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Queen Cleopatra 1. Background Knowledge Background Knowledge 2. Text Analysis Text Analysis 3. Exercises Exercises 4. Questions For Discussion Questions.

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Presentation on theme: "Queen Cleopatra 1. Background Knowledge Background Knowledge 2. Text Analysis Text Analysis 3. Exercises Exercises 4. Questions For Discussion Questions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Queen Cleopatra 1. Background Knowledge Background Knowledge 2. Text Analysis Text Analysis 3. Exercises Exercises 4. Questions For Discussion Questions For Discussion

2 Background Knowledge Roman Empire (27 B.C. – 395 A.D.): According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 B.C. by the descendants of a Trojan prince. In 500B.C. the Romans set up an independent republic. Throughout the period of the republic ( B.C.) warfare was almost continuous. At about 100 B.C. Rome began to move steadily toward dictatorship. More

3 Background Knowledge In 60 B.C. the army leaders Pompey and Julius Caesar formed the first Triumvirate ( 三头政治 ) with Crassus because of his great wealth. After Caesar’s assassination and the avenging of his death by Mark Antony, his nephew Octavian defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra and became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, Augustus, in 27 B.C. More

4 Background Knowledge Cleopatra : Cleopatra became queen of Egypt in 51 B.C., after the death of her father, Ptolemy XII. She was then 17 years old and her 10-year-old brother became her co-ruler and husband. Marriage between a brother and a sister was a common practice in Egyptian royal families. More

5 Background Knowledge Three years later (48 B.C.) the protectors of her husband seized power for him and drove her from the throne. At the same time, Julius Caesar arrived in Alexandria, Egypt’s capital. He came in pursuit of Pompey, a Roman general and rival in Caesar’s struggle to become the ruler of Rome. Caesar and Cleopatra met and fell in love. In 47 B.C. she gave birth to a boy, Caesarion, who she claimed was Caesar’s son. More

6 Background Knowledge In 40 B.C. she gave birth to twins, Alexander Heios and Cleopatra Selene, fathered by Mark Antony. Antony loved Cleopatra, but political wisdom dictated that he marry Octavia, the sister of his co-ruler Octavian. He married Octavia, but missed Cleopatra so much that he left Octavia, and in 37 B.C. married Cleopatra. A year later, she had another son by him, Ptolemy Philandelphos. More

7 Background Knowledge Cleopatra’s reputation in history comes largely from the view of Octavian, who described Antony as a love-struck victim of a wicked temptress. The Roman poets Virgil and Horace also adopted this version. Cleopatra’s story has been told many times in literature. It has been dramatized not only by Shakespeare, but also by John Dryden, “All for Love” (1677), and by George Bernard Shaw, “Caesar and Cleopatra” (1898). Return

8 1. True/False Questions 2. Multiple-choice Questions 3. TranslationTrue/False QuestionsMultiple-choice QuestionsTranslation Return

9 True/False Questions 1.Cleopatra admired Caesar so much that she went to see him secretly. 2.Caesar helped Cleopatra to win back her power. 3.Caesar was murdered by his nephew Octavian. 4.Antony was defeated by Octavian mainly because the luxurious life had dulled his mind. 5.Antony died a hero. 6.Cleopatra killed herself in order to avoid public disgrace. Answer

10 True/False Questions 1.Cleopatra admired Caesar so much that she went to see him secretly. (F) 2.Caesar helped Cleopatra to win back her power. 3.Caesar was murdered by his nephew Octavian. 4.Antony was defeated by Octavian mainly because the luxurious life had dulled his mind. 5.Antony died a hero. 6.Cleopatra killed herself in order to avoid public disgrace. Answer

11 True/False Questions 1.Cleopatra admired Caesar so much that she went to see him secretly. (F) 2.Caesar helped Cleopatra to win back her power. (T) 3.Caesar was murdered by his nephew Octavian. 4.Antony was defeated by Octavian mainly because the luxurious life had dulled his mind. 5.Antony died a hero. 6.Cleopatra killed herself in order to avoid public disgrace. Answer

