviet zone of Germany, would also be divided by the 4 powers – –Stalin promises to enter war against Japan after Germany defeated

5 POTSDAM CONFERENCE July – August, 1945 Truman and Stalin and Churchill Ultimatum to Japan – surrender or else Truman insists German industry be allowed to recover but Stalin wants reparations Agreement: – –German industry allowed to revive in the British, American and French zones – –Stalin gets reparations from only the Soviet zone of Germany (not happy since it was primarily agricultural) Truman tells Stalin of U.S. atomic bomb testing

6 POSTWAR ECONOMY DEMOBILIZATION: DEMOBILIZATION: Forces cut to total of 1.5 million by 1947 (from WWII peak of 8 million) Forces cut to total of 1.5 million by 1947 (from WWII peak of 8 million) –Did NOT bring depression to U.S.: »Pent up demand for consumer goods »Forced savings ($30 billion) during war –GI Bill of Rights – 1944 (Serviceman’s Readjustment Act) »$13 billion in aid »Education »Housing »Small business loans

7 POSTWAR ECONOMY INFLATION - INFLATION - Rose rapidly – demand for wage increases led to … STRIKES: – –5,000 strikes of 4.6 million workers in 1946 » »’46 – UAW strike against GM & Steelworkers against U.S. Steel Truman suggests $.18/hr wage increase & allowed U.S. Steel to raise prices to cover the increase Became basis of settlements in other industries » »UMW Strike – April 1946 John L. Lewis Truman ordered gov’t takeover of mines but then accepted Union’s demands » »Truman avoids RR strike by seizing RRs & threatening to draft strikers into Army!

8 EARLY DOMESTIC POLICY Employment Act of 1946 Employment Act of 1946 –To maintain full employment; 3 member advisory council to P Atomic Energy Commission, 1946 Atomic Energy Commission, 1946 –Civilian control over nuclear development; P has sole authority over use of nuclear weapons Presidential Succession Act, 1947 Presidential Succession Act, 1947 –Put Speaker & Pres. Pro Temp ahead of Sec. Of State –Why? 22 nd Amendment passed; ratified 1951 22 nd Amendment passed; ratified 1951 Department of Defense created, 1947 Department of Defense created, 1947 –National Security Council to advise P –CIA created for foreign fact-gathering

9 TAFT-HARTLEY ACT, 1947 Republicans are anti-labor unions – –seeking to stop strikes & curb union power Made “closed shop” illegal (employers forced to hire only union members) Required anti-communist oath of union officials No union $ could be used for political campaigns Authorized P to seek court injunctions to prevent strikes TRUMAN VETOED – Congress overrides

10 FOREIGN POLICY – THE COLD WAR Failure of U.S.-Soviet Cooperation Failure of U.S.-Soviet Cooperation –Due to different goals of each side – what are they? –Tensions apparent at Yalta and Potsdam –Soviet control over E. Europe, parts of China, Korea, by end of ’45 –By ’46-47 – also control Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria –“Long Telegram” 1947 (5,540 words), George Kennan warns that Soviets have no intention of living peacefully with U.S.-proposes “containment” Soviet Army kept strong Soviet Army kept strong –5 million in 1947 –Soviets understand U.S. nuclear arsenal (12 bombs) cannot destroy entire Soviet military machine

11 UNITED NATIONS Post WWII international peace- keeping organization Replaces the League of Nations April 1945, San Francisco 50 Nations U.S. is first to join Eleanor Roosevelt, 1 st U.S. Ambassador ISRAEL UN created Israeli State out of BR Palestine US recognized Israel in ’48 – protested by oil producing Arab nations

12 IRON CURTAIN Phrase coined by Winston Churchill in 1946 speech in Fulton, MO An “iron curtain” has been spread across Europe separating the democratic from the authoritarian communist states – “satellite nations”

13 CONTAINMENT Will be the Cold War foreign policy for decades Formulated by George Kennan – –“Sources of Soviet Conduct” – July 1947 – –Calls for counterforce to Soviet pressures for purpose of “containing’ communism “Cold War” term used by Walter Lippman to describe icy rivalry & tension/push for dominance between U.S. & Soviets

