Presentation on theme: "Cultural Identity Language / Social CharacteristicsLanguage / Social Characteristics Religion / Belief Systems / PoliticsReligion / Belief Systems / Politics."— Presentation transcript:
Cultural Identity Language / Social CharacteristicsLanguage / Social Characteristics Religion / Belief Systems / PoliticsReligion / Belief Systems / Politics Also includes many other aspects:Also includes many other aspects: –Art and Architecture –Economics / Money –Transportation –Food and clothing, etc.
CULTURE Culture is not just about dances, food and dress. Culture is a shared set of values and meanings practiced in everyday life Let’s look at the geography of culture…
CULTURAL IDENTITIES ReligionEthnicityLanguageMusic Style of Dress RaceRegionFoodHistories And more…
LANGUAGE Means of communication and identity Spoken, written, manual
Living Languages! Thousands of tribal languages across globe Many small languages endangered Some languages forbidden in past (colonial rulers) –Native African –Native American –Yiddish Some languages protected –Gaelic –Native American –French? Where languages are 737 in Indonesia! (18,000+ islands)6,909* *
How many people speak which languages? RankLanguageNumber of Speakers 1Chinese (Mandarin) 1,050,000,000 2English510,000,000 3Hindi490,000,000 4Spanish420,000,000 5Russian255,000,000 6Arabic230,000,000 7German229,000,000 8Bengali215,000,000 9Portuguese213,000,000 10French130,000,000 Ethnologue: Languages of the World
Language Family Ancient common origin, split into: Language branchesLanguage branches LanguagesLanguages Regional dialects / accentsRegional dialects / accents
Major world language families Indo-EuropeanAustronesian Ural-Altaic Sino-Tibetan Niger-CongoJapanese Afro-Asiatic Dravidian…and the rest
Indo-European language family branches Multiple tongues: Baltic Celtic Germanic Indo-Iranian Italic (Romantic) SlavicUnique: Albanian Armenian Greek
Indo-European Language Indo-European Language Branches
NOT NOT Indo-European languages Suomi (Finland)* Estonian (Estonia)* Magyar (Hungary)* Euzkadi (Basque Country) Isolated Isolated Well-defensed Well-defensed Survived centuries of Survived centuries of invasions and colonization invasions and colonization * Finno-Ugric language family
Romantic Branch of Indo-European Language Family Rome
Germanic Branch of Indo-European Language Family
Romance Languages: Mutually Intelligible? COW CatalanVaca French: Vache Italian: Vacca Portuguese: Vaca Romanian: Vacă Spanish: Vaca VERY GOOD Catalan:Molt Bo French: Tres Bien Italian: Molto Bene Portuguese: Muito Bem Romanian: Merge Bine Spanish: Muy Bien
Indo-European Language Tree night ночь (noch') noche nuit nótt natt noite nox Nacht nacht noapte noc natë naktis νύκτα (nykta) Estonian: öö Euzkadi: gau Magyar: éj Suomi: yö raath
Lingua Franca A language used informally for communication in a multiethnic place Often a former colonial language
Official Languages What is the OFFICIAL Language of the U.S.?
U.S. should be YELLOW!! **English is the Lingua Franca of the United States**
What is English, anyway? Bizarre Avocado Hurricane Petunia Assassin Barbecue Chipmunk Ammonia Banjo Tundra WHAT DO ALL THESE WORDS HAVE IN COMMON?
What is English, anyway? Bizarre (Euzkadi, for beard “bizar”) Avocado (Nahuatl [Aztec] for “testicle”) Hurricane (Taíno, a Caribbean language) Petunia (Tupi, Peruvian Indian) Assassin (Arabic, from hashish smokers) Barbecue (Carib, a Caribbean language) Chipmunk (Ojibwe, Native American) Ammonia (Ancient Egyptian for camel dung) Banjo (Kimbundu, Northern Angola) Tundra (Saami, formerly called Lapp) Kumquat(Chinese, “gold orange”) English: A “melting pot” in itself!
