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Unit 6: Chapter 15 Sections 2-3 Texans Go to War.

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1 Unit 6: Chapter 15 Sections 2-3 Texans Go to War

2 In its declaration of secession, Texas stated that it intended to go to war to preserve a southern way of life that made racial distinctions, in part, by maintaining blacks in a condition of servitude.

3 Civil War Begins The Civil War begins on April 1861 at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina Confederate forces fire on a Union fort in the harbor and war begins Beauregard vs. Anderson – Friends yet enemies. Beauregard led the Confederate troops and Anderson led the Union troops.

4 Many Texans Become Soldiers Thousands of Texans like other Southerners joined the Confederate army immediately. In April 1862, the Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act which required men of a certain age to serve in the Confederate military German Americans and many other European immigrants to Texas objected to fighting against the Union.

5 The two highest-ranking Texans in the Confederate army were Albert Sidney Johnston and John Bell Hood.

6 Most Texans Support the South After the war began, most Texans who previously had been against secession now supported the Confederacy. James W. Throckmorton, who had voted against secession, realized that he could not fight against Texas. About 60,000 Texans joined the armed forces of the Confederacy.

7 5TH TEXAS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, CO. K

8 Some Texans Aid the Union About 2,000 Texas Unionists, including 50 African-Americans, took up arms for the Union. Mexican-Americans served on both sides of the war. Many Texas Unionists who did not want to fight on either side left Texas.

9 Major Battles of the Civil War

10 Study the charts that follow and decide: What were the Union Advantages? What were the Confederate Advantages?

11 Rating the North & South - Population

12 Railroad Lines in 1860

13 Industries & Workers: North & South

14 Soldiers Present for Duty in the Civil War

15 Union “Anaconda” Plan 1. Capture Richmond, Virginia –Capital of Confederacy 2. Blockade Southern ports –Prevent trade with other countries 3. Capture the Mississippi River –Cut Confederacy in half –Cut off trade routes from New Orleans and Texas

16 Strategies Union strategy to conquer South was called the Anaconda Plan. Confederate strategy to win the Union: 1) defend the Confederate states 2) invade Northern states if opportunity arises

17 Anaconda Plan

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19 Texas-Mexico Trade Routes Texas was economically important to the Confederacy because the Confederacy was able to conduct foreign trade through Mexico by way of Texas.

20 Ft Sumter April 12, 1861 Charleston Harbor – Charleston, S.C. Union surrendered the fort

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23 Significance of Ft. Sumter Led to the secession of Virginia (VA), Arkansas (AR), Tennessee (TN), and North Carolina (NC) First military action of the war This is the start of the Civil War!

24 First Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861 Manassas, Virginia (also called “1 st Manassas”) –30 miles from Washington, D.C. Confederates won the battle, but failed to force the Union army to retreat. 4,700 killed/wounded/captured (K/W/C)

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27 Significance of Bull Run First major battle of the war Confederate victory and a major morale boost for the South. It showed both sides that the War would not go exactly as expected- people thought the war would be over in a few days—it would last 4 years.

28 Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee –near Shiloh Church Confederate army drove Union back on the first day, but the Union won the battle the second day. 24,000 K/W/C

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30 Significance of Shiloh Texas General Albert Sidney Johnston killed. –Considered one of South’s best Generals –His death was a severe blow to Confederate Army –Fought at Battle of San Jacinto Showed Americans that this would be a long and bloody war. It also showed the determination and skill of Ulysses S. Grant.

31 Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Bloodiest single day of the Civil War Bloodiest single day battle in American History! Battle is a Standoff and no side wins 28,000 killed (more WC)

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34 Battle of Gettysburg July 1 - 3, 1863 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania General R.E. Lee led Confederate forces into the North. The Union army defeated the confederates in a costly 3 day battle 46,000 K/W/C Bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War!

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36 Significance of Gettysburg Turning point of the war Confederate invasion of the North failed. It was a HUGE morale defeat for the South. Combined with the defeat at Vicksburg the next day, the South was never able to recover.

37 Vicksburg May 18 - July 4, 1863 Vicksburg, Mississippi –on Mississippi River Confederates surrender after 47 day Union siege of the city. 36,000 K/W/C

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39 Significance of Vicksburg Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Union army, took control of the Mississippi River. Split the confederacy in half and cut off important trade routes through New Orleans and Texas.

40 Texans on the Attack The Confederacy’s first objective was to overtake Union garrisons and supplies. Texas launched a preventive strike on Union Forces in New Mexico. The New Mexico Campaign failed and was abandoned in July 1862.

