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World War I 1914-1918 “The Great War” What led to World War One? A series of contributing factors…

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Presentation on theme: "World War I 1914-1918 “The Great War” What led to World War One? A series of contributing factors…"— Presentation transcript:

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2 World War I 1914-1918 “The Great War”

3 What led to World War One? A series of contributing factors…

4 The Pursuit of Peace Wanted to avoid conflict, foster understanding among nations Wanted to avoid conflict, foster understanding among nations Pacifism = opposition to all war Pacifism = opposition to all war 1896 = First Modern Olympic Games 1896 = First Modern Olympic Games Alfred Nobel sets up the Nobel Peace Prize Alfred Nobel sets up the Nobel Peace Prize Suffragettes supported peace Suffragettes supported peace First Universal Peace Conference, Netherlands First Universal Peace Conference, Netherlands Hague Tribunal, first world court to handle disputes between countries, no enforcement power Hague Tribunal, first world court to handle disputes between countries, no enforcement power

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6 Causes Militarism- glorification of the military Militarism- glorification of the military Alliances- formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another’s defense Alliances- formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another’s defense Nationalism- Pride and love of one’s countryFrance, Germany, Russia, and the Balkans Nationalism- Pride and love of one’s countryFrance, Germany, Russia, and the Balkans Imperialism-Imperial rivals divided European nations. Imperialism-Imperial rivals divided European nations. Anarchy-Abolishing all government Anarchy-Abolishing all government

7 Militarism and the Arms Race Grew partly out of Social Darwinsim. Grew partly out of Social Darwinsim. Expansion of armies and navies = arms race Expansion of armies and navies = arms race Tensions between Germany and Britain increase leading to increase naval spending Tensions between Germany and Britain increase leading to increase naval spending On matters of war and peace, governments turned to military leaders for advice On matters of war and peace, governments turned to military leaders for advice

8 Militarism & Arms Race 187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures [Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy, France, Britain, Russia] in millions of £s. 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

9 Soldiers Available on Mobilization (in millions)

10 A Tangle of Alliances Distrust led great powers to sign treaties, intended to create powerful combinations that no one would attack Distrust led great powers to sign treaties, intended to create powerful combinations that no one would attack Bismark forms the Triple Alliance – Germany, Italy, and Austria Hungary Bismark forms the Triple Alliance – Germany, Italy, and Austria Hungary France an d Russia form and alliance. France and Britain sign an entente. France an d Russia form and alliance. France and Britain sign an entente. Germany will sign with Ottoman Empire Germany will sign with Ottoman Empire Britain will draw close to Japan Britain will draw close to Japan

11 Aggressive Nationalism

12 Nationalist feeling were strong in France and Germany Nationalist feeling were strong in France and GermanyGermany Proud of their empires new military power and industrial leadership Proud of their empires new military power and industrial leadershipFrance Longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power Longed to regain its position as Europe’s leading power French were bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the German occupation of the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine French were bitter about their 1871 defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the German occupation of the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine Yearned for revenge against Germany and recovery of lost territory Yearned for revenge against Germany and recovery of lost territory

13 Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism called Pan-Slavism Russia sponsored a powerful form of nationalism called Pan-Slavism As the largest Slavic nations, Russia felt it had a duty to lead and defend all Slavs As the largest Slavic nations, Russia felt it had a duty to lead and defend all Slavs Austria-Hungary worried that nationalism might foster rebellion among many minorities within its empire Austria-Hungary worried that nationalism might foster rebellion among many minorities within its empire Ottoman Turkey felt threatened by new nations on its borders Ottoman Turkey felt threatened by new nations on its borders In 1912, several Balkan states attack Turkey. The next year, the new Balkan states fought among themselves over the spoils of war. In 1912, several Balkan states attack Turkey. The next year, the new Balkan states fought among themselves over the spoils of war.

14 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

15 Imperialism 1905 and 1911, competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the brink of war 1905 and 1911, competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the brink of war Britain felt threatened by Germany's rapid economic growth Britain felt threatened by Germany's rapid economic growth German’s wanted more respect (boo hoo) German’s wanted more respect (boo hoo)

16 Economic & Imperial Rivalries

17 Easy way to remember the four contributing factors: MANIA M: Militarism A: Alliance System N: Nationalism I: Imperialism A: Anarchism

18 The Guns of August

19 Trigger Incident Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

20 Assassination in Sarajevo Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand angered Serbian nationalist when he decides to visit Sarajevo Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand angered Serbian nationalist when he decides to visit Sarajevo “Our decision was taken almost immediately. Death to the tyrant!” – Black Hand conspiritor “Our decision was taken almost immediately. Death to the tyrant!” – Black Hand conspiritor

21 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & Family

22 The Archduke and Sophie arriving in Sarajevo

23 The Assassination: Depicted

24 Princip swallowed poison, which only made him sick. When he tried to turn the gun on himself, a crowed intervened. After rescuing Princip from the mob, the police inflicted their own torture on the assassin: they kicked him, beat him, and scraped the skin from his neck with the edges of their swords. Three months later, a court found Princip guilty of treason and murder, but because he committed his crime before his twentieth birthday, he could not be executed. Sentenced to twenty years in prison, Princip died in April 1918 from tuberculosis.

