2In its declaration of secession, Texas stated that it intended to go to war to preserve a southern way of life that made racial distinctions, in part, by maintaining blacks in a condition of servitude.
3Civil War BeginsThe Civil War begins on April 1861 at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South CarolinaConfederate forces fire on a Union fort in the harbor and war beginsBeauregard vs. Anderson – Friends yet enemies. Beauregard led the Confederate troops and Anderson led the Union troops.
4Many Texans Become Soldiers Thousands of Texans like other Southerners joined the Confederate army immediately.In April 1862, the Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act which required men of a certain age to serve in the Confederate militaryGerman Americans and many other European immigrants to Texas objected to fighting against the Union.
5The two highest-ranking Texans in the Confederate army were Albert Sidney Johnston and John Bell Hood.
6Most Texans Support the South After the war began, most Texans who previously had been against secession now supported the Confederacy.James W. Throckmorton, who had voted against secession, realized that he could not fight against Texas.About 60,000 Texans joined the armed forces of the Confederacy.
8Some Texans Aid the Union About 2,000 Texas Unionists, including 50 African-Americans, took up arms for the Union. Mexican-Americans served on both sides of the war.Many Texas Unionists who did not want to fight on either side left Texas.
15Union “Anaconda” Plan 1. Capture Richmond, Virginia Capital of Confederacy2. Blockade Southern portsPrevent trade with other countries3. Capture the Mississippi RiverCut Confederacy in halfCut off trade routes from New Orleans and Texas
16StrategiesUnion strategy to conquer South was called the Anaconda Plan.Confederate strategy to win the Union:1) defend the Confederate states2) invade Northern states if opportunity arises
23Significance of Ft. Sumter Led to the secession of Virginia (VA), Arkansas (AR), Tennessee (TN), and North Carolina (NC)First military action of the warThis is the start of the Civil War!
24First Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861Manassas, Virginia (also called “1st Manassas”)30 miles from Washington, D.C.Confederates won the battle, but failed to force the Union army to retreat.4,700 killed/wounded/captured (K/W/C)
27Significance of Bull Run First major battle of the warConfederate victory and a major morale boost for the South.It showed both sides that the War would not go exactly as expected-people thought the war would be over in a few days—it would last 4 years.
28Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee near Shiloh ChurchConfederate army drove Union back on the first day, but the Union won the battle the second day.24,000 K/W/C
30Significance of Shiloh Texas General Albert Sidney Johnston killed.Considered one of South’s best GeneralsHis death was a severe blow to Confederate ArmyFought at Battle of San JacintoShowed Americans that this would be a long and bloody war.It also showed the determination and skill of Ulysses S. Grant.
31Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Bloodiest single day of the Civil WarBloodiest single day battle in American History!Battle is a Standoff and no side wins28,000 killed (more WC)
34Battle of Gettysburg July 1 - 3, 1863 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania General R.E. Lee led Confederate forces into the North. The Union army defeated the confederates in a costly 3 day battle46,000 K/W/CBloodiest battle of the entire Civil War!
36Significance of Gettysburg Turning point of the warConfederate invasion of the North failed. It was a HUGE morale defeat for the South.Combined with the defeat at Vicksburg the next day, the South was never able to recover.
37Vicksburg May 18 - July 4, 1863 Vicksburg, Mississippi on Mississippi RiverConfederates surrender after 47 day Union siege of the city.36,000 K/W/C
39Significance of Vicksburg Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union army, took control of the Mississippi River.Split the confederacy in half and cut off important trade routes through New Orleans and Texas.
40Texans on the AttackThe Confederacy’s first objective was to overtake Union garrisons and supplies.Texas launched a preventive strike on Union Forces in New Mexico.The New Mexico Campaign failed and was abandoned in July 1862.
42Battle of Galveston Union ships blockade Texas ports. Cotton was transported through Mexico and sent to Europe in exchange for war supplies.In October 1862 Union forces attacked and captured Galveston.Texas Confederate forces retook Galveston in January 1863.
