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Cognitive psychology Rosie IVÁDY. Course schedule 9-10.30 lecture 10.30-10.45 break 10.45- 12.15 lecture 12.15-12.45 lunch break 12.45-13.30 talking seminar.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive psychology Rosie IVÁDY. Course schedule 9-10.30 lecture 10.30-10.45 break 10.45- 12.15 lecture 12.15-12.45 lunch break 12.45-13.30 talking seminar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive psychology Rosie IVÁDY

2 Course schedule lecture break lecture lunch break talking seminar lecture lunch break talking seminar

3 Course requirements Test on Friday at 9.00 –Multiple choice questions –True/false questions Slides can be found on my homepage the day following class at

4 Day 1 – Unconscious knowledge, memory and learning. Evolutionary psychology inborn? Day 2 – Psycholinguistics, language and thought Day 3 – Theory of mind and the teleological stance. Evolution of language and theory of mind Day 4 – Social and pathological. Religion and mental health. Morals, taboos, and the Penal Code

5 The realm of unknown: implicit knowledge and learning Budapest Semester in Cognitive Science Cognitive Psychology Day 1.

6 Memory and learning Today’s features: –Memory – conscious and unconscious –Learning – is there implicit learning? –Implicit cognition – its social and practical perspectives

7 Memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal

8 Sensory Memory Store Divided into two subtypes: –iconic memory - visual information –echoic memory - auditory information Sensory Input Sensory Memory

9 Sensory Memory Store Visual or iconic memory was discovered by Sperling in 1960 It is only conscious in part – not all of it Sensitive to eye movement Bright background following it (mask)

10 Eidetic memory Around 15% of children Lasts around 40 seconds More susceptible to interference More likely to create false memories! Leads to the question – how much trace do non- conscious events leave in normal population?

11 Subliminal ads Subliminal is defined in two ways –Embedded figures of text, not obvious to superficial examination (picture ads) –Short exposure times (television or movies)

12 The question of subliminal advertisements Wilson Bryan Key: Subliminal Seduction and Media Sexploitation

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14 James Vicary - priming 1957 – subliminal advertising –Eat popcorn –Drink Coca-Cola Embedded in a film (0,03s cuts) increased sales by 20-60% However he never published this finding –Later in an interview he claimed that this was a fabrication –No one could reproduce it in its original

15 Critique Moore: weak effects and strong effects –Weak effects – over emotions – improbable because of the competition with various supraliminal stimuli –Strong effects – over buyer behaviour – improbable because of the control over one’s behaviour

16 Subliminal advertising is banned in most English- speaking countries Yet many self-help audiotapes containing subliminal messages are sold –Self-esteem, weight loss, memory enhancement even though many studies failed to find evidence that they work –mind you: these are double blind studies! –Also they contain far too long sentences to be processed linguistically – see priming studies (Greenwald, 1992) – Brand names?

17 Placebo Most companies deny that they use subliminal ads –Yet 74% of people believe in it –71% of those who believed in it thought it works as well Rosenthal effect? (Cassandra-type or self- fulfilling prophecy)

18 New evidence Revival after 2000 – new studies Cooper and Cooper (2002) –Subliminally primed people with pictures of Coca Cola cans and the word thirsty –Their self-rated thirst rose Dijksterhuis et al (2005) –Subliminally primed drink&cola and neutral words –Exp group drank more, but no difference is what

19 Karremans et al (2006) –Self-rated thirst –Primed with Lipton Ice or neutral words (Npeic Tol – same letters) for 23 ms In pilots they found that usually the prime can not be guessed – not conscious –Allegedly, they were supposed to partake in a detection task BBBBbBBBBB – how many small bs? –Choice between Lipton Ice tea (Coke being too sweet or too popular – brand loyalty) and Spa Rood

20 Direct emotional priming Strahan et al. (2005) –Subliminal priming will only affect people’s choices if they are goal-relevant –It affects attitude to bevarages, BUT only if the person is thirsty! Higher evaluation Bargh (1996) –Trait priming – the person is only going to be rude after the priming, IF (and only if) given the possibility