25 Abduction of Assassin Gavrilo Princip

26 Brief Side Note: More Modern History In 1991, rivalries among Eastern Orthodox Serbs, Muslim Bosnians, and Catholic Croats led to civil war in Bosnia. More than 250,000 people died, and millions fled their homes. In 1995, American and European troops helped restore peace. Tensions flared again when Serbia moved to suppress an independence movement by Muslim Albanians in the province of Kosovo. In 1999, the United States and its allies took military action against the Serbian government.” In 1991, rivalries among Eastern Orthodox Serbs, Muslim Bosnians, and Catholic Croats led to civil war in Bosnia. More than 250,000 people died, and millions fled their homes. In 1995, American and European troops helped restore peace. Tensions flared again when Serbia moved to suppress an independence movement by Muslim Albanians in the province of Kosovo. In 1999, the United States and its allies took military action against the Serbian government.”

27 “Don’t bite off more than you can chew!” Austria gives Serbia an ultimatum. Austria gives Serbia an ultimatum. Serbia agrees to most of demands, requests negotiations on some points Serbia agrees to most of demands, requests negotiations on some points Austria did not want to negotiate. Austria did not want to negotiate. Austria declares war on Serbia. 7/28/1914 Austria declares war on Serbia. 7/28/1914 Russia takes action on the behalf of Serbia. Russia takes action on the behalf of Serbia. European countries urge them to back off. European countries urge them to back off.

28 Chain Reaction Austria declares war on Serbia Austria declares war on Serbia Germany declares war on Russia. Germany declares war on Russia. Germany immediately declares war on France. Germany immediately declares war on France. Russia mobilizes Russia mobilizes Russia wants France’s assistance Russia wants France’s assistance France had not acted one way or the other. France had not acted one way or the other. Notice how the events criss-cross back and forth.

29 (1.) Belgium (neutral) (2.) Germany invaded Belgium (3.) Great Britain outraged (4.) G. B. Declares war on 8/4/1914. (1.) Belgium (neutral) (2.) Germany invaded Belgium (3.) Great Britain outraged (4.) G. B. Declares war on 8/4/1914. Chain Reactions Continue: Alliances Upheld

30 Who’s To Blame?

31 Who is the instigator behind Austria? (Hum the theme from jeopardy.)

32 That’s Right…Germany, Led by Kaiser Wilhelm

33 Archduke Franz Ferdinand with Wilhelm II of Germany

34 Kaiser Wilhelm with Sons

35 The Kaiser (seated) and cousin Czar Nicholas II (foreground standing) in younger days at a party hosted by Queen Victoria at Baden-Baden in Germany

36 European Alliances: One Side

37 War-Time Alliances: Allies

38 The Alliance System Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:

39 European Alliances: The Other Side

40 War-Time Alliances: Central Powers “The Heart of Europe” (Geographically)

41 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

42 The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Russia] George V [Great Britain] George V [Great Britain] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers: Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Germany] Victor Emmanuel II [Italy ] Central Powers: Enver Pasha [Turkey]

43 Why was Italy on the “bad” side? France vs. Italy France vs. Italy French kidnapped the Pope from Italy, taken to Avignon, France French kidnapped the Pope from Italy, taken to Avignon, France Pope dies in French custody (frail man) Pope dies in French custody (frail man) French elect their own pope in Avignon French elect their own pope in Avignon Act infuriates the Italian Catholics Act infuriates the Italian Catholics Italy never forgives France Italy never forgives France

44 What Do You Think? Do you think the war could have been avoided? Do you think the war could have been avoided? Who caused the war? Who caused the war? Do you think the idea of going to war excites people today the same way that it 100 years ago? Do you think the idea of going to war excites people today the same way that it 100 years ago?

