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HIGHLIGHTS OF WORLD WAR I 1914-1918. Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (pages 448– 449) Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (pages.

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Presentation on theme: "HIGHLIGHTS OF WORLD WAR I 1914-1918. Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (pages 448– 449) Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (pages."— Presentation transcript:

1 HIGHLIGHTS OF WORLD WAR I 1914-1918

2 Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (pages 448– 449) Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (pages 448– 449) President Wilson was opposed to imperialism and believed democracy was necessary President Wilson was opposed to imperialism and believed democracy was necessary to keep the nation stable and prosperous. to keep the nation stable and prosperous. He wanted a world free from revolution He wanted a world free from revolution and war. and war.

3 Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I In 1911 a revolution in Mexico forced its leader, Porfirio Díaz, to flee the country. In 1911 a revolution in Mexico forced its leader, Porfirio Díaz, to flee the country. The new leader, Francisco Madero, was a poor administrator. The new leader, Francisco Madero, was a poor administrator. General Victoriano Huerta took over in Mexico and presumably had Madero murdered. General Victoriano Huerta took over in Mexico and presumably had Madero murdered. Wilson refused to recognize the new government and prevented weapons from reaching Huerta. Wilson refused to recognize the new government and prevented weapons from reaching Huerta.

4 Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I In 1914 Wilson sent marines to seize the Mexican port of Veracruz to overthrow Huerta. In 1914 Wilson sent marines to seize the Mexican port of Veracruz to overthrow Huerta. Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico. International mediation of the dispute placed Venustiano Carranza as Mexico’s new president. Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico. International mediation of the dispute placed Venustiano Carranza as Mexico’s new president.

5 Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Mexican forces opposed to Carranza conducted raids into the United States, hoping Mexican forces opposed to Carranza conducted raids into the United States, hoping Wilson would intervene. Wilson would intervene. Pancho Villa led a group of guerrillas, an armed group that carries out surprise attacks, into New Mexico, and a number of Americans were killed. Pancho Villa led a group of guerrillas, an armed group that carries out surprise attacks, into New Mexico, and a number of Americans were killed.

6 Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and his troops into Mexico to capture Villa. Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and his troops into Mexico to capture Villa. Pershing was unsuccessful. Wilson’s Mexican policy damaged U.S. foreign relations. Pershing was unsuccessful. Wilson’s Mexican policy damaged U.S. foreign relations.

7 Short Term Cause of World War I: The Spark June 28, 1914 June 28, 1914 Assassinationof the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Assassinationof the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. Attack was in Sarajevo, Serbia Attack was in Sarajevo, Serbia Assassin was Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian Nationalist Group: The Black Hand,. Assassin was Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian Nationalist Group: The Black Hand,.

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9 GAVRILO PRINCIP Memberof the Serbian Nationalist Group known as the Black Hand and assassin of the Archduke. Memberof the Serbian Nationalist Group known as the Black Hand and assassin of the Archduke.

10 RIVAL ALLIANCE SYSTEM Serbian nationalists wanted to unite Bosnia and Herzegovina with Serbia. Serbian nationalists wanted to unite Bosnia and Herzegovina with Serbia. Austria-Hungary blamed the assassination of the Archduke on Serbia. Austria-Hungary blamed the assassination of the Archduke on Serbia. Germany is an ally to Austria-Hungary and issues the “blank check” to A-H. Germany is an ally to Austria-Hungary and issues the “blank check” to A-H. Serbia rejects key points of the ultimatum. Serbia rejects key points of the ultimatum.

11 Sequence of Events July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary mobilizes against Serbia and declares war. July 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary mobilizes against Serbia and declares war. Russia begins general mobilization. Why? Russia begins general mobilization. Why? August 1, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium and declares war on France. August 1, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium and declares war on France. August 3, 1914 – Italy declares neutrality. August 3, 1914 – Italy declares neutrality.

