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consider material stored… info (reduces uncertainty) processing = cognition 1- input = senses capture all experiences >>> impulses (NS)  brain accept.

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Presentation on theme: "consider material stored… info (reduces uncertainty) processing = cognition 1- input = senses capture all experiences >>> impulses (NS)  brain accept."— Presentation transcript:

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2 consider material stored… info (reduces uncertainty) processing = cognition 1- input = senses capture all experiences >>> impulses (NS)  brain accept all? 2- central processing = 3- output = memory -

3 Human memory… information processing system encode store retrieve information What is Memory?

4 Information-Processing model – e– encoding- ss elect* ii dentify* tt ag / label a utomatic - especially? e laboration (concrete exs) – s– storage - – r– retrieval -

5 each stages encodes & stores different way work together  transform sensory experience {lasting record} How Do We Form Memories? Stages of Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM

6 hold fraction of second >>> disappears n erve impulses items –f–f–f–forget--- no attention & transfer ssssense (register) assistance--- tone/smells/touch next stage…

7 limitedconscious any moment --- limited –selects SS >>>> (encodes) LTM “working memory”“working memory” **items? ** seconds? –sensitive to interruptions  hippocampus & frontal {rehearsal}

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9 7 unrelated items --- packaged = 1 item –r–related items >>> LTM gg roup connections = memorize faster & more info chunked >>> temporary & “interest” mm ust be rehearsed!! -maintenance -elaborative

10 what is good memory?? items STM >>> chunk / rehearsal >>> encoded –u–u–u–unlimited capacity!! mmmmeaning stored{interests / similarity} recall events BUT lose… time & blocks

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12 declarative [explicit] –c–conscious knowledge *semantic –*episodic – procedural [implicit] –s–skills >>>> simple – complex rr epetition / hard to unlearn gg ain skill lose ability to explain **conditioning – learn responses w/o consciously aware ee idetic / “flash bulb” (time / location)

13 retrieval --- organization influenced >>> knowledge / attitudes / expectations –memories --- simplified / enriched / distorted  order confabulation –index w/ various headings  info req >>> experience / situation  ability suggests limitless storage Priming [meaningful organization]

14 Other factors affecting… Encoding specificity- »s»state dependent memory (AP 2009) Mood-congruent memory- TOT experience-

15 Why Does Memory Sometimes Fail Us? Most problems arise… “7 sins” – by-products of otherwise adaptive features of human memory

16 not retrievable Decay - sensory & STM Amnesia (retrograde/anterograde) {frustrating}

17 Transience** new experience & age Absent-Mindedness Blocking –proactive –retroactive –serial position effect  repression

18 **Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve Recall decreases rapidly  plateau little more is forgotten Percent retained Days

19 Misattribution –wrong time, place, or person Suggestibility –misinformation effect Bias –Expectancy bias –Self-consistency bias Persistence

20 meaningful = associate = –s–senses & experiences interference = dd egree of original learning Mnemonic Devices techniques for using associations 1) rhyme 2) acronym

21 Eyewitness Accuracy: Recollections are less influenced by leading questions if possibility of memory bias is forewarned Passage of time leads to increase in misremembering information Age of the witness matters Confidence in memory is not a sign of accuracy

22 situation? Broadbent >>> selection theory --- interpretation limited Treisman >>> attenuation theory --- filter suppressed o thers >>>> limited ability to respond Input Sorting = priority 1- satisfaction of needs 2- strange & novel 3- interests

23 –i–identify: car / artist [reading] ability to extract >>> identify & compare –d–distinguish faces {resemblance: family} –d–depends on experience e xperts?? ee valuative process

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25 The First Stage: Sensory Memory On the next slide, you will see a series of letters for one second Try to remember as many letters as you can

26 D J B X H G C L Y

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28 acomplishment acheivement consolidate consistant reccommend maintainance accomplishment achievement consistent recommend maintenance Word Exercise: heat >>>> cold

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31 PEACH BOOK SWORD CAR ENEMY MIRROR SHOE THERMOMETER CLOCK BRICK BED SALT FLOWER CALENDAR AIRPLANE

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33 #s / words / nonsense syllables measure of implicit[advantage??]

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35 Thinking- cognitive process brain uses info… brain uses info… (senses / emotions / memory) …create & manipulate Components of Thought

36 Concepts – mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experience Natural - represent objects & events Natural - represent objects & events prototype prototype Artificial - defined by rules Artificial - defined by rules –organize much of declarative memories concept hierarchies

37 Animal FishBird SalmonSharkOstrichCanary Has skin Eats Breathes Has fins Can swim Has gills Has wings Can fly Has feathers Can sing Is yellow Can’t fly Is tall Can bite Is dangerous Is pink Is edible

38 Imagery & Cognitive Maps Event-related potentials – brain waves (EEG) show response to stimulation lobe? lobe?

39 Schema – knowledge cluster or general framework that provides expectations… topics / events (individual situations) objects / people Script – cluster of knowledge about sequences of events & actions expected  particular settings **thinking… directed / metacognition (non)