45 The Schlieffen Plan General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen Designer of Germany’s military plan Designer of Germany’s military plan Avoid a two-front war Avoid a two-front war Attack and defeat France quickly, then Russia Attack and defeat France quickly, then Russia Russia lacked RR (slow mobilization) Russia lacked RR (slow mobilization) Speed = key to success of the plan Speed = key to success of the plan Attacked France through Belgium Attacked France through Belgium Wanted quick access to France Wanted quick access to France Belgium refused (neutrality) Belgium refused (neutrality)

46 Belgium: German Atrocity or War Propaganda?

47 Europe in 1914

48 Differing Viewpoints   “Family feud”  “Fall of the eagles”  “The war to end all wars”  “The war to make the world safe for democracy”

49 Table Activity: Draw a table. Write the immediate reason why each nation declared war on the other. Germany on Russia Germany on France Britain on Germany War DeclarationReason for Declaration

50 Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! Nationalism! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!

51 British Recruitment Poster

52 Famous American Version

53 The Western Front Stalemate - deadlock Stalemate - deadlock Trench warfare Trench warfare No man’s land No man’s land

54 Significance: the Battle of the Marne First major clash on the Western Front First major clash on the Western Front Resulted in a German defeat Resulted in a German defeat Saved the city of Paris Saved the city of Paris Schlieffen Plan failed Schlieffen Plan failed Quick victory in the West unattainable Quick victory in the West unattainable Fight long war on both fronts Fight long war on both fronts West = stalemate West = stalemate East = drain on troops (Russia invaded Germany) East = drain on troops (Russia invaded Germany)

55 Interesting Side Note: (Marne) An unfortunate German officer drove away from his general’s camp, took a wrong turn, and led himself directly into a French patrol, who killed him. When his bloodstained belongings were examined by the French, they were found to contain a map that showed two important things: the exact location of the German troops and the direction of advancement planned for the next day.

56 A Multi-Front War

57 A German Unit during the Battle of the Marne, Sept 1914

58 P.S. In 1918, the two sides fight a second Battle of the Marne. The Germans push into Northern France again. Sadly enough, the four years in between had cost hundreds of thousands of lives and the armies were still exactly where they were when they started.

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60 Trench Warfare A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield An underground network of bunkers, communication trenches, and gun emplacements An underground network of bunkers, communication trenches, and gun emplacements Heavy losses for small land gains Heavy losses for small land gains Artillery shells = death in trenches Artillery shells = death in trenches “Metal rain” (shrapnel) “Metal rain” (shrapnel)

61 Trench Warfare

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63 British Machine Gunners in Trench

64 Decomposing Soldier in a Trench

65 Corpses of two French soldiers blown into a tree

66 Life in the Trenches Pure misery and “a living hell!” Pure misery and “a living hell!” Dealing with fear & “shell-shocked” feelings Dealing with fear & “shell-shocked” feelings No fresh food No fresh food No place to sleep No place to sleep Lack of cleanliness (presence of lice) Lack of cleanliness (presence of lice) Rats Rats Elements/weather (hot sun, rain, cold, etc…) Elements/weather (hot sun, rain, cold, etc…) “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud, and dreamed mud.” “The men slept in mud, washed in mud, ate mud, and dreamed mud.”

67 Effects of Shell-shock

68 In the trenches, German soldiers hunted rats sometimes as big as cats.

69 Trench Fever… Symptoms: Symptoms: Headaches, skin rashes, leg pains, and inflamed eyes Similar to influenza Similar to influenza Transmitted by body bites Transmitted by body bites 97% infection rate in trenches 97% infection rate in trenches 15% casualty rate for lingering illness 15% casualty rate for lingering illness The Cause: Lice! Rickettsia quintana (lice)

70 Allied soldiers coping with muddy water Spring of 1916

71 Trenchfoot Fungal infection Fungal infection Prolonged by long exposure to damp, cold conditions Prolonged by long exposure to damp, cold conditions Poor hygiene/environment Poor hygiene/environment Estimated 20,000 British casualties in one yr. alone Estimated 20,000 British casualties in one yr. alone Improved with better trench construction, rubbing grease on toes/feet, and wearing clean, dry socks Improved with better trench construction, rubbing grease on toes/feet, and wearing clean, dry socks

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73 No Man’s Land Space between the opposing trenches Space between the opposing trenches Bombed-out landscape where armies were ordered to attack each other Bombed-out landscape where armies were ordered to attack each other Met by machine-gun fire, artillery fire Met by machine-gun fire, artillery fire Mines, barbed wire made it difficult to attack Mines, barbed wire made it difficult to attack “Over the top” “Over the top” Order to charge across no man’s land toward enemy lines with nothing but rifles and helmets Order to charge across no man’s land toward enemy lines with nothing but rifles and helmets Little progress made (few hundred yards of territory) Little progress made (few hundred yards of territory)