45Emancipation Proclamation By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war.Terms of the Proclamation:1) Frees slaves in the Confederate states2) Does NOT apply to areas occupied by the Union or stateswhere slavery is permitted in the Union – (border states of Missouri and Kentucky)Discourages Britain from supporting/joining the ConfederacyThe Proclamation brings mixed reactions….
47Some Reactions: gives war a higher moral purpose Free blacks can now join Union army and fight against slaveryNorthern Democrats claim it will antagonize the South and prolong the warConfederacy now MORE DETERMINED to fight to keep slaveryNo chance of compromise now-one side must WIN and the other side must LOSE!
48Texans Defend Sabine Pass Confederate soldiers defeated Union forces at Sabine Pass.Dick Dowling and the Davis Guards played a major role by capturing 350 soldiers and two boats.The Battle of Sabine Pass was an important Confederate victory, foiling the Union’s major campaign against Texas.
49The Battle of Sabine Pass "There is no parallel in ancient or modern warfare to the victory of Dowling and his men at Sabine Pass considering the great odds against which they had to contend" Jefferson DavisThe Battle of Sabine PassSeptember 8, 1863In the fall of 1863, Confederate forces under the command of Lt. Richard Dowling turned back a much larger Union invasion force at the battle of Sabine Pass.
50Forces Battle over Brownsville Hoping to cut off the overland supply line, the Union focused on Brownsville.In November 1863 Confederate troops drove back a Union attack on Brownsville.
51Red River and BeyondUnion forces captured New Orleans. With 25,000 troops, the Union forces moved toward East Texas.A smaller Confederate army led by Thomas “Tom” Green, met Union forces 25 miles from the Texas border in one of the bloodiest campaigns.
52Red River and BeyondHood’s Texas Brigade and Terry’s Texas Rangers served bravelyTerry’s Texas Rangers served in more battles than any other cavalry regiment in the Civil War.General Robert E. Lee called Hood’s men his “finest soldiers.”
531864: Life During WartimeThe Civil War brings about dramatic social and economic changes in American society including:1) African Americans join the Union army to fight2) Other slaves seek freedom behind Union army lines3) On plantations: some destroy property, others refuse to leave
55War Affects Regional Economies FOOD SHORTAGES in the SouthFood shortages from lost manpower, Union occupation, loss of slavesBlockade creates other shortages; some Confederates trade with enemyECONOMY BOOM in the NorthIndustries that supply army boomWages do not keep up with prices; workers’ standard of living dropsWomen replace men on farms, city jobs, government jobsCongress establishes first income tax on earnings to pay for war
57Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides More soldiers died from Dysentery (diarrhea) than were killed in battleLived in unsanitary camps, conditions (epidemics easily spread) wash hands 1/day, bathe 1/week75% of surgeries were amputations (saw often used on 1 person after another w/o sanitizing)- fingers the most amputated body part
59Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars
60The Civil War ENDS The Election of 1864 1) Lincoln re-elected for 2nd termIT’S OVER! The Surrender at Appomattox1) Confederate President Jefferson Davis’s government flee Richmond and burn it to the ground2) Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865 at the Appomattox Courthouse- Confederate soldiers pardoned on generous terms by Grant
61Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865 After the War ended, Lee dedicated his home [above] in Arlington, Virginia for a military burial grounds – today known as the Arlington National Cemetery
62Battle of Palmito Ranch The final battle of the Civil War took place on May 12, 1865, at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville.Confederate soldiers did not know that the war was over.Texans learned from their prisoners that Lee had surrendered a month earlier.
63The War Changes Lives New Birth of Freedom 1) 1865: 13th Amendment abolishes slavery in all statesSome Follow New Paths1) Some soldiers stay in army, others are civilians, many go west
64The War Changes our Future Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln1) April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theatre2) Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, is later trapped by Union cavalry and shot3) 7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train