12 Sequence of Events August 23, 1914 – Japan declares war on Germany. August 23, 1914 – Japan declares war on Germany. July 3 – Turkey concludes a secret treaty with Germany against Russia and declares war on Russia on October 29. July 3 – Turkey concludes a secret treaty with Germany against Russia and declares war on Russia on October 29. November 3 – Russia declares war on Turkey November 3 – Russia declares war on Turkey May 23, 1915 – Italy joins the Allies by declaring war on Austria-Hungary. May 23, 1915 – Italy joins the Allies by declaring war on Austria-Hungary.

13 Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, 1915

14 Zimmerman Telegram Letter sent by a German Official, Arthur Zimmerman, to Mexico asking Mexico to ally itself with Germany against the United States in exchange for regaining its territories lost earlier to the United States. Letter sent by a German Official, Arthur Zimmerman, to Mexico asking Mexico to ally itself with Germany against the United States in exchange for regaining its territories lost earlier to the United States. Suggested an invasion of the United States by Mexico. Suggested an invasion of the United States by Mexico.

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16 UNITED STATES ENTERS WORLD WAR I April 6, 1917 April 6, 1917

17 CENTRAL POWERS WAR STRATEGY SCHLIEFFEN PLAN SCHLIEFFEN PLAN

18 14.2 – The Homefront Building Up the Military As the United States entered the war; it was necessary to recruit more soldiers. As the United States entered the war; it was necessary to recruit more soldiers. Conscription - forced military service Conscription - forced military service A new system, called selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted. A new system, called selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9fGD8C U6KI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9fGD8C U6KI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9fGD8C U6KI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9fGD8C U6KI

19 Building Up the Military African American soldiers faced discrimination and prejudice within the army. African American soldiers faced discrimination and prejudice within the army. they served in racially segregated units. they served in racially segregated units. ManyAfrican Americans won praise from their commanders and received war medals. ManyAfrican Americans won praise from their commanders and received war medals.

20 Building Up the Military World War I was the first war in which women officially served. World War I was the first war in which women officially served. The navy enlisted some 11,000 women, whose jobs included clerics, pharmacists, and photographers. The navy enlisted some 11,000 women, whose jobs included clerics, pharmacists, and photographers. The hired them as temporary employees to fill clerical positions. The hired them as temporary employees to fill clerical positions. Army nurses were the only women in the military to go overseas during the war. Army nurses were the only women in the military to go overseas during the war.

21 Organizing Industry The American economy had to mobilize for war. The American economy had to mobilize for war. President Wilson and Congress wanted to establish a cooperative relationship between big business and government. President Wilson and Congress wanted to establish a cooperative relationship between big business and government. The goal was to ensure efficient use of resources during the mobilization of the American economy for war. The goal was to ensure efficient use of resources during the mobilization of the American economy for war.

22 Organizing Industry In 1917 the War Industries Board (WIB) was created to coordinate the production of administered by Bernard Baruch. In 1917 the War Industries Board (WIB) was created to coordinate the production of administered by Bernard Baruch. The Food Administration, under the direction of Herbert Hoover, was responsible for The Food Administration, under the direction of Herbert Hoover, was responsible for increasing food production while reducing consumption. increasing food production while reducing consumption.

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24 Organizing Industry Hoover asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops. Hoover asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops. The Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil. Daylight savings time was introduced to conserve energy. The Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil. Daylight savings time was introduced to conserve energy.

25 Mobilizing the Workforce To prevent strikes, the government established the National War Labor Board (NWLB) To prevent strikes, the government established the National War Labor Board (NWLB) in 1918. in 1918. In exchange for wage increases, an 8-hour workday, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively, the labor leaders agreed not to disrupt war production with a strike. In exchange for wage increases, an 8-hour workday, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively, the labor leaders agreed not to disrupt war production with a strike.

26 Organizing Industry Between 300,000 and 500,000 African Americans left the South to settle in the North for jobs. Between 300,000 and 500,000 African Americans left the South to settle in the North for jobs. This “Great Migration” changed the racial makeup of many Northern cities. This “Great Migration” changed the racial makeup of many Northern cities.