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42 Battle of Galveston Union ships blockade Texas ports. Cotton was transported through Mexico and sent to Europe in exchange for war supplies. In October 1862 Union forces attacked and captured Galveston. Texas Confederate forces retook Galveston in January 1863.

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44 The Emancipation Proclamation

45 By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war. Terms of the Proclamation: 1) Frees slaves in the Confederate states 2) Does NOT apply to areas occupied by the Union or states where slavery is permitted in the Union – (border states of Missouri and Kentucky) 3)Discourages Britain from supporting/joining the Confederacy The Proclamation brings mixed reactions…. Emancipation Proclamation

46 Emancipation in 1863

47 gives war a higher moral purpose Free blacks can now join Union army and fight against slavery Northern Democrats claim it will antagonize the South and prolong the war Confederacy now MORE DETERMINED to fight to keep slavery No chance of compromise now-one side must WIN and the other side must LOSE! Some Reactions:

48 Texans Defend Sabine Pass Confederate soldiers defeated Union forces at Sabine Pass. Dick Dowling and the Davis Guards played a major role by capturing 350 soldiers and two boats. The Battle of Sabine Pass was an important Confederate victory, foiling the Union’s major campaign against Texas.

49 In the fall of 1863, Confederate forces under the command of Lt. Richard Dowling turned back a much larger Union invasion force at the battle of Sabine Pass. "There is no parallel in ancient or modern warfare to the victory of Dowling and his men at Sabine Pass considering the great odds against which they had to contend" Jefferson Davis The Battle of Sabine Pass September 8, 1863

50 Forces Battle over Brownsville Hoping to cut off the overland supply line, the Union focused on Brownsville. In November 1863 Confederate troops drove back a Union attack on Brownsville.

51 Red River and Beyond Union forces captured New Orleans. With 25,000 troops, the Union forces moved toward East Texas. A smaller Confederate army led by Thomas “Tom” Green, met Union forces 25 miles from the Texas border in one of the bloodiest campaigns.

52 Red River and Beyond Hood’s Texas Brigade and Terry’s Texas Rangers served bravely Terry’s Texas Rangers served in more battles than any other cavalry regiment in the Civil War. General Robert E. Lee called Hood’s men his “finest soldiers.”

53 1864: Life During Wartime The Civil War brings about dramatic social and economic changes in American society including: 1) African Americans join the Union army to fight 2) Other slaves seek freedom behind Union army lines 3) On plantations: some destroy property, others refuse to leave

54 Black Troops Freeing Slaves

55 FOOD SHORTAGES in the South –Food shortages from lost manpower, Union occupation, loss of slaves –Blockade creates other shortages; some Confederates trade with enemy ECONOMY BOOM in the North –Industries that supply army boom –Wages do not keep up with prices; workers’ standard of living drops –Women replace men on farms, city jobs, government jobs –Congress establishes first income tax on earnings to pay for war War Affects Regional Economies

56 Inflation in the South

57 Soldiers Suffer on Both Sides More soldiers died from Dysentery (diarrhea) than were killed in battle Lived in unsanitary camps, conditions (epidemics easily spread) wash hands 1/day, bathe 1/week 75% of surgeries were amputations (saw often used on 1 person after another w/o sanitizing) - fingers the most amputated body part

58 Casualties on Both Sides

59 Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars

60 The Civil War ENDS The Election of )Lincoln re-elected for 2 nd term IT’S OVER! The Surrender at Appomattox 1)Confederate President Jefferson Davis’s government flee Richmond and burn it to the ground 2)Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865 at the Appomattox Courthouse - Confederate soldiers pardoned on generous terms by Grant

61 Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865 Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865 After the War ended, Lee dedicated his home [above] in Arlington, Virginia for a military burial grounds – today known as the Arlington National Cemetery

62 Battle of Palmito Ranch The final battle of the Civil War took place on May 12, 1865, at Palmito Ranch, near Brownsville. Confederate soldiers did not know that the war was over. Texans learned from their prisoners that Lee had surrendered a month earlier.

63 New Birth of Freedom 1)1865: 13 th Amendment abolishes slavery in all states Some Follow New Paths 1)Some soldiers stay in army, others are civilians, many go west The War Changes Lives

64 Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln 1)April 14, 1865, Lincoln is shot at Ford’s Theatre 2)Assassin John Wilkes Booth escapes, is later trapped by Union cavalry and shot 3)7 million people pay respects to Lincoln’s funeral train The War Changes our Future

65 Ford’s Theater (April 14, 1865)

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67 The Assassin

68 Now He Belongs to the Ages!


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