2Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy (pages 448–449)President Wilson was opposed to imperialism and believed democracy was necessaryto keep the nation stable and prosperous.He wanted a world free from revolutionand war.
3Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I In 1911 a revolution in Mexico forced its leader, Porfirio Díaz, to flee the country.The new leader, Francisco Madero, was a poor administrator.General Victoriano Huerta took over in Mexico and presumably had Madero murdered.Wilson refused to recognize the new government and prevented weapons from reaching Huerta.
4Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I In 1914 Wilson sent marines to seize the Mexican port of Veracruz to overthrow Huerta.Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico. International mediation of the dispute placed Venustiano Carranza as Mexico’s new president.
5Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Mexican forces opposed to Carranza conducted raids into the United States, hopingWilson would intervene.Pancho Villa led a group of guerrillas, an armed group that carries out surprise attacks, into New Mexico, and a number of Americans were killed.
6Chapter 14.1 – The U.S. Enters WW I Wilson sent General John J. Pershing and his troops into Mexico to capture Villa.Pershing was unsuccessful. Wilson’s Mexican policy damaged U.S. foreign relations.
7Short Term Cause of World War I: The Spark June 28, 1914Assassinationof the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie.Attack was in Sarajevo, SerbiaAssassin was Gavrilo Princip, a member of a Serbian Nationalist Group: The Black Hand,.
9GAVRILO PRINCIPMemberof the Serbian Nationalist Group known as the Black Hand and assassin of the Archduke.
10RIVAL ALLIANCE SYSTEMSerbian nationalists wanted to unite Bosnia and Herzegovina with Serbia.Austria-Hungary blamed the assassination of the Archduke on Serbia.Germany is an ally to Austria-Hungary and issues the “blank check” to A-H.Serbia rejects key points of the ultimatum.
11Sequence of EventsJuly 28, 1914 – Austria-Hungary mobilizes against Serbia and declares war.Russia begins general mobilization. Why?August 1, 1914 – Germany invades Belgium and declares war on France.August 3, 1914 – Italy declares neutrality.
12Sequence of Events August 23, 1914 – Japan declares war on Germany. July 3 – Turkey concludes a secret treaty with Germany against Russia and declares war on Russia on October 29.November 3 – Russia declares war on TurkeyMay 23, 1915 – Italy joins the Allies by declaring war on Austria-Hungary.
14Zimmerman TelegramLetter sent by a German Official, Arthur Zimmerman, to Mexico asking Mexico to ally itself with Germany against the United States in exchange for regaining its territories lost earlier to the United States.Suggested an invasion of the United States by Mexico.
1814.2 – The Homefront Building Up the Military As the United States entered the war; it was necessary to recruit more soldiers.Conscription - forced military serviceA new system, called selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9fGD8CU6KI
19Building Up the Military African American soldiers faced discrimination and prejudice within the army.they served in racially segregated units.ManyAfrican Americans won praise from their commanders and received war medals.
20Building Up the Military World War I was the first war in which women officially served.The navy enlisted some 11,000 women, whose jobs included clerics, pharmacists, and photographers.The hired them as temporary employees to fill clerical positions.Army nurses were the only women in the military to go overseas during the war.
21Organizing Industry The American economy had to mobilize for war. President Wilson and Congress wanted to establish a cooperative relationship between big business and government.The goal was to ensure efficient use of resources during the mobilization of the American economy for war.
22Organizing IndustryIn 1917 the War Industries Board (WIB) was created to coordinate the production of administered by Bernard Baruch.The Food Administration, under the direction of Herbert Hoover, was responsible forincreasing food production while reducing consumption.
24Organizing IndustryHoover asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops.The Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil. Daylight savings time was introduced to conserve energy.
25Mobilizing the Workforce To prevent strikes, the government established the National War Labor Board (NWLB)in 1918.In exchange for wage increases, an 8-hour workday, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively, the labor leaders agreed not to disrupt war production with a strike.
26Organizing IndustryBetween 300,000 and 500,000 African Americans left the South to settle in the North for jobs.This “Great Migration” changed the racial makeup of many Northern cities.
28Organizing Industry Schenck v. the United States (1919), the Supreme Court limited an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.”
29Ensuring Public Support The Committee on Public Information (CPI) attempted to “sell” the idea of war to the American people with patriotic messages.Espionage - spying to acquire secret government informationEspionage Act of 1917 set consequences for people who aided the enemy.The Sedition Act of 1918 made it illegal to criticize the president or the government.
30Ensuring Public Support To raise money to pay for the war, the government began selling Liberty Bonds andVictory Bonds.By buying bonds, Americans were loaning the government money that would be repaid with interest in a specified number of years.
331914 FIRST BATTLE OF THE MARNE Germans had advanced to within 37 miles of Paris, France.Schlieffen plan failed because of Belgium. Germans withdrew to a strong defensive position.War on the Western Front settled into a STALEMATE due to TRENCH WARFARENeither side moved more than 10 miles in the next three years
371914 AUGUST – BATTLE OF TANNENBURG Eastern Front between Russia and Germany.Disaster for the RussiansGeneral von Hindenburg and General Ludenforff made famous.By 1915 – Russia had lost 1 million dead and 900,000 prisoners. They were not trained or equipped properly.
41LUSITANIAGermany’s submarine blockade of England resulted in the sinking of the Lusitania in May.This event led to great tension between the United States and Germany.1,198 dead including 139 Americans
43GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN APRIL, 1915 TO JANUARY, 1916 Plan of WINSTON CHURCHILL to knock Turkey out of the war.British disaster with 50,000 troops killedTurkish military leader MUSTAFA KEMAL would later rule Turkey as “ATATURK”.
471916 BATTLE OF VERDUN (FEB-OCT) Fought in France. Longest and bloodiest battle of the war.This battle killed almost 1 million men.542,000 French434 German
481916 BATTLE OF THE SOMME (JULY-NOV) The British attacked with an advantage of 6:1.Highest casualty rate in one day of both world wars.60,000 men killed in the first day of battle.The British introduced the tank in battle.Casualties:500,000 German400,000 British200,000 FrenchNet Gain: 7 miles
501917 Year of Disasters for the Allies Germany began Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.German blockade of England. (Starve them out)Convoy System – protection of ships to deliver supplies to England.Hindenburg Line established – a series of trenches across northern France.
55ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAMTelegram to the German Minister in Mexico saying if the United States went to war, Germany would form an alliance with Mexico to help them get back “lost territories” from the U.S. in the 1840’s.
571917 BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION (NOV.) End of Tsarist Russia. Led to Russian armistice with Germany which takes Russia out of the war.Nov. 15- Tsar Nicholas II Abdicates.Vladimir Lenin established Communist government in Russia.TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK – Between Germany and Russia.
691918 President Wilson announces his Fourteen Points. One Million fresh American troops land in France.Second Battle of the Marne (July-August) was the turning point of the war. Germans were forced to retreat
701918 MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE Alvin C. York made famous American army of 1,200,000 under the command of General John J. PershingPursued the retreating German s until the German armistice