21 Priming studies Facial expressions (emotional priming) –Unconscious effect –18-30 ms presentation –Judged neutral faces more unpleasant –Höschel et al. 2001

22 Memory Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal

23 How do we know STM and LTM are separate stores? Amnesia

24 Sources Blow to head, Concussion Korsakoff syndrome (severe vit. B1 deficiency) Alzheimer’s Damage to hippocampus, thalamic structures ECT (electroconvulsive shock therapy) Midazolam: artifically induced amnesia

25 Amnesia Types of amnesia –Anterograde –Retrograde

26 Retrograde amnesia Temporal gradient: –early memories are better remembered than memories before trauma (Ribot’s law) –Recently formed memories continue to undergo neurological change: memory consolidation Retrograde amnesia often becomes less severe over time –Most remote memories are likely to return first Does not affect overlearned information (e.g. skills)

27 Anterograde Amnesia Inability to acquire new information –Think of movie “memento” –Does not affect short-term memory –Does not affect general knowledge from the past –But, it is difficult to learn new facts –Affects memory regardless of modality (visual, auditory, tactile, etc). Spares skilled performance –Hyper-specific memory for those skills that are learned after onset – learning is expressed only in context in which it was encoded

28 Famous Anterograde Amnesiac: HM Severe epilepsy, treated with surgery to bilaterally remove medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus Operation 9/1953, 27 years old

29 Two systems? Dissocition studies: –STM & LTM tests differ: Non-word repetition test Word list learning Presentation rate meaningfulness

30 Hebb : dual trace mechanism –Cell assembly and –reverbarating activity – STM Atkinson & Schiffrin: – –One might consider the short-term store simply as being a temporary activation of some portion of the long-term store.

31 Long-Term Memory Capacity unlimited Thought by some to be permanent Encoding transfers info from STM to LTM – semantically organized basis Anterograde amnesia eliminates this – or does it? Long-term memory Working or Short-term Memory Sensory Input Sensory Memory Attention Encoding Retrieval Maintenance Rehearsal

32 Spared (implicit) learning in anterograde amnesia Claparede study (1911). –Patient never remembered having met Claparede (doctor) before –Claparade offers handshakes with pinprick –Next time, no explicit memory of event (or doctor) –Still, patient refuses to shake hands and offers explanation: “sometimes pins are hidden in people’s hands” Korsakoff patients & Trivia questions –Given feedback, then retested. No conscious memory for items but better performance. “I read about it somewhere”. (Schacter, Tulving & Wang, 1981).

33 Famous Anterograde Amnesiac: HM Severe epilepsy, treated with surgery to bilaterally remove medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus Operation 9/1953, 27 years old

34 H.M General knowledge intact but “stuck in time”. –Did not learn words introduced after 1953: “jacuzzi”, “granola”, “flower-child” Was able to form some memories –Initially couldn’t learn how to get to his new home. Took many years to learn his own house –Could learn to mirror reverse read and mirror trace

35 HM – Milner’s study (1962) Milner, 1965 improvement in H.M. for mirror tracing task (without conscious recollection of previous training episodes)  the medial temporal lobes are not necessary for all types of long-term memory.

36 Learning a new skill: mirror- reverse reading

37 Amnesics can learn to mirror-reverse read and are sensitive to repetitions

38 Implicit and explicit memory Implicit memory: past experiences influence perceptions, thoughts & actions without awareness that any information from past is accessed Explicit memory: conscious access to info from the past (“I remember that..” ) -> involves conscious recollection -> involves conscious recollection

39 A long story

40 Squire’s model Expressed through performance rather than recollection Representational Are true or false - verbalizable Temporal specification

41 Conversion Squire argues that these two are not clear-cut distinct systems –Remember Tulving’s semantic memory –Remember source amnesia! ChildrenConfabulationDreamsHypnosis

42 Amnesia and animals declarative memory can gradually turn into non- declarative with repeated exposure Animal models of the conversion –Plus shaped maze - rats learn to find food, which was always west –Started from the south – then were put into the north First few trials – turned to west – impaired when lidocaine injected in hippocampus Subsequent trials – turned to left (habit, not individual memory) – impaired when injected with lidocaine in the caudate nucleus

43 Human learning Healthy and amnesiacs learn differently –Exposed to sentences such as „medicine caused hiccups” –Had to complement fragments (___ ____ hiccups) Healthy –rapid learning –Semantic mistakes Amnesiac –Slow learning –Faithful to original stimulus –In non-verbal tasks however (movements) trying to remember declaratively often impairs performance!

