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The July Crisis June-July 1914June-July 1914. “A tiny clipping from a newspaper, mailed without comment from a secret band of terrorists in Zagreb, capital.

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Presentation on theme: "The July Crisis June-July 1914June-July 1914. “A tiny clipping from a newspaper, mailed without comment from a secret band of terrorists in Zagreb, capital."— Presentation transcript:

1 The July Crisis June-July 1914June-July 1914

2 “A tiny clipping from a newspaper, mailed without comment from a secret band of terrorists in Zagreb, capital of Croatia, to their comrades in Belgrade, was the torch which set the world afire with war in That bit of paper wrecked old, proud empires. It gave birth to new, free nations. I was one of the members of the terrorist band in Belgrade which received it. The little clipping declared that the Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand would visit Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, June 28, to direct army maneuvers in the neighboring mountains. It reached our meeting place, the cafe called Zeatna Moruna, one night in the latter part of April At a small table in a very humble cafe, beneath a flickering gas jet we sat and read it. There was no advice nor admonition sent with it. Only four letters and two numerals were sufficient to make us unanimous, without discussion, as to what we should do about it. They were contained in the fateful date, June 28.” - Borijove Jevtic, The Black Hand

3 The Archduke’s Visit to Sarajevo On June 4, 1914 newspapers reported the visit of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. On June 4, 1914 newspapers reported the visit of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia. The purpose of the visit was to observe military maneuvers as well as spread goodwill through his first visit to the recently acquired territory. The purpose of the visit was to observe military maneuvers as well as spread goodwill through his first visit to the recently acquired territory. On Sunday, June 28 th the royal couple makes their official visit to Sarajevo. On Sunday, June 28 th the royal couple makes their official visit to Sarajevo. June 28 th, incidentally, will also be the anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo – the most devastating national defeat that the Serbian people had at the hands of the Ottomans. June 28 th, incidentally, will also be the anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo – the most devastating national defeat that the Serbian people had at the hands of the Ottomans. The couple, arriving at the train station in Sarajevo, will get into their motorcade which will take them to their first official stop at city hall. The couple, arriving at the train station in Sarajevo, will get into their motorcade which will take them to their first official stop at city hall.

4 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Unknown to the Archduke, lined along the parade route to city hall were seven assassins of the Black Hand. Unknown to the Archduke, lined along the parade route to city hall were seven assassins of the Black Hand. In an attempt to not offend the local citizenry, the police and military presence in the area was incredibly light. In an attempt to not offend the local citizenry, the police and military presence in the area was incredibly light. When the first assassin failed to act, the second, Čabrinović, sprung into action. When the first assassin failed to act, the second, Čabrinović, sprung into action. He ignited the fuse on his bomb and threw it at the car with the archduke inside of it. He ignited the fuse on his bomb and threw it at the car with the archduke inside of it. The archduke, alarmed by the sound of the bomb being armed, was able to deflect the explosive away from his car. The archduke, alarmed by the sound of the bomb being armed, was able to deflect the explosive away from his car. The bomb will land underneath the car behind his, disabling it and wounding bystanders. The bomb will land underneath the car behind his, disabling it and wounding bystanders. The driver of the car quickly accelerated away from the scene of the attack towards city hall. The driver of the car quickly accelerated away from the scene of the attack towards city hall.

5 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

6 The couple emerging from Sarajevo Town Hall, minutes before the assassination.

7 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand After speaking at Sarajevo’s Town Hall, Franz Ferdinand wished to make an alteration to the planned itinerary and visit those wounded at the bombing earlier in the day. After speaking at Sarajevo’s Town Hall, Franz Ferdinand wished to make an alteration to the planned itinerary and visit those wounded at the bombing earlier in the day. The driver of the car, uninformed of the new destination, followed the original route towards Franz Joseph Straβe. The driver of the car, uninformed of the new destination, followed the original route towards Franz Joseph Straβe. After realizing the error, the driver put the car in reverse, stalling it. After realizing the error, the driver put the car in reverse, stalling it. As the driver worked to restart the car, one of the assassins, who had resigned himself to the failure of the plot earlier in the day, was in a nearby café. As the driver worked to restart the car, one of the assassins, who had resigned himself to the failure of the plot earlier in the day, was in a nearby café. Seizing this opportunity the assassin, a 19- year-old named Gavrilo Princip, fired two shots point-blank into the stationary car. Seizing this opportunity the assassin, a 19- year-old named Gavrilo Princip, fired two shots point-blank into the stationary car.