12 True/False Questions 1.Cleopatra admired Caesar so much that she went to see him secretly. (F) 2.Caesar helped Cleopatra to win back her power. (T) 3.Caesar was murdered by his nephew Octavian. (F) 4.Antony was defeated by Octavian mainly because the luxurious life had dulled his mind. 5.Antony died a hero. 6.Cleopatra killed herself in order to avoid public disgrace. Answer

13 True/False Questions 1.Cleopatra admired Caesar so much that she went to see him secretly. (F) 2.Caesar helped Cleopatra to win back her power. (T) 3.Caesar was murdered by his nephew Octavian. (F) 4.Antony was defeated by Octavian mainly because the luxurious life had dulled his mind. (T) 5.Antony died a hero. 6.Cleopatra killed herself in order to avoid public disgrace. Answer

14 True/False Questions 1.Cleopatra admired Caesar so much that she went to see him secretly. (F) 2.Caesar helped Cleopatra to win back her power. (T) 3.Caesar was murdered by his nephew Octavian. (F) 4.Antony was defeated by Octavian mainly because the luxurious life had dulled his mind. (T) 5.Antony died a hero. (F) 6.Cleopatra killed herself in order to avoid public disgrace. Answer

15 True/False Questions 1.Cleopatra admired Caesar so much that she went to see him secretly. (F) 2.Caesar helped Cleopatra to win back her power. (T) 3.Caesar was murdered by his nephew Octavian. (F) 4.Antony was defeated by Octavian mainly because the luxurious life had dulled his mind. (T) 5.Antony died a hero. (F) 6.Cleopatra killed herself in order to avoid public disgrace. (T) Return

16 Multiple-choice Questions 1. According to this article, Cleopatra was the most famous queen of Egypt because of. A) her beauty B) her wits and love stories C) her power of mind to win back her power D) her ability to speak eight languages Answer

17 Multiple-choice Questions 1. According to this article, Cleopatra was the most famous queen of Egypt because of. (B) A) her beauty B) her wits and love stories C) her power of mind to win back her power D) her ability to speak eight languages More

18 Multiple-choice Questions 2. Cleopatra concealed herself in a carpet and was brought before Caesar so that. A) she should escape her brother’s notice B) she could win Caesar’s love C) she could run away from exile D) she could win Caesar’s help Answer

19 Multiple-choice Questions 2. Cleopatra concealed herself in a carpet and was brought before Caesar so that. (D) A) she should escape her brother’s notice B) she could win Caesar’s love C) she could run away from exile D) she could win Caesar’s help More

20 Multiple-choice Questions 3.Caesar invited Cleopatra to Rome because. A) he wanted to make her Queen of the world B) he wanted to form an alliance with Egypt C) he came to love her D) he needed her help to take the crown Answer

21 Multiple-choice Questions 3.Caesar invited Cleopatra to Rome because. (C) A) he wanted to make her Queen of the world B) he wanted to form an alliance with Egypt C) he came to love her D) he needed her help to take the crown More

22 Multiple-choice Questions 4. What made Cleopatra win the love of the two greatest Romans of their age? A) Her personal charm. B) Her quite pleasing features. C) Her power of mind. D) Her graceful manners. Answer

23 Multiple-choice Questions 4. What made Cleopatra win the love of the two greatest Romans of their age? (C) A) Her personal charm. B) Her quite pleasing features. C) Her power of mind. D) Her graceful manners. More

24 Multiple-choice Questions 5.Which of the following is the basic cause for Antony’s defeat? A) He had been away from Rome for too long. B) He had fallen into the habit of luxury. C) He was thinking too much of Cleopatra. D) He took too much pride in his fighting skills. Answer

25 Multiple-choice Questions 5.Which of the following is the basic cause for Antony’s defeat? (B) A) He had been away from Rome for too long. B) He had fallen into the habit of luxury. C) He was thinking too much of Cleopatra. D) He took too much pride in his fighting skills. Return