74 Dead Soldier on Barbed Wire

75 Battle of the Somme (Sahm) River British army tried to relieve pressure on the French British army tried to relieve pressure on the French First day of the battle First day of the battle Over 20,000 British soldiers killed Over 20,000 British soldiers killed Others, 60,000 killed & wounded other days Others, 60,000 killed & wounded other days Planning & execution problems Planning & execution problems Soldiers did not follow orders Soldiers did not follow orders German wire not destroyed by artillery German wire not destroyed by artillery Machine-gun posts not destroyed Machine-gun posts not destroyed Gains (if you can call it that) Gains (if you can call it that) British advanced 5 miles, Germans 4 miles British advanced 5 miles, Germans 4 miles No clear advantage won No clear advantage won

76 Losses in War

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78 Sacrifices in War

79 The body of an allied soldier lies in the road. Rats and other vermin quickly devoured any exposed flesh.

80 Death of a French regiment near Peronne

81 Americans burying their dead, Bois de Consenvoye, France, 8 Nov 1918

82 French soldier executed as a spy near Rheims

83 German cemetery at Bethune

84 “The Great War” = Global Conflict Eastern Europe Eastern Europe Southern Europe Southern Europe Outside Europe Outside Europe The colonies The colonies

85 The Eastern Front Stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border Russians, Serbs vs. Germans, Austrians, and Turks

86 Eastern Front, 1914

87 Russia’s War Effort Weakens Not industrialized Not industrialized Short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, blankets Short on food, guns, ammunition, clothes, boots, blankets Allies unable to ship goods to Russian ports Allies unable to ship goods to Russian ports German naval fleet blocked Baltic Sea German naval fleet blocked Baltic Sea Ottomans controlled straits from Mediterranean Sea to Black Sea Ottomans controlled straits from Mediterranean Sea to Black Sea

88 Russia Continued… Single Russian asset: Numbers Single Russian asset: Numbers (1915) 2 million soldiers killed, wounded, captured (1915) 2 million soldiers killed, wounded, captured Ranks rebuilt with Russian population Ranks rebuilt with Russian population Distracted Germany from Western Front Distracted Germany from Western Front

89 Eastern Front, 1915

90 Almost to the end of the War … Russian Revolution (1917) Russian Revolution (1917) Brought down Russian Monarchy (Czar Nicky II) Brought down Russian Monarchy (Czar Nicky II) Allies hopeful for a more democratic government Allies hopeful for a more democratic government V.I. Lenin comes to power V.I. Lenin comes to power Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) Ended Russian participation in WWI Ended Russian participation in WWI Caused Germans to concentrate on Western front Caused Germans to concentrate on Western front Allies REALLY angry at Russia Allies REALLY angry at Russia

91 Southern Front

92 Italy (1915) Bulgarians joined Central Powers (1915) Bulgarians joined Central Powers Crushed Serbia Crushed Serbia Italy signs a secret treaty with Allies to gain Austrian-ruled lands inhabited by Italians. Italy signs a secret treaty with Allies to gain Austrian-ruled lands inhabited by Italians. (Oct./1917) German offensive launched against the Italian position at Caporetto (Oct./1917) German offensive launched against the Italian position at Caporetto Italians retreated Italians retreated Allied forces later stop the advance into Italy Allied forces later stop the advance into Italy

93 Outside Europe

94 Other parts of the world…. Japan’s role in WWI Japan’s role in WWI Continue to be an imperialistic nation Continue to be an imperialistic nation Ally to Great Britain Ally to Great Britain Seized German outposts in China Seized German outposts in China Seized islands in the Pacific Ocean Seized islands in the Pacific Ocean Tried to impose a protectorate on China Tried to impose a protectorate on China Gets angry at the end of the war when GB will not honor secret pacts with Japan Gets angry at the end of the war when GB will not honor secret pacts with Japan

95 The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915

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97 Turks hit hard in the Middle East Determined to topple Ottoman Empire Determined to topple Ottoman Empire Arab Nationalists rose up against ruling Turks Arab Nationalists rose up against ruling Turks Colonel T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) Colonel T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) Sent by Britain to lead guerrilla raids against Turks Sent by Britain to lead guerrilla raids against Turks Dynamited bridges, supply trains Dynamited bridges, supply trains Ottomans lose a lot of land to the Arabs. Ottomans lose a lot of land to the Arabs. Arabs took control of Baghdad (Iraq), Jerusalem (Israel), & Damascus (Syria) Arabs took control of Baghdad (Iraq), Jerusalem (Israel), & Damascus (Syria)

98 T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18

99 T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19

100 The Colonies

101 Sikh British Soldiers in India

102 Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]

103 Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

104 Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916

105 Winning the War Total War Total War The United States Declares War The United States Declares War Armistice Armistice

