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1 Introduction to Linguistics II Ling 2-121C, group b Lecture 5 Eleni Miltsakaki AUTH Spring 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Introduction to Linguistics II Ling 2-121C, group b Lecture 5 Eleni Miltsakaki AUTH Spring 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Introduction to Linguistics II Ling 2-121C, group b Lecture 5 Eleni Miltsakaki AUTH Spring 2006

2 2 Syntax review II What are heads and complements? Can you identify them in the phrases below? –The man with the telescope –The destruction of Rome –A person worthy of praise –A boy who pitched a perfect game What do we mean by selectional restrictions of verbs? Are selectional restrictions applicable to verbs only? Can you give examples of selectional restrictions forced by other word classes?

3 3 Syntax review II What are phrase structure rules? Write 5 basic phrase structure rules for English What are the two basic uses of phrase structure rules? What is recursion? When does it occur? Can you give some examples of recursive structures in English? What do we mean by infinity of language?

4 4 Exercise The girl with the feather on the ribbon on the brim Expand the above sentence with a recursive structure and show that in a tree

5 5 Syntax review II What are embedded structures? Give examples. What do we call center embedding? Give examples. What’s special about center embedding?

6 6 Sentence relatedness Transformational rules –A way to capture the relationship between a declarative and a question is to allow phrase structure to generate the structure using special rules: transformation rules –Move Aux: take the first aux and move it to the left of the subject –The boy is sleeping  Is the boy ___ sleeping?

7 7 Deep and surface structure Deep structure: the basic structure Surface structure: the resulting structure after applying a transformational rule The boys is sleeping: Deep Move Aux Is the boy sleeping? Surface

8 8 Other transformational rules Active  passive (aka passivization) –The cat chased the mouse –The mouse was chased by the cat There-sentences –There was a man on the roof –A man was on the roof PP-preposing –The astronomer saw the star with the telescope –With the telescope, the man saw the star

9 9 Syntactic dependencies Wh-questions –Who did Helen say the senator wanted to hire ___? –Who did Helen say the senator wanted the congressional representative to try to hire ___? –Who did Helen say the senator wanted the congressional representative to try to convince the Speaker of the House to get the Vice President to hire ___? Long-distance dependencies created by wh-movement are a fundamental part of human language. They provide evidence that sentences are not just strings of words but they are supported by rich phrase structure trees. These trees express the underlying structure of the sentence as well as their relation to other sentences in the language

10 10 Universal grammar UG provides the basic design for human language Individual languages are variations on the basic design

11 11 Parameters All languages have phrase structure rules All languages have heads and complements In some languages heads come before complements (English) In others, complements come before heads (Japanese).

12 12 Wh-islands Emily paid a visit to the senator who wants to hire who? –*Who did Emily pay a visit to the senator that wants to hire ___? –Miss Marple asked Sherlock whether Poirot had solved the crime –Who did Miss Marple ask ___ whether Poirot had solved the crime? –*Who did Miss Marple ask Sherlock whether ___ had solved the crime? –*What did Miss Marple ask Sherlock whether Poirot had solved ___?

13 13 Universal wh-islands Constraints against wh-movement depend on structure, not length –John ate bread and cheese (Coordinate). –John ate bread with cheese (DO). –*What did John eat bread and? –What did John eat bologna with?


15 15 Intro to semantics What is semantics? –The study of the linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences. What is lexical semantics? –The study of the meaning of words and the meaning relations among them. What is phrasal or sentential semantics? –The meaning of syntactic units larger than the word What is pragmatic meaning? –The effect of context on sentence meaning. E.g., “It’s open here” meaning “Open the window”

16 16 Lexical semantics Learning a language includes learning the agreed-upon meanings of certain strings of sounds and how to combine these units into larger meaningful units. The meaning of words is part of linguistic knowledge/grammar. The mental storehouse of the info about words and morphemes is called the lexicon.

17 17 Semantic properties Example: assassin –Person –Who murdered an important person Sharing properties –Female: woman, aunt, mother, tigress, hen –Human: doctor, bachelor, professor, baby –Young: child, baby

18 18 Semantic properties Verbs –Motion: bring, fall, walk, run –Contact: hit, kick, kiss –Creation: build, imagine, make –Sense: hear, see, feel

19 19 Semantic properties Evidence for semantic properties: errors Bridge of noseBridge of neck When my gums bledWhen my tongues bled He came too lateHe came too early Mary was youngMary was early That’s a horse of another color That’s a horse of another race

20 20 Semantic properties Attention! –Do not confuse semantic properties of words with nonlinguistic properties. –E.g., Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. –But that’s not part of the linguistic meaning of the word ‘water’.

21 21 Semantic properties One way of representing semantic properties is by semantic features. WomanFatherGirlMare +female+male+female +human -human -young+parent+young-young +equine

22 22 Homonyms Homonyms are different words that are pronounced the same: –Tale – tail –To – two – too They may or may not have different spelling. Homonyms create ambiguity: –I’ll meet you by the bank, in front of the automated teller machine. –I’ll meet you by the bank. We can go fishing.

23 23 Polysemy When a word has multiple meanings it is polysemous. –Bear=to tolerate, to carry, to support –Bear is also a homonym: bear=wild animal

24 24 Heteronym Two words are heteronyms if they are spelled the same, but are pronounced differently. –Dove – the bird –Dove – past tense of ‘dive’ –Lead – the verb –Lead – the metal

25 25 Homographs Homographs are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings: –Dove – the bird –Dove – the past tense of dive –Bear – the verb –Bear – the animal

26 26 HomonymsHeteronymsHomographs Pronounced identically YesNoYes/no Spelled identically Yes/noYes

27 27 Synonyms Words that sound different but have the same (or almost the same) meaning are synonyms. –Apathetic, phlegmatic, passive, sluggish, indifferent –Sofa, couch Degree of similarity depends on number of semantic properties that two words share

28 28 Antonyms Words that are opposite in meaning are antonyms –Beautiful – ugly (=not beautiful) –Big – small, hot – cold Gradable properties –Tiny, small, medium, large, huge, gigantic –“not tiny” doesn’t mean “gigantic”.

29 29 Gradable antonyms Marked – unmarked –How high is the mountain? (not “How low is the mountain?”) –“high” is the unmarked member of the pair “high-low”

30 30 Relational opposites Relational opposites display symmetry in their meaning: e.g., if X gives Y to Z then Z receives Y from X –Give – receive –Buy – sell –Teacher – pupil Comparative forms of gradable pairs of adjectives often form relational pairs –Mary is taller than Sally –A Mercedes is more expensive than a Smart.

31 31 Relationships between certain semantic features can reveal knowledge about antonyms: –A word that is [+married] is [-single] –A word that is [+single] is [-married]

32 32 Autoantonyms The same word having two antonymic senses: –To cleave: to split apart, to cling together –To dust: to remove sth, to spread sth

33 33 Formation of antonyms Un- Non- In- Dis- Mis-

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