44 Competition of strategies Squire – the two systems often compete to be the strategy of remembrance – as in healthy human habit learning tasks in fMRI –First medial temporal lobe activation Many mistakes –Gradually the caudate nucleus takes over More punctual –Movements/habits seem to be different from language

45 Species dependent strategies Visual pattern discrimination learning –(+ vs ->) –Monkeys with medial temporal lesions learn the task – slowly –Amnesiacs seem to learn it very fast, then forget which answer is correct –For humans the task is too easy and likely to be taken over by the declarative system More accurate would be trying to discriminate between paintings (original vs forgery) –This is the same argument as Dijk. Makes!

46 Modern interpretations Two most popular are –Larry Squire – procedural – declarative Later rephrased non-declaratie and declarative –Peter Graf, Daniel Schachter – implicit – explicit They worked with healthy individuals and experimental settings

47 Explicit & Implicit Memory Tests Look at the following words. I will test your memory for these words in various ways.

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49 Memory Test Explicit test of memory: recall –Write down the words you remember from the list in the earlier slide

50 Memory Test Explicit test of memory: recall –Write down the words you remember from the list in the earlier slide Implicit test of memory: word fragments –On the next slide, you will see some words missing letters, some “word fragments” and some anagrams. Guess what each word might be.

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52 Not all implicit memory tests are verbal: Closure Pictures

53 Priming paradigms: Subjects presented with target words. Subsequent recognition phase: Targets and distractors. Off-line tasks Fragment CompletionA--a--in Word Stem CompletionBri--- Implicit memory is evidenced when Ss complete or identify more studied than non-studied words. On-line tasks Perceptual Identification Lexical Decision Degraded Word Naming Implicit memory evidenced by faster RTs for studied words Implicit memory tests ArdeniskAssassin grsfersd

54 Forgetting: Tulving et al (1982): S’s learn list of uncommon words (e.g. Toboggan). Test = standard recognition, fragment completion (_O_O_GA_) Repetition priming effect equal for recognised and non recognised words Fragment completion performance unchanged after 1w Gradedness in time

55 Jacoby & Dallas (1981) Targets presented visually at learning, but spoken at test No effects on recognition memory Significantly reduced priming effects in implicit test. Roediger & Blaxton (1987) Changed typescript between learning and test: No effects on recognition memory Significantly reduced priming effects in implicit test. Modality shifts

56 Explicit Memory: Sensitive to retention interval / Dividing attention Implicit Memory: sensitive to manipulations of surface features (e.g. modality shifts).

57 What about amnesiacs in IM tests? Graf, Squire, & Mandler (1984): –Study words: cheese, house, … –Explicit memory test: cued recall. Complete fragment to a word from study list: ch _ _ _ _ –Implicit memory test: word stem completion. Complete fragment to form any word: ch _ _ _ _

58 Word-stem completion spared in amnesiacs Graf et al. (1984).

59 Graf, Squire & Mandler, (1984) Presented amnesic patients and controls with word lists - S’s made pleasantness ratings – no explicit instruction to learn Incidental learning Test stimuli for Cued Recall and Stem Completion identical - E.g. BRI-- only instructions differed.

60 1.Stochastic Independence (Sherry & Schacter, 1987) If Implicit and Explicit memory effects represent the function of separable memory systems, there should be no correlations between measures of Implicit and Explicit memory. Tulving et al: (1982) There is no correlation between recognition and fragment completion. 1.Validity condition If implicit memory is one system then there ought to be correlations between different measures of that systems performance. BUT: No correlations - so lots of different implicit memory systems? Partly this is the reason of the multiple subsets of Squire’s non- declarative model (and the reason he renamed it from procedural) Are they different?