14 THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE Containment in action! Containment in action! Feb. ’47 Britain advises it can no longer afford aid to Greece in its efforts against communism Feb. ’47 Britain advises it can no longer afford aid to Greece in its efforts against communism Truman asks Congress for $400 million in military & economic aid to Greece & Turkey Truman asks Congress for $400 million in military & economic aid to Greece & Turkey Truman Doctrine – U.S. must support free peoples who are resisting communist domination by outside pressure (diplomatic, economic, military) Truman Doctrine – U.S. must support free peoples who are resisting communist domination by outside pressure (diplomatic, economic, military) Gives official sanction to the communism v. democracy approach to foreign relations; foreign policy begins to dominate domestic policy Gives official sanction to the communism v. democracy approach to foreign relations; foreign policy begins to dominate domestic policy Why is this an historic change in US foreign policy? Why is this an historic change in US foreign policy?

15 THE MARSHALL PLAN 1948-1952 A “containment” success – over $13 billion. “Hunger, poverty, desperation & chaos are the enemies of democracy.” Marshall Passed in March ’48 after Soviet coup d’etat in Czechoslovakia in Feb. ‘48

16 Yalta’s Post WWII Division of Germany and Berlin What were the conflicting beliefs of Soviets and U.S. on Germany? Federal Republic of Germany formed in 1948 by U.S., British, French Soviet Response: Block surface access to Berlin

17 U.S., British & French combined their zones in Germany to form an independent nation: German Federal Republic (West Germany) Soviets retaliated by closing off all traffic from West Germany to Berlin Truman orders Berlin airlift to bring supplies to the 2 million people stranded in West Berlin Airlift lasted for 12 months; over 200,000 flights What types of supplies were brought in? BERLIN AIRLIFT

18 THE BERLIN AIRLIFT 12 months – 200,000 flights Supplies to 2 million stranded West Berliners..\THE _CANDY BOMBER_ OF THE BERLIN AIRLIFT, 60 YEARS LATER.mp4

19 CONTAINMENT IN ASIA: THE PHILIPPINES Granted independence by the U.S. in 1946 Granted independence by the U.S. in 1946 In return, U.S. got use of naval bases there In return, U.S. got use of naval bases there But, by turn of the century, all U.S. troops were to be removed. But, by turn of the century, all U.S. troops were to be removed.

20 Douglas MacArthur is Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in charge of the occupation of Japan from 1945-1947 Douglas MacArthur is Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in charge of the occupation of Japan from 1945-1947 Known as the “White Emperor” of Japan Known as the “White Emperor” of Japan Why an occupation policy for Japan? Why an occupation policy for Japan? JAPAN

21 Japan’s military forces are dismantled & empire lost Japan’s military forces are dismantled & empire lost War criminals are tried War criminals are tried A new constitution is written which provides for representative gov’t & gives women the right to vote A new constitution is written which provides for representative gov’t & gives women the right to vote Schools are reorganized to teach democratic values Schools are reorganized to teach democratic values The Emperor remains, but only as a figurehead. The Emperor remains, but only as a figurehead. Japan regained its independence in 1951 Japan regained its independence in 1951 Quickly became the leading economy in Asia Quickly became the leading economy in Asia Under MacArthur:

22 Ongoing conflict in China between Communists, led by Mao, and the Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek since 20s Ongoing conflict in China between Communists, led by Mao, and the Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek since 20s Suspended in WWII to fight Japan Suspended in WWII to fight Japan U.S. sends Marshall to help settle conflict and $20 billion in aid between ’45 & ’48 U.S. sends Marshall to help settle conflict and $20 billion in aid between ’45 & ’48 –$ lost due to poor planning and corruption Communists successful by ’49 Communists successful by ’49 –500 million new communists U.S. refuses aid to Nationalists during Communist takeover U.S. refuses aid to Nationalists during Communist takeover Nationalists forced off mainland to Taiwan Nationalists forced off mainland to Taiwan U.N. recognizes only Nationalist China on Taiwan U.N. recognizes only Nationalist China on Taiwan Chairman Mao Zedung Chiang Kai-shek