106 Total War The channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort The channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort Modern, mechanized war Modern, mechanized war Required the total commitment of the entire society Required the total commitment of the entire society A draft (conscription) A draft (conscription) Forced labor systems for civilians Forced labor systems for civilians Borrowed money, raised taxes Borrowed money, raised taxes Rationed food and other products, like gasoline, and rubber Rationed food and other products, like gasoline, and rubber Set prices, forbid strikes by laborers Set prices, forbid strikes by laborers

107 Causes of Collapsing Morale Huge escalating war debts Huge escalating war debts Long casualty lists Long casualty lists Food shortages Food shortages Failure of generals to win promised victories Failure of generals to win promised victories Mutiny of troops Mutiny of troops Desertion of troops Desertion of troops Unrest in overseas holdings (colonies) Unrest in overseas holdings (colonies)

108 America Enters the War! (Finally) And provides a much needed: - Upset of forces. - Upset of forces. - Morale boost. - Morale boost. - End to the long stalemate. - End to the long stalemate.

109 P.S. The U.S. was the world’s strongest economy and largest creditor. Some might call this war profiteering.

110 Germany Becomes Desperate Suffered from British naval blockade Suffered from British naval blockade Severe food shortages Severe food shortages January 1917 “unrestricted submarine warfare” January 1917 “unrestricted submarine warfare” German policy that their submarines would sink without warning any ship in the waters around Great Britain German policy that their submarines would sink without warning any ship in the waters around Great Britain Step backwards in history for a moment Step backwards in history for a moment This policy was tried before…. This policy was tried before….

111 Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, 1915 May 7, 1915 German submarine sank British passenger ship German submarine sank British passenger ship Killed 1,198 people (128 U. S. citizens) Killed 1,198 people (128 U. S. citizens) Ship allegedly carrying ammunition/ weapons (true) Ship allegedly carrying ammunition/ weapons (true) President Wilson and American public outraged President Wilson and American public outraged Germany agreed to stop attacking neutral and/or passenger ships Germany agreed to stop attacking neutral and/or passenger ships Agreed to surface, allow neutral passengers to escape to lifeboats Agreed to surface, allow neutral passengers to escape to lifeboats

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113 Back to 1917… Return to submarine policy = gamble Return to submarine policy = gamble German naval blockade hoped to starve Britain into defeat before America mobilized. German naval blockade hoped to starve Britain into defeat before America mobilized. Wrong! Wrong! Sank 3 American ships after U. S. President Wilson gave warnings Sank 3 American ships after U. S. President Wilson gave warnings Bad move… Bad move… Then... Then...

114 Zimmerman Telegraph (1917) British intercepted telegraph British intercepted telegraph Arthur Zimmermann (Germany’s foreign secretary to German ambassador in Mexico) Arthur Zimmermann (Germany’s foreign secretary to German ambassador in Mexico) If Mexico became ally to Germany, then Germany would help Mexico “reconquer” lost land in the United States. If Mexico became ally to Germany, then Germany would help Mexico “reconquer” lost land in the United States. Texas, New Mexico, Arizona Texas, New Mexico, Arizona Last Straw for U.S. Last Straw for U.S. U.S. declared war on April 2, 1917 U.S. declared war on April 2, 1917

115 Telegraph = Last Straw U. S. sympathies already high U. S. sympathies already high U.S. has a bond with Great Britain. U.S. has a bond with Great Britain. Common ancestry, language Common ancestry, language Similar democratic institutions, legal systems Similar democratic institutions, legal systems True (and false) reports on German atrocities True (and false) reports on German atrocities Stirred anti-German sentiment Stirred anti-German sentiment ($) Strong economic ties to Allied Powers ($) ($) Strong economic ties to Allied Powers ($)

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117 President Woodrow Wilson

118 America Declares War!!!

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120 The Yanks are Coming! Doughboy = An American soldier (nickname given to American members of the AEF (American Expeditionary Force)…basically, the military) www.authentichistory.com/audio/ww1/American_Qu artet-Over_There.html

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122 Conscription The draft The draft Required young men to be ready for military and other service Required young men to be ready for military and other service Used by both Allies and Central powers Used by both Allies and Central powers Needed a system to recruit soldiers Needed a system to recruit soldiers

123 Women in the War Took over jobs, kept economies going Took over jobs, kept economies going War industries War industries Manufactured weapons and supplies Manufactured weapons and supplies Nurses Nurses Tended wounds in aid stations close to the front Tended wounds in aid stations close to the front Women’s Land army Women’s Land army Grew food for nation in Great Britain Grew food for nation in Great Britain After the war, women lost jobs, pushed for rights, after helping with the war effort. After the war, women lost jobs, pushed for rights, after helping with the war effort.