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28 Organizing Industry Schenck v. the United States (1919), Schenck v. the United States (1919), the Supreme Court limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.” the Supreme Court limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.”

29 Ensuring Public Support The Committee on Public Information (CPI) attempted to “sell” the idea of war to the American people with patriotic messages. The Committee on Public Information (CPI) attempted to “sell” the idea of war to the American people with patriotic messages. Espionage - spying to acquire secret government information Espionage - spying to acquire secret government information Espionage Act of 1917 set consequences for people who aided the enemy. Espionage Act of 1917 set consequences for people who aided the enemy. The Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to criticize the president or the government. The Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to criticize the president or the government.

30 Ensuring Public Support To raise money to pay for the war, the government began selling Liberty Bonds and To raise money to pay for the war, the government began selling Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds. By buying bonds, Americans were loaning the government money that would be repaid with interest in a specified number of years. By buying bonds, Americans were loaning the government money that would be repaid with interest in a specified number of years.

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32 ALLIED POWERS WAR STRATEGY

33 1914 FIRST BATTLE OF THE MARNE FIRST BATTLE OF THE MARNE Germans had advanced to within 37 miles of Paris, France. Germans had advanced to within 37 miles of Paris, France. Schlieffen plan failed because of Belgium. Germans withdrew to a strong defensive position. Schlieffen plan failed because of Belgium. Germans withdrew to a strong defensive position. War on the Western Front settled into a STALEMATE due to TRENCH WARFARE War on the Western Front settled into a STALEMATE due to TRENCH WARFARE Neither side moved more than 10 miles in the next three years Neither side moved more than 10 miles in the next three years

34 TRENCH WARFARE

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36 NO MAN’S LAND

37 1914 AUGUST – BATTLE OF TANNENBURG AUGUST – BATTLE OF TANNENBURG Eastern Front between Russia and Germany. Eastern Front between Russia and Germany. Disaster for the Russians Disaster for the Russians General von Hindenburg and General Ludenforff made famous. General von Hindenburg and General Ludenforff made famous. By 1915 – Russia had lost 1 million dead and 900,000 prisoners. They were not trained or equipped properly. By 1915 – Russia had lost 1 million dead and 900,000 prisoners. They were not trained or equipped properly.

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39 1915 April – Second Battle of Ypres April – Second Battle of Ypres Germany introduced poison gas to warfare. Germany introduced poison gas to warfare. Total number of casualties from gas on both sides would reach 1 million with 79,000 killed. Total number of casualties from gas on both sides would reach 1 million with 79,000 killed.

40 1915 MAY – SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA MAY – SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA

41 LUSITANIA Germany’s submarine blockade of England resulted in the sinking of the Lusitania in May. Germany’s submarine blockade of England resulted in the sinking of the Lusitania in May. This event led to great tension between the United States and Germany. This event led to great tension between the United States and Germany. 1,198 dead including 139 Americans 1,198 dead including 139 Americans

42 LUSITANIA

43 GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN APRIL, 1915 TO JANUARY, 1916 APRIL, 1915 TO JANUARY, 1916 Plan of WINSTON CHURCHILL to knock Turkey out of the war. Plan of WINSTON CHURCHILL to knock Turkey out of the war. British disaster with 50,000 troops killed British disaster with 50,000 troops killed Turkish military leader MUSTAFA KEMAL would later rule Turkey as “ATATURK”. Turkish military leader MUSTAFA KEMAL would later rule Turkey as “ATATURK”.

44 GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN

45 1916 MAY – BATTLE OF JUTLAND MAY – BATTLE OF JUTLAND Only major naval battle of WWI. Only major naval battle of WWI. German navy was outnumbered but inflicted heavy losses on the British fleet. German navy was outnumbered but inflicted heavy losses on the British fleet. British fleet basically out for the rest of the war. British fleet basically out for the rest of the war.