23 ELECTION OF 1948 Thomas Dewey, R Henry Wallace, Progressive Strom Thurmond, Dixiecrat Whistlestop Campaign Farmers, workers, blacks Fair Deal Democrats opposed to Truman’s pro-civil rights policies

24 TRUMAN’S FAIR DEAL Expansion of Social Security benefits Proposed national health insurance Raised minimum wage from $.40 to $.70 Committee on Civil Rights, 1946 CIVIL RIGHTS: Committee on Civil Rights, 1946 –Make lynching a federal crime; no poll taxes –Ended segregation in the armed forces –No discrimination in federal jobs Unsuccessful with many efforts - defeated by a coalition of Republicans & conservative Southern Ds Unsuccessful with many efforts - defeated by a coalition of Republicans & conservative Southern Ds 1952 Steel Strike – Truman nationalized steel industry before the strike started! Supreme Ct. held that he lacked the authority to seize the steel mills.

25 TRUMAN’S LOYALTY PROGRAM Loyalty Review Board – 1947 Loyalty Review Board – 1947 –“Reviewed” over 3 million federal employees –Truman’s response to charges of being “soft on communism” HUAC – 1938/1948 HUAC – 1938/1948 –Originally to rout out subversion –FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover uses it by ’48 to hold public hearings on communist subversives –First case – Hollywood film industry »“Hollywood Ten” – claim 5 th & won’t testify – –HUAC famous for attacks on WPA Arts Projects – particularly theatre

26 THE RED SCARE Began in 1950 when Soviet government worker defected and revealed extent of Soviet spies infiltrating America Americans began to fear communist subversion – –Effort to secretly weaken and overthrow a country/society

27 ALGER HISS In HUAC hearing, Whittaker Chambers, former Communist, accuses Hiss, a former State Dept. official under FDR, of being a spy In HUAC hearing, Whittaker Chambers, former Communist, accuses Hiss, a former State Dept. official under FDR, of being a spy Chambers produces microfilm he claims Hiss hid in a pumpkin outside his house Chambers produces microfilm he claims Hiss hid in a pumpkin outside his house Too late to bring an espionage case Too late to bring an espionage case But, Hiss convicted of perjury (lying under oath) But, Hiss convicted of perjury (lying under oath) Sen. Richard Nixon for prosecution Sen. Richard Nixon for prosecution Case feeds fears of communist underground organization in U.S. Case feeds fears of communist underground organization in U.S.

28 THE ROSENBERGS Convicted 1951; Executed 1953 Only Americans ever executed in peacetime for espionage Rosenbergs lived in New York Rosenbergs lived in New York Scientists; members of Communist party; accused of heading up a Soviet spy ring Scientists; members of Communist party; accused of heading up a Soviet spy ring PROJECT VENONA PROJECT VENONA –1946 – not revealed until 1995 –Cracked Soviet spy code & confirmed extensive Soviet spying; massive spy hunt –Intercepted messages not made public so as not to alert Soviets –Strong evidence of guilt of Rosenbergs

29 JOSEPH R. MCCARTHY WI Senator; drinking problem; witch hunts are reelection campaign strategy WI Senator; drinking problem; witch hunts are reelection campaign strategy Claims in 1950 to have list of 205 communists in State Dept. – never any real evidence produced Claims in 1950 to have list of 205 communists in State Dept. – never any real evidence produced So accusations get more sensational – diplomats (George Marshall), scholars, Hollywood…. So accusations get more sensational – diplomats (George Marshall), scholars, Hollywood…. Why would he gain support? Why would he gain support? McCarran Internal Security Act – ’50 McCarran Internal Security Act – ’50 –Passed over Truman’s veto –Communist orgs must register w/Att. Gen. –Members may not work in defense or travel abroad - no passports