8 The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand “As the car quickly reversed, a thin stream of blood spurted from His Highness's mouth onto my right cheek. As I was pulling out my handkerchief to wipe the blood away from his mouth, the Duchess cried out to him, “For God's sake! What has happened to you?” At that she slid off the seat and lay on the floor of the car, with her face between his knees. I had no idea that she too was hit and thought she had simply fainted with fright. Then I heard His Imperial Highness say, “Sophie, Sophie, don’t die. Stay alive for the children!” At that, I seized the Archduke by the collar of his uniform, to stop his head dropping forward and asked him if he was in great pain. He answered me quite distinctly, “It is nothing!” His face began to twist somewhat but he went on repeating, six or seven times, ever more faintly as he gradually lost consciousness, “It’s nothing!” Then came a brief pause followed by a convulsive rattle in his throat, caused by a loss of blood. This ceased on arrival at the governor's residence. The two unconscious bodies were carried into the building where their death was soon established.” - Count Franz von Harrach

9 The blood soaked uniform jacket worn by Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand when he was shot to death in Sarajevo.

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11 Austrian Reactions While Franz Ferdinand was not overly loved at home (or abroad) the Austrians needed to act decisively with the Serbian act of treason against their government. While Franz Ferdinand was not overly loved at home (or abroad) the Austrians needed to act decisively with the Serbian act of treason against their government. Some members of the Austrian leadership advocated for immediate military action but others, fearful of a Russian intervention, wanted to secure the backing of their German allies first. Some members of the Austrian leadership advocated for immediate military action but others, fearful of a Russian intervention, wanted to secure the backing of their German allies first. On July 3 rd the bodies of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie were buried in a private ceremony. On July 3 rd the bodies of Franz Ferdinand and Sophie were buried in a private ceremony.

12 The German “Blank Check” On July 5 th, Kaiser Wilhelm II promises Austria unconditional German support for whatever action is pursued by the Austrians. On July 5 th, Kaiser Wilhelm II promises Austria unconditional German support for whatever action is pursued by the Austrians. This is known as the “Blank Check” promise This is known as the “Blank Check” promise Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, the Austrian army chief of staff, urged mobilization of the army, which the Emperor Franz Joseph refuses. Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, the Austrian army chief of staff, urged mobilization of the army, which the Emperor Franz Joseph refuses. As internal debate rages within Austria as to what actions to take regarding Serbia, Kaiser Wilhelm leaves on a vacation to Scandinavia under the belief that neither France nor Russia will take any drastic actions. As internal debate rages within Austria as to what actions to take regarding Serbia, Kaiser Wilhelm leaves on a vacation to Scandinavia under the belief that neither France nor Russia will take any drastic actions.

13 The Austrian Ultimatum The Austrian investigation into the assassination plot uncovers evidence that the plot was hatched in Belgrade. Subsequent investigations will unearth no official connection with the Serbian government. The Austrian investigation into the assassination plot uncovers evidence that the plot was hatched in Belgrade. Subsequent investigations will unearth no official connection with the Serbian government. On July 7 th, the Austrian Council of Ministers all urge war except for Count Tisza, the Hungarian Prime Minister, who was fearful of Russian intervention. On July 7 th, the Austrian Council of Ministers all urge war except for Count Tisza, the Hungarian Prime Minister, who was fearful of Russian intervention. On July 9 th, the British government weakly states its position that it will act according to her own judgment and “in no circumstances would be found on the side of the aggressors.” On July 9 th, the British government weakly states its position that it will act according to her own judgment and “in no circumstances would be found on the side of the aggressors.” The Austrians begin developing an ultimatum which will purposely be designed to be unacceptable to Serbia. The Austrians begin developing an ultimatum which will purposely be designed to be unacceptable to Serbia. Tisza urged that the ultimatum “is to be phrased that its acceptance will be practically impossible” to accept. Tisza urged that the ultimatum “is to be phrased that its acceptance will be practically impossible” to accept.

14 The Austrian Ultimatum July 15 th – The French President and Prime Minister leave on a previously planned visit to Russia. July 15 th – The French President and Prime Minister leave on a previously planned visit to Russia. July 16 th – The British ambassador Lord Grey continues to speak ambiguously, confirming his “wait-and-see” approach to the crisis. July 16 th – The British ambassador Lord Grey continues to speak ambiguously, confirming his “wait-and-see” approach to the crisis. July 18 th – The Russian foreign minister Sazonov warns Austria that Russia would not tolerate “any blow to Serbia’s independence.” July 18 th – The Russian foreign minister Sazonov warns Austria that Russia would not tolerate “any blow to Serbia’s independence.” July 20 th – Austria begins secretly mobilizing its army July 20 th – Austria begins secretly mobilizing its army July 21 st – French President Poincare in St. Petersburg warns the Austrian ambassador that “The Russian people are very warm friends of the Serbians, and France is Russia’s ally.” July 21 st – French President Poincare in St. Petersburg warns the Austrian ambassador that “The Russian people are very warm friends of the Serbians, and France is Russia’s ally.”

