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Cognition Memory & Thought.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognition Memory & Thought."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognition Memory & Thought

2 memory- The Basics consider material stored…
info (reduces uncertainty) processing = cognition 1- input = senses capture all experiences >>> impulses (NS) brain accept all? 2- central processing = 3- output = memory-

3 What is Memory? Human memory… information processing system encode
store retrieve information

4 Memory’s Basic Tasks Information-Processing model encoding- select*
identify* tag / label automatic - especially? elaboration (concrete exs) storage- retrieval-

5 How Do We Form Memories? Stages of Memory each stages encodes & stores
different way work together transform sensory experience {lasting record} Stages of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM

6 hold fraction of second >>> disappears Sensory Storage
Storing Information hold fraction of second >>> disappears nerve impulses 12-16 items forget--- no attention & transfer sense (register) assistance--- tone/smells/touch next stage… Sensory Storage

7 “working memory” Short-Term Memory
conscious any moment --- limited selects SS >>>> (encodes) LTM “working memory” **items? ** seconds? sensitive to interruptions hippocampus & frontal {rehearsal}


9 STM Rehearsal -maintenance -elaborative Chunking
7 unrelated items --- packaged = 1 item related items >>> LTM group connections = memorize faster & more info chunked >>> temporary & “interest” must be rehearsed!! -maintenance -elaborative Chunking

10 Long-Term Memory what is good memory??
items STM >>> chunk / rehearsal >>> encoded unlimited capacity!! meaning stored {interests / similarity} recall events BUT lose… time & blocks


12 declarative [explicit]
Other Models of Memory declarative [explicit] conscious knowledge *semantic – *episodic – procedural [implicit] skills >>>> simple – complex repetition / hard to unlearn gain skill lose ability to explain **conditioning – learn responses w/o consciously aware eidetic / “flash bulb” (time / location)

13 Retrieving Information
retrieval --- organization influenced >>> knowledge / attitudes / expectations memories --- simplified / enriched / distorted order confabulation index w/ various headings info req >>> experience / situation ability suggests limitless storage Priming [meaningful organization] Recall Recognition

14 Mood-congruent memory-
Retrieving Information Other factors affecting… Encoding specificity- state dependent memory (AP 2009) Mood-congruent memory- TOT experience-

15 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us?
Most problems arise… “7 sins” – by-products of otherwise adaptive features of human memory

16 Causes… Memory Failure Forgetting… Decay- sensory & STM
{frustrating} not retrievable Decay- sensory & STM Amnesia (retrograde/anterograde) Causes…

17 7 Sins Omission Transience** Absent-Mindedness Blocking proactive
new experience & age Absent-Mindedness Blocking proactive retroactive serial position effect repression

18 **Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve
Percent retained 60 50 40 30 20 10 Days 5 10 15 20 25 30 Recall decreases rapidly  plateau little more is forgotten

19 7 Sins Commission Misattribution Suggestibility Bias Persistence
wrong time, place, or person Suggestibility misinformation effect Bias Expectancy bias Self-consistency bias Persistence

20 Improving Influences of Memory Mnemonic Devices meaningful =
associate = senses & experiences interference = degree of original learning Mnemonic Devices techniques for using associations 1) rhyme 2) acronym

21 Eyewitness Accuracy: Recollections are less influenced by leading questions if possibility of memory bias is forewarned Passage of time leads to increase in misremembering information Age of the witness matters Confidence in memory is not a sign of accuracy

22 Input Sorting = priority
Taking in Information Selective Attention situation? Broadbent >>> selection theory --- interpretation limited Treisman >>> attenuation theory --- filter suppressed others >>>> limited ability to respond Input Sorting = priority 1- satisfaction of needs 2- strange & novel 3- interests

23 Taking in Information Feature Extraction evaluative process
identify: car / artist [reading] ability to extract >>> identify & compare distinguish faces {resemblance: family} depends on experience experts?? evaluative process

24 Penny Knowledge…

25 The First Stage: Sensory Memory
On the next slide, you will see a series of letters for one second Try to remember as many letters as you can

26 D J B X H G C L Y


28 Spelling List acomplishment acheivement consolidate consistant
reccommend maintainance accomplishment achievement consistent recommend maintenance Word Exercise: heat >>>> cold

29 Picture Memory




33 Retrieving Information
#s / words / nonsense syllables measure of implicit [advantage??] Serial Anticipation Relearning


35 Components of Thought Thinking- cognitive process brain uses info…
(senses / emotions / memory) …create & manipulate

36 Concepts Concepts – mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experience Natural - represent objects & events prototype Artificial - defined by rules organize much of declarative memories concept hierarchies

37 Animal Bird Fish Canary Ostrich Shark Salmon Has skin Eats Breathes
Has wings Can fly Has feathers Has fins Can swim Has gills Canary Ostrich Shark Salmon Can sing Is yellow Can’t fly Is tall Can bite Is dangerous Is pink Is edible

38 Brain & Thought Event-related potentials – lobe?
Imagery & Cognitive Maps Event-related potentials – brain waves (EEG) show response to stimulation lobe? Brain & Thought