26 Translation 1.She might have remained in exile had it not been for Julius Caesar. Answer

27 Translation 1.She might have remained in exile had it not been for Julius Caesar. 若不是尤利乌斯 凯撒,她或许仍流放在外。 More

28 Translation 2.He liked her and, in time, would come to love her. Answer

29 Translation 2.He liked her and, in time, would come to love her. 他喜欢她,总有一天会爱上她。 More

30 Translation 3.Antony might have won against Octavian except for two things. Answer

31 Translation 3.Antony might have won against Octavian except for two things. 若不是有两个原因,安东尼或许能战胜屋大维。 More

32 Translation 4.Some say Antony had fallen into habits of luxury that dulled his mind. Answer

33 Translation 4.Some say Antony had fallen into habits of luxury that dulled his mind. 有人说安东尼已养成奢侈享受的习惯,这削弱了他 的智慧。 More

34 Translation 5.Cleopatra quickly set up a meeting with Octavian. Answer

35 Translation 5.Cleopatra quickly set up a meeting with Octavian. 克里奥佩特拉迅即安排了与屋大维的会面。 Return

36 Questions for Discussion 1. What is your impression of Cleopatra after reading the text? Can you find evidence in the text? 2. What kind of man was Antony? What lesson can we learn from his losing the battle? Return

37 Text Analysis Was it her wish to continue as queen or pure love that took Cleopatra to ancient Rome? Nobody really knows. But her interesting story has been passed down to the present.Cleopatra Of all the queens of Egypt, the most famous was Cleopatra. She lived two thousand years ago, but her legend has never died. legend

38 Text Analysis At the age of seventeen, Cleopatra became the Egyptian queen. She shared power with her younger brother, Ptolemy. But Ptolemy’s guardians plotted against her, took away her power, and forced her into exile.guardians exile She might have remained in exile had it not been for Julius Caesar. This famous Roman general had come to Egypt with an army. Cleopatra decided to go to Caesar and ask him to help her win back her power.

39 Text Analysis Fearing that her brother’s soldiers might capture her before she could reach Caesar, she went to him secretly. Legend says that the youthful queen wrapped herself up in a carpet. Then she was carried before Caesar on the shoulders of a servant who pretended to be carrying a load of baggage. The story goes on to say that when Caesar saw what was in the “baggage”, he was much amused. He admired the cleverness of the young woman.capturecarpetamused

40 Text Analysis Cleopatra told Caesar about the loss of her power. Caesar was charmed by her manner. He liked her and, in time, would come to love her. He promised to win her power back for her. Before long a battle was fought against Ptolemy’s forces, and Caesar’s soldiers won.charmed in timeBefore long

41 Text Analysis Cleopatra greatly admired Caesar. When he asked her to visit Rome, she gladly accepted. She stayed in Rome until the fateful day when Caesar was killed. Fearing that Caesar would make himself king, assassins stabbed him to death as he entered the Roman senate one day. assassinssenate

42 Text Analysis Some say that Cleopatra had hoped to become Caesar’s queen after he had taken the crown. Perhaps that was her plan. Perhaps she hoped to become “Queen of the World”. But with Caesar dead her hopes could not come true. She hurried back to Alexandria, in Egypt.taken the crowncome true

43 Text Analysis Among the friends of Caesar was the general Marcus Antonius, or Mark Antony. He gave a speech condemning Caesar’s assassins and led an army against them. He became one of three men who shared power over the Roman empire after Caesar’s death. The others were Lepidus, a general, and Octavian, a nephew of Caesar. Marcus Antonius, or Mark AntonyLepidusOctavian nephew

44 Text Analysis Military actions took Antony to Asia Minor shortly after Caesar’s death. While there, he sent word to Cleopatra that he would like to see her. The queen was not certain that Antony would prove friendly, but she sailed from Alexandria to see him. When she arrived, she asked Antony to dine with her aboard her ship.Asia Minor