30 Changes in America as a result of The Red Scare: Fear of communism and nuclear war dominated life Soviets had A-bomb by 1949; H-bomb by ’53 & so Americans began preparing for a Soviet attack – –Bomb shelters & fallout shelters – –Duck and cover drills 1950s are a time of major contrast: – –Prosperity, materialism, good times on the on the one hand – –Fear of communism, nuclear war & destruction on the other hand

31 NATO NATO –April 1949; effect of Berlin blockade –Commander: Eisenhower –Purpose: containment –Based on principle of “collective security” –Dramatic foreign policy departure for U.S. WARSAW PACT – Soviet response WARSAW PACT – Soviet response ARMS RACE ARMS RACE –Soviet atomic bomb – 1949 – Truman calls for building of super hydrogen bomb Jan. 1950 –U.S. Hydrogen bomb – 1952; Soviets by 1953 –NSC-68: Acheson; US needs conventional military buildup also – spending increases 350% » »Rationale: Soviets would not be able to keep up with US spending – would be economic chaos for Soviets NATO & THE WARSAW PACT

32 Assassination Attempt 1950 by several Puerto Rican Nationalists who believed it would bring attention to their cause 1950 by several Puerto Rican Nationalists who believed it would bring attention to their cause 2 of the 3 assassins killed in attempt; last assassin got to the steps of the before being shot. 2 of the 3 assassins killed in attempt; last assassin got to the steps of the before being shot. Sentenced to death; one week before execution in ’52, Truman commuted the sentence to life imprisonment Sentenced to death; one week before execution in ’52, Truman commuted the sentence to life imprisonment Carter let him out in Sept. 1979 – he went home to Puerto Rico and died there in ’94 at age of 80 Carter let him out in Sept. 1979 – he went home to Puerto Rico and died there in ’94 at age of 80 Would-be presidential assassin Oscar Collazo lies wounded in front of Blair House, 1950

33 KOREA (Before)(After)

34 Under Japanese control from 1910-1945 Under Japanese control from 1910-1945 Divided after WWII at the 38th parallel with the Soviets controlling the North & the U.S. controlling the South Divided after WWII at the 38th parallel with the Soviets controlling the North & the U.S. controlling the South UN recognizes only S Korea in ’48 UN recognizes only S Korea in ’48 Most U.S. & Soviet troops withdraw in ’49 Most U.S. & Soviet troops withdraw in ’49 Jan. ’50 Acheson refers to Korea as “outside the defense perimeter” Jan. ’50 Acheson refers to Korea as “outside the defense perimeter” NORTHNORTH SOUTHSOUTH

35 June 1950 - N. Korea invades S. Korea June 1950 - N. Korea invades S. Korea U.N. calls all members to aid S. Korea U.N. calls all members to aid S. Korea Gen. Douglas MacArthur appointed as Commander of the U.N. troops Gen. Douglas MacArthur appointed as Commander of the U.N. troops N. Korean forces soon pushed the S. Koreans & U.N. all the way south to Pusan N. Korean forces soon pushed the S. Koreans & U.N. all the way south to Pusan

36 September 1950, MacArthur makes surprise attack behind N. Korean lines at Inchon September 1950, MacArthur makes surprise attack behind N. Korean lines at Inchon MacArthur pushed the North back to Chinese border at Yalu River MacArthur pushed the North back to Chinese border at Yalu River Chinese communists (300,000 – “human waves”) came to the aid of N. Korea – guns melted due to heavy use Chinese communists (300,000 – “human waves”) came to the aid of N. Korea – guns melted due to heavy use U.N. troops again pushed south U.N. troops again pushed south

37 April 1951, Gen. MacArthur is fired by President Truman April 1951, Gen. MacArthur is fired by President Truman WHY? WHY? 1951-1953: Fighting continues but peace negotiations ongoing A stalemate exists (issue is POW exchange) Armistice 1953 (Ike) Dividing line between N& S is set at almost exact same place

38 EFFECTS OF THE KOREAN WAR: U.S. begins major military buildup; permanent protection of SK Message to U.S.S.R./China that U.S. will fight to halt communism Civilian control of U.S. military reaffirmed; sets precedent of war conducted by the P rather than Congress U.S. gets more involved in Asia with military aid (Vietnam!)


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