Wisconsin Place Names: also from many sources Eau Claire Prairie du Chien Neenah-Menasha Chetek Trempealeau Oshkosh Kewaunee Clear WaterClear Water Prairie of the DogPrairie of the Dog Island-IslandIsland-Island PelicanPelican Water SoakedWater Soaked ToenailToenail Prairie ChickenPrairie Chicken
DIALECT and ACCENT (regional variations within a language)
4. Finish this sentence: Duck, Duck, _____________
Cultural Region Areas in which a particular cultural system prevailsAreas in which a particular cultural system prevails Dominant cultural practices, beliefs, valuesDominant cultural practices, beliefs, values
Acculturation vs. Assimilation Absorbing of minority culture into majority culture, often through pressure Loss of culture can degrade minority, create uneven playing field Loss of culture can degrade minority, create uneven playing field Involuntary Involuntary Adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture Adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture Process of melding new ideas into an existing cognitive culture Process of melding new ideas into an existing cognitive culture Voluntary Voluntary
Religious Landscapes Blue Mosque New Synagogue St. Peter’s Cathedral Mormon Temple Barsana Dham Hindu Temple Orthodox Church Borobudur Buddhist Temple
But what is a “religion?” From Dictionary.com: Which religions are “legitimate?”Which religions are “legitimate?” What criteria are used: Time? Followers?What criteria are used: Time? Followers? And by whose standards / definition?And by whose standards / definition? If you believe it, it’s real! (at least to you)If you believe it, it’s real! (at least to you)
Vodoun (Santería) 10,000+ years old
Voodoo curse used to threaten wife Palm Beach Post Wednesday, March 05, 2008 PORT ST. LUCIE, FL — Police jailed a 34-year-old man accused of punching his wife and threatening to kill her, her children and her family with a gun and a Voodoo curse, records show. Nerlet Bellot's wife told police she is a "strong believer" in Voodoo and her husband is "more than capable" of casting a Voodoo curse, an arrest report said. The woman, who is Haitian like her husband, said she was "terrified of that notion and it's consequences.“ The woman, who recently moved from Haiti where her husband also has family, told police that threat scared her more than any of the others. Bellot was arrested Monday on charges of domestic battery, domestic assault, hindering communication with a law enforcement officer.
Even in the Midwest! March 08, 2006 Headless Chicken Not So Lucky Chicago drivers need all the luck they can get. So it's understandable that when Jose A. Cruz, 25, set out to drive from Elmhurst, Ill. to his home in Sweetwater, Fla., he tried to bring along some good luck. Only instead of rubbing a rabbit's foot, he beheaded a live chicken and tossed its still- flapping body out of his car window. Unluckily, an Elmhurst cop watched him do it. Cruz was arrested, but not for killing the chicken. Apparently, decapitation is a humane way to kill a bird and, thus, not a crime. Instead, he was charged with littering. According to police, Cruz practices Santeria and killed the bird as part of a ritual sacrifice. Chicago has a growing population of Santeria followers, including White Sox manager Ozzie Guillen. The Sox skipper identifies himself as a Roman Catholic, but he is also a babalowa, a leader in the Santeria faith.
Diffusion of Christianity in the Roman Empire
First Schism: Western (Catholic) vs. Eastern (Orthodox)
Second Schism: Catholic vs. Protestant
Christianity in Europe Today
Christianity in the U.S. Today
Religions in the U.S. Today Protestant Christians 100 mil.+ Catholic Christians 60 mil.+ Muslims 4 mil. Jews 6 mil. Orthodox Christians 6 mil.
Muslims in the U.S. Altoona Mosque (former church)
Origin of Islam: Mecca (Saudi Arabia)
Diffusion of Islam
Areas under Muslim rule at various times Mesquita: Cordoba, Spain
Sunni and Shi‘a Muslim Regions Today Most Muslims are not Arabs. Most Arabs are Muslim. Arab = “of Arabia.” Most Muslims do not live in Arabia. Iraq: 80% Arab Saudi Arabia: 90% Arab Kuwait: 81% Arab Iran: Persian 3% Arab Syria: 90% Arab Jordan: 98% Arab Egypt: 90% Arab
Arabic Berber Hamitic Persian Kurdish Turkish (Western) Turkish (Eastern) Baluch Caucasian Greek Hebrew Ethnolinguistic Groups of the Middle East “Arabia”
RANK COUNTRY MUSLIM POPULATION Arab 1.Indonesia204,847,000 2.Pakistan178,097,000 3.India177,286,000 4.Bangladesh148,607,000 5.Egypt 80,024,000 6.Nigeria 75,728,000 7.Iran 74,819,000 8.Turkey 74,660,000 9.Algeria 34,780, Morocco 32,381, Saudi Arabia 25,493, United States 2.5 million? Pew Research Center (‘09)
Judaism in the U.S. Also tend to be located in urban areas
Spread / acceptance of “American” culture around the worldSpread / acceptance of “American” culture around the world a.k.a. “McCulture”a.k.a. “McCulture” Why America? Cultural / Ingenuity?Cultural / Ingenuity? Economic - English?Economic - English? Result of capitalism / larger market?Result of capitalism / larger market? Force?Force?“Americanization”
McNifficaArgentina McKroketNetherlands McRyeFinland TeriyakiMcBurgerJapan Bulgogi Burger Korea Tukbul Burger Korea VegiMacSwitzerland Kofte Burger Turkey Bacon Roll United Kingdom A Global Cuisine… Greek Mac Greece
Red Bean Sunday Hong Kong McFlurry Belgium Shake Shake Fries Hong Kong Curry Potato Pie Hong Kong Bica Portugal