39 Knowing What to Expect Schema – knowledge cluster or general framework that provides expectations… topics / events (individual situations) objects / people Script – cluster of knowledge about sequences of events & actions expected  particular settings **thinking… directed / metacognition (non)

40 Abilities of Good Thinkers
repertoire of effective… algorithms & heuristics avoid common impediments

41 Problem Solving Good problem solvers are skilled at…
Identifying problem Selecting strategy Algorithms- guarantee a correct outcome if correctly applied Heuristics- shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks **no guarantees **insight- sudden realization/emergence of solution recombination of elements creativity- mental process  novel responses contributing to solutions use info >>> new / original / meaningful

42 Obstacles to Problem Solving
Mental set – respond to a new problem in previous manner Functional fixedness – inability to perceive a new use for an object associated w/ a different purpose

43 Obstacles to Problem Solving
Other obstacles: Self-imposed limitations Lack of interest Fatigue Drugs (legal & illegal)

44 Judging & Making Decisions Representativeness Bias
Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias


46 Unscramble These Words
nelin ensce sdlen lecam slfal dlchi neque raspe klsta nolem dlsco hsfle naorg egsta

47 Unscrambled Words linen scene lends camel falls child queen pears talks melon colds shelf groan gates The algorithm you used to solve the first column probably kept you from seeing the multiple solutions for the words in the second column

48 Creativity- flexibility

49 Judging & Making Decisions
Confirmation Bias Ignoring or finding fault w/ info that does not fit our opinions, & seeking info w/ which we agree Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias

50 Judging & Making Decisions
Confirmation Bias Tendency, after learning about an event, to believe that one could have predicted the event in advance Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias

51 Judging & Making Decisions
Confirmation Bias Faulty heuristic caused by basing (anchoring) an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias

52 Judging & Making Decisions
Confirmation Bias Faulty heuristic strategy based on presumption that, once a person or event is categorized, it shares all features of other members in that category Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

53 Judging & Making Decisions
Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Faulty heuristic strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled from personal experience Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias


55 -Human Memory is Good at Information…
attention is focused interesting arouses us emotionally fits our previous experiences that we rehearse

56 Practical Application-how to study useless information
Make it personal. Make it emotional.  Use your senses. Make it visual/auditory. Associate Do it Freaky. Mnemonic Aids-acronyms, acrostics, rhymes, etc.  Rehearsal Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

57 Encoding and Storage in Working Memory
Chunking – Organizing pieces of information into a smaller number of meaningful units Maintenance rehearsal – Process in which information is repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

58 Encoding and Storage in Working Memory
Elaborative rehearsal – Process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM Acoustic encoding – Conversion of information to sound patterns in working memory Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

59 Encoding and Storage in Working Memory
Levels-of-processing theory – Explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful terms in LTM will be better remembered Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

60 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Long-term memory Declarative memory Procedural memory Semantic memory Includes memory for: language, facts general knowledge Episodic memory Includes memory for: events, personal experiences Includes memory for: motor skills, operant and classical conditioning Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

61 The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory
Engram – The physical trace of memory Anterograde amnesia – Inability to form memories for new information Retrograde amnesia – Inability to remember information previously stored in memory Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

62 The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory
Consolidation – The process by which short-term memories are changed to long-term memories Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

63 How Do We Retrieve Memories?
Whether memories are implicit or explicit, successful retrieval depends on how they were encoded and how they are cued Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

64 How Do We Retrieve Memories?
Implicit memory – Memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness Explicit memory – Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

65 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Retrieval Cues Retrieval cues – Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

66 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Retrieval Cues Priming – Technique for retrieving implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

67 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Priming If you are presented with the following words: assassin, octopus, avocado, mystery, sheriff, climate Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

68 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Priming An hour later, you would easily be able to identify which of the following words you had previously seen: twilight, assassin, dinosaur, mystery Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

69 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Priming However, an hour later, you would also have a much easier time filling in the blanks of some of these words than others: ch_ _ _ _ nk o _ t _ _ _ us _ og _ y _ _ _ _ l _ m _ te Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

70 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Priming While you did not actively try to remember “octopus” and “climate” from the first list, they were primed in the reading, which made them easier to identify in this task chipmunk octopus bogeyman climate Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

71 Retrieving Explicit Memories
Anything stored in LTM must be “filed” according to its pattern or meaning Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

72 Recall and Recognition
Recall – Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must reproduce previously presented information Recognition – Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

73 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval
Encoding specificity principle – The more closely the retrieval clues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better the information will be remembered Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

74 The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory
Despite the grief they cause us, the “seven sins” may actually be by-products of adaptive features of memory For example, absent-mindedness is the by-product of the useful ability to shift our attention Misattributions, biases, and suggestibility result from a memory system built to deal with meaning Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

75 Improving Memory with Mnemonics
Mnemonics – Techniques for improving memory, especially by making connections between new material and information already in long-term memory Mnemonic strategies include Method of loci Natural language mediators Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007


77 The Nine-Dot Problem Without lifting your pen from the page, can you connect all nine dots with only four lines?

78 Working Backwards

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