45 Text Analysis The purpose of their meeting was to see if Antony and Cleopatra could form an alliance against Octavian, whom they both feared. But we are told that the charming queen and the handsome general fell in love almost at once. In time they were married.alliance

46 Text Analysis How did Cleopatra win the love of the two greatest Romans of their age, first Caesar and then Antony? The few portraits that exist do not show her as a great beauty. But her features were not displeasing, and she was said to have much wit and personal charm. More important was the power of her mind. The historian Plutarch called her one of the most learned women of her time. He reported that she could speak eight languages.portraitspersonal Plutarch

47 Text Analysis While Antony stayed with Cleopatra, Octavian was master of Italy. Letters passed between him and Antony, and the messages were not always friendly. At length war broke out — a civil war for mastery of the Roman empire.broke out civil

48 Text Analysis Antony had already proved himself the more skilful general. He might have won against Octavian except for two things. One trouble was that Antony had lost more than two-thirds of his soldiers while trying to conquer Parthia (now part of Iran). Also, some say he had fallen into habits of luxury that dulled his mind. When Octavian moved to attack him, Antony failed to show the sharp wits he had had in the past.skilfulParthia (now part of Iran)luxury

49 Text Analysis The main battle took place near Actium, on the Mediterranean Sea. Both Antony and Cleopatra were there with their fleets, but the battle was lost. They ran back to Egypt. For a time they felt safe in Alexandria. Then Octavian came with his soldiers, surrounded and captured the city.

50 Text Analysis Thousands of Antony’s soldiers went to the enemy side. Then false news reached him that Cleopatra had taken her own life. In despair, he fell upon his sword. Learning that Antony was badly wounded, though not yet dead, Cleopatra asked that he be brought to her. He was still alive when he reached her. He begged her to save herself, then died in her arms. taken her own lifedespair

51 Text Analysis Cleopatra quickly set up a meeting with Octavian. It is said that she tried to use her charms on him but had no success. She guessed that Octavian was planning to take her to Rome and march her through the streets in chains. Then, she believed, he would have her put to death.

52 Text Analysis Asking for an hour to visit Antony’s grave, Cleopatra made ready to die by her own act. She arranged for a servant to bring her a basket of figs, but concealed among the figs was an asp — a small but deadly serpent. The queen drew the asp from the basket and let it sink its fangs into her flesh. When Roman soldiers came to seek her, they found her dead by Antony’s side. concealedserpent

53 Text Analysis It is said that Octavian ordered a magnificent funeral at which the bodies of the two lovers were laid out side by side. So ended a story of love and war, a story that William Shakespeare later told in his famous play Antony and Cleopatra.magnificentlaid out William Shakespeare Simplified from Reading Laboratory, Power Builder, 2b-9. Approximately 1000 words. Return

54 legend[ 5ledVEnd ] n. 传说 =an unverified story handed down from earlier times, especially one popularly believed to be historical e.g.The image of dragon often appears in legends. 传说中经常出现龙的形象。 Return

55 guardian[ 5^B:dIEn ] n. 监护人 =one that guards, watches over, or protects e.g.It is said that everyone has a guardian angel. 据说每人都有一个守卫天使。 Return

56 exile[ 5eksaIl ] n. 流放 =enforced removal from one's native country e.g.He had been five years in exile. 他过流放生活已经五年了。 Return

57 capture[ 5kAptFE ] vt. 捕获,俘获 =to take captive, as by force or craft; seize e.g.The criminal was captured when trying to escape from the city. 罪犯在企图逃离这座城市时被捕获。 Return

58 carpet[ 5kB:pIt ] n. 毛毯,地毯 =a thick, heavy covering for a floor, usually made of woven wool or synthetic fibers; a rug e.g.There is a carpet of leaves and pine needles on the forest floor. 森林中的地面上有一层厚厚的落叶 和松针。 Return