124 By the way… What United States Amendment to the Constitution gave women the right to vote?

125 Red Cross Nurses

126 Working in the Fields

127 Russian Women Soldiers

128 Spies “Mata Hari” “Mata Hari” Real Name: Real Name: Margareetha Zelle Famous exotic dancer Famous exotic dancer German spy! German spy! Tried by court martial Tried by court martial Blew a kiss to the French firing squad as they shot her Blew a kiss to the French firing squad as they shot her

129 Recast (changes) of gender roles All of a sudden women: All of a sudden women: Raised the hemlines of their dresses. Raised the hemlines of their dresses. Smoked in public Smoked in public Participated in unchaperoned dating. Participated in unchaperoned dating. Increased political activism. Increased political activism. But after the war, governments try to force women back into the home – a more traditional role. But after the war, governments try to force women back into the home – a more traditional role.

130 Technology and Transportation Poison gas Poison gas Armored tank Armored tank Automatic Machine guns Automatic Machine guns Aircraft Aircraft Submarines Submarines Which invention do you think has done the most to change how wars are fought? Which invention do you think has done the most to change how wars are fought?

131 Gun Shell Factory

132 Germans with a Maxim Gun (Early Photo)

133 German Machine Gunners

134 Allied Machine Gun Team

135 Original British Tank Prototype “Little Willie”

136 British Light Tank, Known as a “Whippet”

137 British tank breaking through barbed-wire

138 German A7V tank

139 US Caterpillar tank demonstration on the Los Angeles river

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141 Allied Howitzer

142 Germans attack using flamethrowers

143 French grenade-launching crossbow

144 “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

145 Fighter Plane

146 Bomber in Flight

147 Anti-Aircraft Gun

148 The Zeppelin: The Monsters of the Purple Sky!!!

149 German Song Zeppelin, flieg, Hilf uns im krieg, F lieg nach England, E ngland wird abgebrannt, Zeppelin, flieg. Zeppelin, fly, Help us win the war, Fly against England, England will be burned, Zeppelin, fly.

150 Submarine 1620 = Earliest use 1620 = Earliest use New, effective warship New, effective warship U-Boats U-Boats Unrestricted warfare on Allied ships Unrestricted warfare on Allied ships Primary weapon = torpedo Primary weapon = torpedo Self-propelled underwater missile Self-propelled underwater missile

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152 Allied destroyer dropping twin depth charges

153 Deck of a British warship

154 Poison Gas Introduced by Germans Introduced by Germans Used by both sides Used by both sides Immediate Effects: Immediate Effects: Blinding Severe blisters Death by choking Long-Term Effects: Long-Term Effects: Cancer Leukemia Certain types

155 Gas Continued... Goal: Break the stalemate, kill more enemy Goal: Break the stalemate, kill more enemy Chlorine Chlorine Cheap, easy to manufacture Cheap, easy to manufacture Acid formed in lungs/ mucus membranes Acid formed in lungs/ mucus membranes Mustard Gas Mustard Gas Skin burns Skin burns Gas mask = no protection Gas mask = no protection Medical officers = helpless Medical officers = helpless Skin grafts not used yet Skin grafts not used yet

156 British Livens Gas Bomb Projectors

157 Gas shells exploding in No Man's Land

158 First Gas Masks

159 Agent Orange in Vietnam

160 Victim of a Mustard Gas Attack

161 Effects of mustard gas

162

163

164 Camouflaged US Marine billets

165 Experimental US camouflage sniper's outfit

166 Hidden German gun emplacement

167 Propaganda The spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause The spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause Newspapers, posters, songs, films, etc… Newspapers, posters, songs, films, etc… Tales of atrocities Tales of atrocities Horrible acts against innocent people Horrible acts against innocent people Often exaggerated or completely made up Often exaggerated or completely made up Circulated by the press Circulated by the press Germany denied war difficulties Germany denied war difficulties German people will bee shocked at their “sudden defeat.” German people will bee shocked at their “sudden defeat.”

