Presentation on theme: "Hazardous Materials Incidents by Chris Hawley CHAPTER 7: Terrorism Awareness."— Presentation transcript:
Hazardous Materials Incidents by Chris Hawley CHAPTER 7: Terrorism Awareness
Chapter 7: Overview Type of terrorism Potential targets Indicators of terrorism Incident actions General groupings of warfare agents Detection of terrorism agents Federal assistance Basic incident priorities Summary
Terrorism in the United States This chapter examines terrorism response as well as HAZMAT crimes. –HAZMAT crimes Crimes using chemicals as a weapon Usually targeted at individuals
Terrorism Incidents The United States has not seen daily terrorism events, as often occurs in other parts of the world. –Recent years have shown some large scale events, with large losses of life. –Events in the U.S. are not as common as incidents that attack U.S. interests in foreign countries.
Large Scale Terrorism Incidents Attacks of September 11, 2001 –World Trade Center –Pentagon –Shanksville, PA Oklahoma City bombing April 19, 1995 World Trade Center bombing 1993 Salmonella attack, Oregon 1984
Terrorism Events Olympic park bombing and others –Clinic bombing –Bar bombing Alleged bomber Eric Rudolph Aum Shinryko Tokyo subway attack –Aum completed 19 other attacks –Important group to study Unabomber
Other Events Ricin Butyric acid Border bomb White powder responses Shoe bomber Abdullah al Muhajir Embassy bombings 2003
Types of Terrorism International –Perception that international terrorism is greatest threat –False Domestic –Presents greatest threat –Most common
Terrorism Definition Terrorism is a violent act or an act dangerous to human life, in violation of the criminal laws of the United States or any segment, to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Potential Targets Public assembly Federal, state, and local government buildings Mass transit systems High economic areas Telecommunications facilities Historical or symbolic buildings FBI, ATF, and IRS offices Military installations Women’s reproductive health clinics Fur stores Genetic research buildings Churches and synagogues
Assessing Threats Does the potential terrorist have –Education to make or pull off the attack? –Access to raw materials? –Access to production equipment? –Access to dissemination equipment? –Motivation to kill?
Indicators of Terrorism (1 of 2) Most terrorism events (93%) are explosive in nature. –Pipe bombs most common The Department of Justice uses OTTO. –Occupancy and location –Type of event –Timing of the event –On-scene warning signs
Indicators of Terrorism (2 of 2) One of the best indicators will be a pattern of unexplained illness or injury. –Multiple patients –Multiple seizures –Unusual odors
Incident Actions (1 of 2) Mass Casualty EMS Incident + Hazardous Materials Release and/or Explosive Devices + Crime Scene Considerations = Incident Management Challenges
Incident Actions (2 of 2) Command issues may present the most significant challenge to responders. Site management and control present significant problems. Accountability is crucial.
General Grouping of Warfare Agents Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) Biological, nuclear, incendiary, chemical, and explosive (BNICE) Chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear and explosive (CBRNE)
Nerve Agents High-strength organophosphate pesticides (OPP) Developed by the military Cause immediate effects Very toxic materials For example, sarin
Nerve Agent Signs and Symptoms (SLUDGEM) Salivation –drooling Lacrimation – tearing eyes Urination – may lose control and urinate on themselves Defecation – may lose control of their bowels (diarrhea) Gastro-intestinal – nausea and vomiting Emisis – vomiting Miosis – pinpointing of the pupils
Blister Agents Also called vesicants –From the vesicles (blisters) formed upon contact Not designed to kill, but to incapacitate May cause delayed reactions For example, mustard agent
Blood and Choking Agents Common industrial materials Two categories –Blood agents –Choking agents Hydrogen cyanide and chlorine, for example
Signs and Symptoms Dizziness, difficulty breathing, nausea, and general weakness Cyanides –Breathing initially rapid and deep, followed by respiratory depression, usually leading to death Chlorine and phosgene –Difficulty breathing, respiratory distress, eye irritation, and (in higher amounts) skin irritation –Phosgene may present delayed effects, while chlorine’s effects are immediate.
Irritants Used for riot control Not designed to kill –Short-term effects For example, mace and pepper spray
Irritants - Signs and Symptoms The signs and symptoms for a slight exposure to a high dose are the same with the exception of increasing severity. –Eye and respiratory irritation There is no real treatment except removal to fresh air. –In minutes, the symptoms will begin to disappear.
Biological Agents and Toxins First large-scale attack in the U.S. was biological. –Salmonella in Oregon made 715 people ill. Anthrax attack in 2001 left five people dead. –Hysteria created panic with white powders.
Other Biological Agents Anthrax Plague Tularemia Ricin –Most common –Several arrests a year –Good assassin’s weapon
Signs and Symptoms of Anthrax Exposure 1-4 day period of malaise, fatigue, and fever Muscle tenderness, and a non-productive cough followed by a rapid onset of –Respiratory distress –Cyanosis and sweating Recent cases also had profound –Heavy sweating –Nausea and vomiting
Nuclear and Radiation Threats Two types of events –Nuclear detonation –Radiological dispersion device (RDD)
Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) This is not a nuclear bomb Conventional explosive distributes a radioactive material. Technologically is difficult. Effective radiation monitoring can prevent inadvertent exposure.
Explosive Statistics On average –3,000 bomb incidents a year –32 people killed a year –277 injured annually 11-year history has shown only 4-5 secondary devices for 33,000 bomb incidents (U.S.).
Detection of Terrorism Agents Test Strips –M-8 indicating paper –M-9 indicating tape –HAZMAT Smart Strip
Colorimetric Sampling Tests available for warfare agents –Multiple tube tests –Single tube tests Very reliable
Biological Agent Detection (1 of 2) Handheld assays –Should use reader to improve accuracy –Some have accuracy issues Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) –Replicates the DNA of the sample –Looks to match DNA –Lab-based systems very accurate
Biological Agent Detection (2 of 2) FBI and CDC have established more than 70 labs nationwide to test for biological agents. –Consult with the local FBI WMD Coordinator for more information. Always screen samples. –Fire, corrosive, toxic, and radiation hazards
Federal Response Agencies FBI –Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU) –ERT National Guard Civil Support Teams (CST) FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) –Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) DOD –Technical Escort Unit (TEU)
Incident Priorities (1 of 2) Rescue live victims. –Use full protective clothing and SCBA. Avoid contact with any materials. Use quick in – quick out approach. Do not treat victims in hazard area. Remove live victims. –Leave the dead. Ensure police presence. –Terrorist may be around Watch for secondary devices. Avoid staging equipment together.
Incident Priorities (2 of 2) Request HAZMAT and Bomb Squad. Limit personnel working in hazard area. Notify emergency management. Request USAR for collapses. Isolate victims. Establish triage areas. Notify area hospitals. Remember the incident is a crime scene. Preserve evidence. Consult with specialists.
Summary Type of terrorism Potential targets Indicators of terrorism Incident actions General groupings of warfare agents Detection of terrorism agents Federal assistance Basic incident priorities