61 System accounts - favoured by neuropsychologists observing preserved abilities in amnesics Tulving & Schacter (1994) - Differences in implicit / explicit memory reflect the operation of separate memory systems. Process accounts - favoured by experimental psychologists working healthy subjects (often using priming paradigms) Roediger (1990) Distinction between Implicit / Explicit memory is confounded by distinction between the processes required to perform these tests. Explicit tests - conceptual information Implicit tests - require “data-driven” processes that operate on more perceptual level.

62 Critique of healthy subjects Two criteria –Unintentional retrieval strategy The instruction must be : complete it with the first word that comes to your mind –Not accompanied by conscious recollection They do not find out in the middle of the experiment that the studied lists and „independent tasks are related” –The first one is always true, but the second is dubious –Butler: as few studies meet both, the two systems – at least basen on healthy individuals – might not be separate –Squire – this is ignoring accumulated neuropsychological knowledge

63 Strategies to deal with this Retrieval intentionality criterion –Instructions Chance recognition –Implicit task performance is better than the explicit one – therefore there is some unconscious information Awareness questionnaires –Inability to recall the true nature of the mental state at test later On-line awareness analysis –First word that comes to your mind BUT NOT the one on the list –False negatives – if completed with a different word – is it conscious recollection or simply lack of even implicit memory?

64 Dissociation Major symptoms (Steinberg, 1997) Amnesia – holes of memory 1. 1.Few days to several years Depersonalization – detached from oneself- alien Derealization – surroundings are unreal Identity Confusion – unnoticeable to environment Indentity Alteration – can be noticed Linked to early childhood trauma – usually sexual abuse – –Explanation – because of the harassment the body is no longer percieved as a safe home – escaping is only possible in the mind – –Sexual abuse – causes DID in 80% of cases ??? In Hungary there are hardly any – supposedly 1% should be Post-traumatic stress disorder is very rarely detected

65 DID: Dissociative Identity Disorder (DSM-IV) Key symptom is “inter-identity amnesia” - One identity claims amnesia for events experienced by other identities. Dissociative Identity Dosirder

66 Rafaele et al (2002): Tested 31 DID patients on 3 implicit memory tests. Also tested 25 controls and 25 DID “simulators” Material learned as one personality and tested as another Equal implicit memory effects in all three groups for both data driven and conceptually driven implicit memory tasks. “What we did find in both our implicit and explicit memory studies was a dissociation between objective memory performance and patients’ subjective reports: that is, although patients indicated no subjective recollection of the encoding phase performed by a different identity states at all, their test scores indicated normal memory functioning” Thus (according to Rafaele et al) - DID patients suffer from a lack of “memory meta-awareness”.

67 Transitory amnesia Psychogenic amnesia –Following a traumatic event, complete loss of memory for a few days –The case of M.F. –he was at the Gare de l’Est for 5 days – was going to go on Tuesday, but suddenly discovered that on the train ticket he bougt Saturday was printed. –After his divorce and suicidal thoughts he lived in his car – which provided him with protection and body –Too embarassed to confess he’s unemployed, he lies constantly to his new partner

68 Lack of consciousness Coma, vegetative state and locked-in syndrome

69 Disorders of consciousness Vegetative State Minimally conscious state Locked-in syndrome Often no motor responses Arousal – opening of eyes, reaction to immediate stimuli Awareness of environment and self –Awareness of the self versus the other

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71 Vegetative state Patients seem to be awake – but there is no indication of will, voluntary action. Wakefulness is present, but awareness is not Terri Schiavo – judicial murder? What is death? –Brain death –Devastation of neocortex Permanent cessation of ‘‘those higher functions of the nervous system that demarcate man from the lower primates Permanent (after 3-12 months) Some Alzheimer’s diseases, anencephalic neonates

72 Minimally Conscious State The border between VS and MCS is blurred inconsistent, erratic responsiveness Non-reflex bahaviour –To qualify, they have to show clearly discernible evidence of consciousness Following simple commands consistently (3/4!!) Yes/no answers – regardless of accuracy Intelligible verbalization Purposeful behaviour (reaction to own name)