59 amused [ E`mju:zd ]adj. 被逗 乐(的);表示愉快的 =delighted e.g.He felt amused at the baby’s naughty expression. 他被婴儿淘气的表情逗笑了。 Return

60 charm [ tFB:m ]vt. 迷住;吸引; =to attract or delight greatly e.g.We were charmed with the scenery. 我们陶醉在景色之中。 n. 魅力;妩媚 =the power or quality of pleasing or delighting; attractiveness e.g.This town, clean and quiet, has a charm you couldn't find in a big city. 这个城镇既干净又安静, 自有大城市里找不到的 那种魅力。 Return

61 assassin[ E5sAsIn ] n. 刺客;暗杀者 =one who murders by surprise attack, especially one who carries out a plot to kill a prominent person e.g.He hired an assassin to kill his competitor. 他雇用了一名刺客去暗杀他的竞争者。 Return

62 senate[ 5senIt ] n. (古罗马)元老院 =the supreme council of state of the ancient Roman Republic and later of the Roman Empire e.g.In ancient Roman Empire, the senate had the right to decide life or death. 在古罗马,元老院有生杀大权。 Return

63 nephew[ 5nevju: ] n. 侄子;外甥 =a son of one's brother or sister or the brother or sister of one's spouse e.g.He didn’t forget to buy present for his nephew. 他没忘给侄子买礼物。 Return

64 alliance[ E5laIEns ] n. 联盟 =a close association of nations or other groups, formed to advance common interests or causes e.g.The two countries made an alliance. 两国结盟。 Return

65 portrait[ 5pC:trIt ] n. 人像,画像,肖像 =a likeness of a person, especially one showing the face, that is created by a painter or photographer, for example e.g.He painted a portrait of his daughter. 他画了一幅她女儿的像。 Return

66 personal[ 5pE:sEnl ] adj. 个人的;私人 的 =of or relating to a particular person; private e.g.Don't be too personal. 谈话不要过于涉及私事。 Return

67 civil [ 5sIvl ]adj. 国内的;民用的;文明的 =within a country e.g.The war between the north and the south is also called the American civil war. 南北战争也被称为美国内战。 Return

68 skilful [ 5skIlfJl ]adj. 熟练的;有 技术的 =proficient e.g.He is skilful in drawing. 他画画很有技巧。 Return

69 luxury[ 5lQkFErI ] n. 奢侈,奢侈 的享受 =sumptuous living or surroundings e.g.They live in luxury in a very big house. 他们在一所很大的房子里过着奢侈的 生活。 Return

70 despair[ dis5pZE ] n. 绝望 =complete loss of hope e.g.He gave up the attempt in despair. 他失望地放弃尝试。 Return

71 conceal [ kEn5si:l ]vt. 隐藏 =to keep from being seen, found, observed, or discovered; hide e.g.He concealed the sweets in his pocket. 他把糖果藏在口袋里。 Return

72 serpent[ 5sE:pEnt ] n. 蛇 = snake e.g.The serpent fascinated its prey. 蛇吓住了它要捕食的动物。 Return

73 magnificent [ mA^5nIfIsEnt ]adj. 庄严的;宏大的 = grand; splendid in appearance e.g.The magnificent scene of the waterfall is a perfect delight to the eye. 瀑布的宏伟景象真是好看极了。 Return

74 in time 迟早,最终;经过一段时间之后 = sooner or later e.g.In time they came to accept the harsh facts. 他们最终接受了这个严酷的现实。 Return

75 before long 不久以后 e.g.Before long, the noise dropped completely and the boat began to drift gently across the water. 不久, 轰鸣声完全消失了, 于是这只船 开始慢悠悠地漂浮在水面上。 Return

76 come true 实现;成为现实 e.g.If you hold on, your dream will come true one day. 只要你坚持,你的梦想终有一日会实 现。 Return

77 break out (战争)爆发 e.g.World War II broke out in 第二次世界大战是 1939 年爆发的。 Return

78 take one’s own life 自杀 e.g.She took her own life because of despair. 她因绝望而自杀。 Return