46 BATTLE OF JUTLAND

47 1916 BATTLE OF VERDUN (FEB-OCT) BATTLE OF VERDUN (FEB-OCT) Fought in France. Fought in France. Longest and bloodiest battle of the war. Longest and bloodiest battle of the war. This battle killed almost 1 million men. This battle killed almost 1 million men. 542,000 French 542,000 French 434 German 434 German

48 1916 BATTLE OF THE SOMME (JULY-NOV) BATTLE OF THE SOMME (JULY-NOV) The British attacked with an advantage of 6:1. The British attacked with an advantage of 6:1. Highest casualty rate in one day of both world wars. Highest casualty rate in one day of both world wars. 60,000 men killed in the first day of battle. 60,000 men killed in the first day of battle. The British introduced the tank in battle. The British introduced the tank in battle. Casualties: Casualties: 500,000 German 500,000 German 400,000 British 400,000 British 200,000 French 200,000 French Net Gain: 7 miles Net Gain: 7 miles

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50 1917 Year of Disasters for the Allies Germany began Unrestricted Submarine Warfare. Germany began Unrestricted Submarine Warfare. German blockade of England. (Starve them out) German blockade of England. (Starve them out) Convoy System – protection of ships to deliver supplies to England. Convoy System – protection of ships to deliver supplies to England. Hindenburg Line established – a series of trenches across northern France. Hindenburg Line established – a series of trenches across northern France.

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52 HINDENBURG LINE

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54 WORLD WAR I BRITISH TANK

55 ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM Telegram to the German Minister in Mexico saying if the United States went to war, Germany would form an alliance with Mexico to help them get back “lost territories” from the U.S. in the 1840’s. Telegram to the German Minister in Mexico saying if the United States went to war, Germany would form an alliance with Mexico to help them get back “lost territories” from the U.S. in the 1840’s.

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57 1917 BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION (NOV.) BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION (NOV.) End of Tsarist Russia. End of Tsarist Russia. Led to Russian armistice with Germany which takes Russia out of the war. Led to Russian armistice with Germany which takes Russia out of the war. Nov. 15- Tsar Nicholas II Abdicates. Nov. 15- Tsar Nicholas II Abdicates. Vladimir Lenin established Communist government in Russia. Vladimir Lenin established Communist government in Russia. TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK – Between Germany and Russia. TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK – Between Germany and Russia.

58 Nicholas II and Family

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60 ALEXI: TSARAVICH AND HEMOPHELIA

61 RASPUTIN

62 RASPUTIN’S PROPHETIC LETTER TO ALEXANDRA

63 RASPUTIN ASSASSINATED

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65 BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION

66 VLADIMIR LENIN

67 END OF TSARIST RUSSIA

68 IPATIEV HOUSE http://www.romanov-memorial.com/ http://www.romanov-memorial.com/ http://www.romanov-memorial.com/

69 1918 President Wilson announces his Fourteen Points. President Wilson announces his Fourteen Points. One Million fresh American troops land in France. One Million fresh American troops land in France. Second Battle of the Marne (July-August) was the turning point of the war. Germans were forced to retreat Second Battle of the Marne (July-August) was the turning point of the war. Germans were forced to retreat

70 1918 MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE Alvin C. York made famous Alvin C. York made famous American army of 1,200,000 under the command of General John J. Pershing American army of 1,200,000 under the command of General John J. Pershing Pursued the retreating German s until the German armistice Pursued the retreating German s until the German armistice

71 MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE

72 1918 Mutiny of the German fleet and a revolution in Munich led to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II on Nov. 10. The Kaiser fled to Holland. Mutiny of the German fleet and a revolution in Munich led to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II on Nov. 10. The Kaiser fled to Holland.

73 ARMISTICE Agreement to end fighting. Agreement to end fighting. 11 th day 11 th day 11 th month 11 th month 11 th hour 11 th hour


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