73 Locked-in syndrome (maladie de l'emmuré vivant, Eingeschlossensein) Damage to the ventral part of the midbrain (pons) – a trajectory to muscle movements Patients are fully aware of their environment, but are unable to move –They can move their extraorbital muscles – basically the eyes – and sometimes face muscles Can communicate using dasher and eye tracking –Jean-Dominique Bauby

74 Comatose patients Anoxic coma – very little chance to wake up Traumatic coma- better prognostics Stroke - How do you know if you should switch the machine off? Those who do not start to wake up after 2-4 weeks have very bad prognosis

75 Glasgow Coma Scale Best eye response (E) There are 4 grades starting with the most severe: 1. No eye opening 2. Eye opening in response to pain. (Patient responds to pressure on the patient’s fingernail bed; if this does not elicit a response, supraorbital and sternal pressure or rub may be used.) painfingernail bedsupraorbitalsternalpainfingernail bedsupraorbitalsternal 3. Eye opening to speech. (Not to be confused with an awaking of a sleeping person; such patients receive a score of 4, not 3.) 4. Eyes opening spontaneously

76 Glasgow Coma Scale Best verbal response (V) There are 5 grades starting with the most severe: 1. No verbal response 2. Incomprehensible sounds. (Moaning but no words.) 3. Inappropriate words. (Random or exclamatory articulated speech, but no conversational exchange) 4. Confused. (The patient responds to questions coherently but there is some disorientation and confusion.) 5. Oriented. (Patient responds coherently and appropriately to questions such as the patient’s name and age, where they are and why, the year, month, etc.)

77 Glasgow Coma Scale Best motor response (M) There are 6 grades starting with the most severe: 1. No motor response 2. Extension to pain (adduction of arm, internal rotation of shoulder, pronation of forearm, extension of wrist, decerebrate response) adduction pronationextensiondecerebrate responseadduction pronationextensiondecerebrate response 3. Abnormal flexion to pain (adduction of arm, internal rotation of shoulder, pronation of forearm, flexion of wrist, decorticate response) adductionpronationflexiondecorticate responseadductionpronationflexiondecorticate response 4. Flexion/Withdrawal to pain (flexion of elbow, supination of forearm, flexion of wrist when supra-orbital pressure applied ; pulls part of body away when nailbed pinched) flexionsupination flexion supination flexion 5. Localizes to pain. (Purposeful movements towards painful stimuli; e.g., hand crosses mid-line and gets above clavicle when supra-orbital pressure applied.) clavicle 6. Obeys commands. (The patient does simple things as asked.)

78 Clinical diagnosis

79 How to decide on coma Brain responses –active and passive odball paradigm –Mismatch negativity (MMN) – novelty of stimulus ms onset –P300 ellicited by infrequent stimuli Called P3a if it is task irrelevant stimuli –Tone-evoked usually

80 Self-referential stimuli Own-name effect – coctail party effect in –dichotic listening tasks –RSVP - No attentional blink for own name, but a significant attentional blink for the stimulus after –Slows judgements – such as two digits having the same parity - considerably

81 Comatose patients Subjects own name (SON) – ellicits involuntary orientation, attention and P300 Deviant tones – probability of 0,14 (other tones) Novel tones – probability of 0,03 (own name)

82 P300 to own name

83 The combination of P300 and MMN is the best predictor of awakening from coma The predictions are somewhat more reliable in anoxic coma cases

84 P300 – an interesting story Difficult: diurnal and age-related changes Schizophrenia – reduced P300 component –Impaired controlled information processing Hypnosis : altered consciousness Alcoholics also show decreased P300 – not clear if it is addiction or alcohol itself LIE DETECTION – Brain fingerprinting in MERMER by Lawrence Farwell –"Memory and Encoding Related Multifaceted Electroencephalographic Response"

85 Brain Fingerprinting Known and relevant events produce a different P300 than unknown and irrelevant ones (remember the odball) information present/absent judgement –Details of a crime unknown but to the culprit presented – if there are none, not applicable… –Can be applied to alibi defense as well (time!) –Pictures, words, phrases 6-10 crime-related, 6-10 life-related (related basline) and irrelevant stimuli (unrelated baseline) Accuracy is reported to be over 99% Admissible in US court Harrington v. State, Case No. PCCV


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