40 repertoire of effective…  algorithms & heuristics avoid common impediments Abilities of Good Thinkers

41 Good problem solvers are skilled at… II dentifying problem SS electing strategy A lgorithms- guarantee a correct outcome if correctly applied H euristics- shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks **no guarantees **insight- sudden realization/emergence of solution r ecombination of elements creativity- mental process  novel responses contributing to solutions –u–use info >>> new / original / meaningful

42 Mental set – respond to a new problem in previous manner Functional fixedness – inability to perceive a new use for an object associated w/ a different purpose

43 Other obstacles: Self-imposed limitations Lack of interest Fatigue Drugs (legal & illegal)

44 Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias

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46 Unscramble These Words nelin ensce sdlen lecam slfal dlchi neque raspe klsta nolem dlsco hsfle naorg egsta

47 Unscrambled Words linen scene lends camel falls child queen pears talks melon colds shelf groan gates The algorithm you used to solve the first column probably kept you from seeing the multiple solutions for the words in the second column

48 Creativity- flexibility

49 Judging & Making Decisions Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias Ignoring or finding fault w/ info that does not fit our opinions, & seeking info w/ which we agree

50 Judging & Making Decisions Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias Tendency, after learning about an event, to believe that one could have predicted the event in advance

51 Judging & Making Decisions Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias Faulty heuristic caused by basing (anchoring) an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity

52 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Judging & Making Decisions Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias Faulty heuristic strategy based on presumption that, once a person or event is categorized, it shares all features of other members in that category

53 Judging & Making Decisions Confirmation Bias Hindsight Bias Anchoring Bias Representativeness Bias Availability Bias Faulty heuristic strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled from personal experience

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55 -Human Memory is Good at Information… attention is focused interesting arouses us emotionally fits our previous experiences that we rehearse

56 Practical Application-how to study useless information Make it personal. Make it emotional. Use your senses. Make it visual/auditory. Associate Do it Freaky. Mnemonic Aids-acronyms, acrostics, rhymes, etc. Rehearsal Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

57 Encoding and Storage in Working Memory Chunking – Organizing pieces of information into a smaller number of meaningful units Maintenance rehearsal – Process in which information is repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory

58 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Acoustic encoding – Conversion of information to sound patterns in working memory Encoding and Storage in Working Memory Elaborative rehearsal – Process in which information is actively reviewed and related to information already in LTM

59 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Encoding and Storage in Working Memory Levels-of-processing theory – Explanation for the fact that information that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful terms in LTM will be better remembered

60 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Semantic memory Includes memory for: language, facts general knowledge Episodic memory Includes memory for: events, personal experiences Includes memory for: motor skills, operant and classical conditioning Long-term memory Declarative memoryProcedural memory

61 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory Engram – The physical trace of memory Anterograde amnesia – Inability to form memories for new information Retrograde amnesia – Inability to remember information previously stored in memory

62 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory Consolidation – The process by which short-term memories are changed to long-term memories

63 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Do We Retrieve Memories? Whether memories are implicit or explicit, successful retrieval depends on how they were encoded and how they are cued

64 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Explicit memory – Memory that has been processed with attention and can be consciously recalled How Do We Retrieve Memories? Implicit memory – Memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness

65 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieval Cues Retrieval cues – Stimuli that are used to bring a memory to consciousness or into behavior

66 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieval Cues Priming – Technique for retrieving implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue and the retrieved memory

67 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming If you are presented with the following words: assassin, octopus, avocado, mystery, sheriff, climate

68 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming An hour later, you would easily be able to identify which of the following words you had previously seen: twilight, assassin, dinosaur, mystery

69 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 ch_ _ _ _ nk o _ t _ _ _ us _ og _ y _ _ _ _ l _ m _ te Priming However, an hour later, you would also have a much easier time filling in the blanks of some of these words than others:

70 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Priming While you did not actively try to remember “octopus” and “climate” from the first list, they were primed in the reading, which made them easier to identify in this task chipmunk octopus bogeyman climate

71 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Retrieving Explicit Memories Anything stored in LTM must be “filed” according to its pattern or meaning

72 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Recall and Recognition Recall – Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must reproduce previously presented information Recognition – Technique for retrieving explicit memories in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented

73 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Factors Affecting Retrieval Encoding specificity principle – The more closely the retrieval clues match the form in which the information was encoded, the better the information will be remembered

74 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Advantages of the “Seven Sins” of Memory Despite the grief they cause us, the “seven sins” may actually be by-products of adaptive features of memory For example, absent-mindedness is the by-product of the useful ability to shift our attention Misattributions, biases, and suggestibility result from a memory system built to deal with meaning

75 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Improving Memory with Mnemonics Mnemonics – Techniques for improving memory, especially by making connections between new material and information already in long-term memory Mnemonic strategies include Method of loci Natural language mediators

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77 The Nine-Dot Problem... Without lifting your pen from the page, can you connect all nine dots with only four lines?

78 Working Backwards


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