168 What event is this poster tied back to? What is left behind (according to the poster)?

169 Propaganda Targets Stress facts, stay away from hatred Stress facts, stay away from hatred Image evolves = Blood-thirsty Germans Image evolves = Blood-thirsty Germans German Heritage vs. 100% Americanism German Heritage vs. 100% Americanism Sauerkraut (on hotdogs) = “Liberty cabbage” Sauerkraut (on hotdogs) = “Liberty cabbage” Pretzels = out of the bars/saloons Pretzels = out of the bars/saloons Bach, Beethoven = removed from symphonies Bach, Beethoven = removed from symphonies Hamburger = Salisbury steak Hamburger = Salisbury steak German measles = liberty measles German measles = liberty measles

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171

172

173

174 Australian Poster

175 American Poster

176 Financing the War

177 What famous historical figure is utilized below? Women of America, Save your Country, Buy War Savings Stamps

178 Campaign to Victory…

179 Wilson’s Fourteen Points January 1918 January 1918 A list of terms for resolving WWI & future wars A list of terms for resolving WWI & future wars Freedom of the seas, free trade, large-scale reduction of arms, and end to secret treaties Freedom of the seas, free trade, large-scale reduction of arms, and end to secret treaties Creation of a general association of nations to keep peace Creation of a general association of nations to keep peace Favored self-determination for Europe Favored self-determination for Europe The right of people to choose their own government The right of people to choose their own government

180 Fourteen Points 1. End secret diplomacy 1. End secret diplomacy 2. Freedom of the seas 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Removal of trade barriers 3. Removal of trade barriers 4. Reduction in armaments 4. Reduction in armaments 5. Adjustment of colonial claims 5. Adjustment of colonial claims 6. Evacuation of Russian territory 6. Evacuation of Russian territory 7. Restoration of Belgium 7. Restoration of Belgium 8. Evacuation of France; return Alsace-Lorraine to France 8. Evacuation of France; return Alsace-Lorraine to France

181 Fourteen Points, Continued… 9. Readjustment of Italy’s borders 9. Readjustment of Italy’s borders 10. Independence of various national groups in Austria-Hungary 10. Independence of various national groups in Austria-Hungary 11. Restoration of Balkans and access to the sea for Serbia 11. Restoration of Balkans and access to the sea for Serbia 12. Free passage of all nations into and out of the Black Sea 12. Free passage of all nations into and out of the Black Sea 13. Independence for Poland 13. Independence for Poland 14. League of Nations 14. League of Nations

182 Armistice An agreement to end fighting An agreement to end fighting Sought by new German government Sought by new German government November 11, 1918, 11:00 a.m. November 11, 1918, 11:00 a.m. WWI/ Great War fighting ends… WWI/ Great War fighting ends…

183 News of Armistice

184 Celebrating the Armistice

185 Celebrating the Armistice on the Front

186 The Costs of War Pandemic Pandemic The spread of a disease across an entire country, continent, or the whole world The spread of a disease across an entire country, continent, or the whole world 1918 = influenza 1918 = influenza 20 million dead 20 million dead Financial burdens Financial burdens Rebuilding costs Rebuilding costs Highly inflated national war debts Highly inflated national war debts Who should make reparations? Who should make reparations? Payments for war damage Payments for war damage

187 Costs of War, Continued… Political turmoil Political turmoil Collapse of governments Collapse of governments Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottomans Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottomans Spread of Communism Spread of Communism Led to a conflict between communism & capitalism Led to a conflict between communism & capitalism Colonial empires begin to see more violence. Colonial empires begin to see more violence. Birth of new nations (9 to be exact) Birth of new nations (9 to be exact) Not to mention…the actual death toll of war Not to mention…the actual death toll of war

188 .Deaths in BattleWounded Allies France1,357,8004,266,000 British Empire908,3712,090,212 Russia1,700,0004,950,000 Italy462,391953,886 United States50,585205,690 Others50,585205,690 Central Powers Germany1,808,5464,247,143 Austria-Hungary922,5003,620,000 Ottoman Empire325,000400,000

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190

191 Peace The Big Three The Big Three League of Nations League of Nations Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction

192 Triumvirate: Paris Peace Conference “The Big Three” “The Big Three” United States President, Woodrow Wilson United States President, Woodrow Wilson Ideals raised expectations for a just and lasting peace Ideals raised expectations for a just and lasting peace Wanted the 14 Points basis of the peace plan Wanted the 14 Points basis of the peace plan Could be hard to work with (due to his rightness attitude) Could be hard to work with (due to his rightness attitude) British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George People demanded harsh treatment of Germany. People demanded harsh treatment of Germany. Wanted to build a post-war Britain “fit for heroes” (very costly) Wanted to build a post-war Britain “fit for heroes” (very costly) French leader, Georges Clemenceau (“the tiger”) French leader, Georges Clemenceau (“the tiger”) Fierce anti-German war policy Fierce anti-German war policy Wanted a weak Germany (never threaten France again) Wanted a weak Germany (never threaten France again) Boy, was he ever wrong! Boy, was he ever wrong!