15 The Austrian Ultimatum On July 23 rd, at 6 p.m., the Austrian ultimatum is delivered to the Serbian government. They are given 48 hours to issue a reply. On July 23 rd, at 6 p.m., the Austrian ultimatum is delivered to the Serbian government. They are given 48 hours to issue a reply. The ultimatum will contain a list of demands for the Serbian state – all of which will need to be accepted or the ultimatum will be considered rejected. The ultimatum will contain a list of demands for the Serbian state – all of which will need to be accepted or the ultimatum will be considered rejected. Berchtold, the Austrian foreign minister, noted that “Any conditional acceptance [of the ultimatum], or one accompanied by reservations, it so be regarded as a refusal.” Berchtold, the Austrian foreign minister, noted that “Any conditional acceptance [of the ultimatum], or one accompanied by reservations, it so be regarded as a refusal.”

16 The Austrian Ultimatum On July 24 th : On July 24 th : The Russian Council of Ministers urges for the Austrians to extend the 48-hour deadline and to not engage in hostilities. They will also urge the czar to partially mobilize the army but only along the Austrian border. The Russian Council of Ministers urges for the Austrians to extend the 48-hour deadline and to not engage in hostilities. They will also urge the czar to partially mobilize the army but only along the Austrian border. The British will urge a four-power mediation at Vienna and extension of the time-limit set by Serbia. The British will urge a four-power mediation at Vienna and extension of the time-limit set by Serbia. July 25 th : July 25 th : Russia requests Austria to extend the 48-hour time limit. Austria refuses. Russia requests Austria to extend the 48-hour time limit. Austria refuses. 3 p.m. – Serbia orders full mobilization. 3 p.m. – Serbia orders full mobilization. 6 p.m. – The Serbian response is rejected by the Austrians. 6 p.m. – The Serbian response is rejected by the Austrians. The Austrians declare mobilization. The Austrians declare mobilization. The French begin secret military preparations. The French begin secret military preparations.

17 Reaction to the Ultimatum July 26 th : July 26 th : The Russians will place their border fortresses into a state of war. The Russians will place their border fortresses into a state of war. July 27 th : July 27 th : Sazonov (Russia) appeals with the Austrians to reword part of the ultimatum in order to make it more acceptable to the Serbians. Sazonov (Russia) appeals with the Austrians to reword part of the ultimatum in order to make it more acceptable to the Serbians. July 28 th : July 28 th : Austria declares war on Serbia. Austria declares war on Serbia. The Russians order partial mobilization (against Austria only.) The Russians order partial mobilization (against Austria only.) July 29 th : July 29 th : Austria opens the war with the bombardment of the Serb capital Belgrade. Austria opens the war with the bombardment of the Serb capital Belgrade.

18 Russian Mobilization July 30 th – The czar, under intense pressure from the military, will order general mobilization (“the period preparatory to war”.) The Russians, mistakenly, believed that the Germans had already begun their mobilization. July 30 th – The czar, under intense pressure from the military, will order general mobilization (“the period preparatory to war”.) The Russians, mistakenly, believed that the Germans had already begun their mobilization. July 31 st : July 31 st : The British attempts at mediation come to naught. The British attempts at mediation come to naught. Germany, upon learning of Russian mobilization, declares their own “period preparatory to war.” Germany, upon learning of Russian mobilization, declares their own “period preparatory to war.” 7 p.m. – Germany asks France to declare its intensions within 18 hours. France replies that she will “act in accordance with her interests.” 7 p.m. – Germany asks France to declare its intensions within 18 hours. France replies that she will “act in accordance with her interests.” Germany, for her part, will ask the French to surrender their border fortresses as a sign of good faith. France, obviously, refuses. Germany, for her part, will ask the French to surrender their border fortresses as a sign of good faith. France, obviously, refuses.

19 The Mobilization of the Great Powers August 1 st : August 1 st : 4:45 p.m. – General mobilization is ordered by France. 4:45 p.m. – General mobilization is ordered by France. 5 p.m. – German general mobilization begins. 5 p.m. – German general mobilization begins. 6 p.m. – Germany declares war on Russia. 6 p.m. – Germany declares war on Russia. Italy declares herself neutral on the grounds that Austria was engaged in an aggressive war. Italy declares herself neutral on the grounds that Austria was engaged in an aggressive war. August 2 nd : August 2 nd : Britain promises naval protection to France in the event of hostile German naval activity. Britain promises naval protection to France in the event of hostile German naval activity. Germany demands that Belgium allow German troops to pass through Belgian territory. Belgium refuses. Germany demands that Belgium allow German troops to pass through Belgian territory. Belgium refuses. 6:15 p.m. – Germany declares war on France. 6:15 p.m. – Germany declares war on France. August 4 th – The British issue an ultimatum to Germany to withdraw from Belgium. Upon the German rejection of this ultimatum, Britain is now at war with Germany. August 4 th – The British issue an ultimatum to Germany to withdraw from Belgium. Upon the German rejection of this ultimatum, Britain is now at war with Germany. August 5 th – The Germans begin leveling the Belgian fortress complex around Liège. August 5 th – The Germans begin leveling the Belgian fortress complex around Liège.

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21 Warfare Across Europe

22 Alliance Political Cartoon


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