79 lay out 为(尸体)做殡葬准备;摆出, 展开 e.g.Early in the morning, shopkeepers laid out their merchandises. 大清早店主们摆出了他们的货品。 Return

80 Cleopatra ([ kliE5pAtrE ]) (69-30 B.C.): queen of Egypt Return

81 take the crown: 继承王位 Return

82 Marcus Antonius ([ `mB:kE 9An`tEJnjEs ]) or Mark Antony ([ 5mB:k 5AntEnI ]): Roman general, friend of Caesar and one of the three men who ruled the Roman empire after Caesar died Return

83 Lepidus ([ 5lepidEs ]), a general: Roman politician Return

84 Octavian ([ Ck`teIvjEn ]), a nephew of Caesar Return

85 Asia Minor: large peninsula in West Asia, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean 小亚细亚 Return

86 Plutarch ([ `plu:tB:k ]) ( A.D.): Greek biographer and moralist Return

87 Parthia ([ `pB:WIE ]) (now part of Iran): an ancient country in West Asia Return

88 William Shakespeare ( ): ([ `wIljEm `FeikspiE ]) English poet, playwright and actor- manager, one of the giants of world literature Return

89 Caesar was charmed by her manner. 凯撒不禁被她的高贵气质所倾倒。 Return

90 He became one of three men who shared power over the Roman empire after Caesar’s death. 在凯撒死后,安东尼成为统治罗马帝国 的三头政治中的一员。 Return

91 Thousands of Antony’s soldiers went to the enemy side. 数千名安东尼的士兵纷纷投向敌军。 Return

92 In despair, he fell upon his sword. 在绝望中,安东尼拔剑自刎。 Return

93 It is said that she tried to use her charms on him but had no success. 据说克里奥佩特拉曾试图对屋大维施展 魅力,但没有成功。 Return

94 She might have remained in exile had it not been for Julius Caesar. 若不是尤利乌斯 凯撒,她或许仍流放在外。 had it not been for Julius Caesar: without the help of Julius Caesar If it were not for 这一结构用来表示一个特定的情况改变了一 切,意即 “ 倘没有,要不是 ” ;有关过去的情况则用 if it had not been for ;倒装结构则为 Were it not for/Had it not been for : e.g. If it hadn’t been for your help, we had never finished it. 倘若没有你的帮助,我们永远也完不成。 Return

95 Of all the queens of Egypt, the most famous was Cleopatra. She lived two thousand years ago, but her legend has never died. 埃及的所有女王中,最著名的当属克里奥佩特拉。虽然她 生活在两千多年以前,但她的故事流传千古。 but her legend has never died: the story about her has been passed down through the centuries Return

96 The few portraits that exist do not show her as a great beauty. But her features were not displeasing, and she was said to have much wit and personal charm. 从现存的为数不多的克里奥佩特拉的肖像来 看,她并不是一个绝代佳人。但她的相貌还 是惹人喜爱的,据说她智慧超人,具有一种 独特的魅力。 Return

97 Antony failed to show the sharp wits he had had in the past. 安东尼没有表现出以往战斗中的那种灵活机 智。 Return

98 Asking for an hour to visit Antony’s grave, Cleopatra made ready to die by her own act. 她请求给她一个小时去安东尼的墓地进行悼 念,并作好了自杀的准备。 Cleopatra made ready to die by her own act: Cleopatra made up her mind to kill herself. Return

99 She shared power with her younger brother, Ptolemy ([ `tClImI ]): She ruled Egypt together with her younger brother. Return

100 Cleopatra had taken her own life: Cleopatra had killed herself Return

101 that he be brought to her: that he should be brought to her Return

102 Have you heard of Cleopatra before? What do you know about her?

103 Return What qualities in Cleopatra did Caesar and Antony admire?

104 Return Why did Antony lose the battle?

105 Return Did Antony die a hero?


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