193 “Mr. Wilson bores me with his Fourteen Points. Why, God Almighty has only ten.” - Georges Clemenceau

194 Treaty of Versailles, June 1919 Drawn up by the Allied powers Drawn up by the Allied powers Germans forced to sign Germans forced to sign Assume full blame for causing the war (Article 231) Assume full blame for causing the war (Article 231) Huge reparations - $30 billion -, which would hurt an already strained German economy Huge reparations - $30 billion -, which would hurt an already strained German economy War destruction, cost, and pensions to war widows/families War destruction, cost, and pensions to war widows/families Germany must set up a republic (Weimar republic). Germany must set up a republic (Weimar republic).

195 Treaty of Versailles, Cont… Limited the size of the German army (10,000 men) Limited the size of the German army (10,000 men) No German air force and navy No German air force and navy Destruction of all German weapons Destruction of all German weapons Returned Alsace-Lorraine to France Returned Alsace-Lorraine to France Stripped Germany of overseas colonies Stripped Germany of overseas colonies Removed territory from western and eastern Germany Removed territory from western and eastern Germany

196 Signing Location: Hall of Mirrors

197 Signing of the Treaty

198 Widespread Dissatisfaction Other Central Powers received separate treaties than Germany, but also dissatisfying Other Central Powers received separate treaties than Germany, but also dissatisfying Eastern Europe Eastern Europe New nations emerge from lands held by German, Austrian, and Russian Empires New nations emerge from lands held by German, Austrian, and Russian Empires Baltic states: Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia Baltic states: Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia Poland regained independence Poland regained independence Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary (new republics) Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary (new republics) Yugoslavia, dominated by Serbia, created Yugoslavia, dominated by Serbia, created

199 Widespread Dissatisfaction, Take 2 Mandate system Mandate system Territories administered by Western powers Territories administered by Western powers Lands held and modernized Lands held and modernized Until countries could “stand alone” Until countries could “stand alone” Colonies not freed, colonial leaders feel angry/betrayed Colonies not freed, colonial leaders feel angry/betrayed Had believed in Wilson’s ideas of self-determination Had believed in Wilson’s ideas of self-determination Britain gets German lands in Africa; Ottoman lands in the Middle East Britain gets German lands in Africa; Ottoman lands in the Middle East

200 P.S. A youthful Ho Chi Minh, the future leader of Vietnam, was rudely refused an audience with Woodrow Wilson. Talk about a “what if?”

201 Widespread Dissatisfaction, Take 3 Unfulfilled goals Unfulfilled goals Italy did not get lands promised in secret treaties. Italy did not get lands promised in secret treaties. Japan did not get rights in China recognized. Japan did not get rights in China recognized. Russia hated the Polish nation and new Baltic states. Russia hated the Polish nation and new Baltic states. Not to mention that they were excluded from the process. Not to mention that they were excluded from the process. Hopes for global peace: League of Nations Hopes for global peace: League of Nations 40 nations joined, agreeing to negotiate disputes instead of declaring war 40 nations joined, agreeing to negotiate disputes instead of declaring war Promised to take economic or military action against aggressors, but never had enforcement power Promised to take economic or military action against aggressors, but never had enforcement power

202 But guess what? The U.S. refused to ratify the treaty and the United States never joined the League of Nations.

203 Despite the actions of the United States… The League of Nations was a first step toward something genuinely new – an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace and advancing the interests of all people.

204 3 Major Problems 1. Isolation of Russia 1. Isolation of Russia 2. Weak German economy 2. Weak German economy 3. Germany gets to participate in the planning stages of the League of Nations. 3. Germany gets to participate in the planning stages of the League of Nations.

205 Long Term and Immediate Causes Imperialist and economic rivalries among European countries Imperialist and economic rivalries among European countries European alliance system European alliance system Militarism and arms race Militarism and arms race Nationalists tensions in Balkans Nationalists tensions in Balkans Austria-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Austria-Hungary’s annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Fighting in the Balkans Fighting in the Balkans Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand German invasion of Belgium German invasion of Belgium

206 Immediate and Long Term Effects Cost of lives and money Cost of lives and money Russian Revolution Russian Revolution New nations in Eastern Europe New nations in Eastern Europe Germany pay reparations Germany pay reparations German loss of overseas colonies German loss of overseas colonies Balfour Declaration Balfour Declaration League of Nations League of Nations Economic Impact of war debts on Europe Economic Impact of war debts on Europe Emergence of United States and Japan as important powers Emergence of United States and Japan as important powers Growth of nationalism in the colonies Growth of nationalism in the colonies Rise of Fascism Rise of Fascism World War II World War II

207 Connections to Today Ethnic Tensions in the Balkans Ethnic Tensions in the Balkans International agreement banning poison gas International agreement banning poison gas Use of airplanes and submarines for military purposes Use of airplanes and submarines for military purposes Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict Which effect do you think is most important today? Which effect do you think is most important today?

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