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Presentation on theme: "LIQUIDITY RISK & LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT"— Presentation transcript:

in Islamic Banks Salman Syed Ali Current Issues in Islamic Finance Lecture 6

2 Lecture Plan Part-I LIQUIDITY SHORTAGE (Risk) Sources of risk
Implications for Bank and the System Current practices of mitigation Recommendations and the Future Part-II EXCESS LIQUIDITY (Low ret.) Causes Implications for Bank and the System Current practices of its management Recommendations and Future

3 Key References Abdul Majid, Abdul Rais “Development Of Liquidity Management Instruments: Challenges And Opportunities”, paper presented in International Conference on Islamic Banking: Risk Management, Regulation and Supervision, Jakarta –Indonesia, Sept 30- to October 3, 2003. Ali, Salman Syed “Islamic Modes of Finance and Associated Liquidity Risks” presented in Conference on Monetary Sector in Iran: Structure, Performance and Challenging Issues”, Tehran, February 2004. Shihadeh, Musa A “Loss Provisioning in Islamic Banks: Jordan Islamic Bank Case Study”, paper presented in International Conference on Islamic Banking: Risk Management, Regulation and Supervision held in Jakarta- Indonesia. Jointly organized by Bank Indonesia and IRTI, October 2003.

4 Dry Climate Liquidity Shortage Assassin of banks

5 Flood Excess Liquidity: A drag on competition

6 Stability and Solvency of IBs
In theory, Islamic banks are likely to be more stable They have profit sharing on both the liability side and asset side

7 The IBs therefore, are still more stable than conventional banks.
In practice, Islamic Banks have fixed income assets but have profit sharing on liability side. The IBs therefore, are still more stable than conventional banks. Solvent Asset tied finance

8 While a majority of Islamic banks have excess liquidity
Some Islamic banks have faced liquidity crisis Many different risks culminate in liquidity risk

9 Liquidity crunch can be a real problem
Example of Financial Crisis in Turkey Islamic financial institutions there faced sever liquidity problems One Islamic institution Ihlas Finans was closed during the crisis

10 LIQUIDITY RISK: Definition
Risk of Funding [at appropriate maturities and rates] Risk of Liquidating Assets [in time at reasonable prices]

11 Investment Firm’s Definition
“liquidity risk includes both the risk of being unable to fund [its] portfolio of assets at appropriate maturities and rates and the risk of being unable to liquidate a position in a timely manner at reasonable prices.” * * J.P. Morgan Chase (2000).

12 Regulators Definition
“risk to a bank’s earnings and capital arising from its inability to timely meet obligations when they come due without incurring unacceptable losses.”* * Office of the Comptroller (2000)

13 Analysis and Diagnosis of Causes

1. Incorrect judgment and complacency 2. Unanticipated change in cost of capital 3. Abnormal behavior of financial markets 4. Range of assumptions used 5. Risk activation by secondary sources 6. Break down of payments system 7. Macroeconomic imbalances 8. Contractual forms 9. Financial Infrastructure deficiency

15 Liquidity Risk & Contractual Forms
Profit Sharing Contracts Murabaha Salam Istisna Ijarah

16 Resale not permitted Resale permitted but non-existent market Market exists but not active

17 Example of LR in Murabaha
Primary LR Secondary LR Receivables are debt cannot be sold Involves buying of commodity then selling on deferred payment This brings in many operational, credit, dispute, and legal risks that can affect realization of receivables

18 LR:Current Practices of control
Deposit Management Choice of Mode of Finance Maturity Matching and Gap Analysis Mixing of Deposits Reserves and Provisions Deposit Insurance Interbank Dealings Ijarah and Salam Sukuks

19 (a) Reserves and Provisions:
Specific General Reserves Profit Equalization Reserve Investment Risk Reserve

20 (b) Problems: Fiqh issue of justice: inter-temporal /interpersonal transfers Breaks the link between bank performance and its reflection in profits Possibility of manipulation to hide losses Transfer of resources from shareholders to investment account holders (displaced commercial risk) Loosen the asset and liability tie in IBs.

21 (c) Remedies for Transparency:
Well defined, consistent and transparent method of provision and reserve calculation Improved corporate governance Reveal ex-ante estimates and ex-post actual losses Reveal the position and changes in the PE Reserve and IR Reserve

22 What is needed What can be done
Conclusions What is needed What can be done

23 Conclusions (contd.) Development of liquidity management instruments
Development of Infrastructure institutions (LMC, IIFM) Rethinking and development of new structure of Islamic banks (Separate treatment of Cur. and Inv. accounts)

24 Smooth Sailing

25 State, Causes and Management
Excess Liquidity State, Causes and Management

26 Current state of liquidity in Islamic Banks
Excess Liquidity in the Market, resulting in serious business risk and affects the competitiveness of IFIs due to no return or a very low returns. In a recent study it was discovered that Islamic financial institutions are almost 50% more liquid as compared to conventional financial institutions. Out of US$ 13.6 billion total assets of Islamic banks in the study US$ 6.3 billion were found to be in liquid assets.

27 Causes of Excess Liquidity
Factors internal to the bank Factors external to the bank

28 Islamic Banks’ Asset Portfolio
67% 5%

29 Islamic Banks’ Assets Portfolio
Source: Iqbal Munawar, Ausaf Ahmad and Tariqullah Khan (1998), Challenges Facing Islamic Banking, Jeddah: IRTI

30 Key Issues in Liquidity Management
Small No. of participants No Lender of Last Resort Slow Development In Islamic financial Instruments Key Issues in Liquidity Management Different Shari’a interpretation Absence of Islamic Secondary market No Islamic Inter-bank Market Credit for this diagram: IIFM

31 Implications for Islamic Banks
Underutilization of financial resources Lower income and higher cost Loss of competitiveness

32 Current Practices in Managing Excess Liquidity
Deposit Management Secured Commodity Murabaha Mudaraba Sukuk Salam Sukuk Leasing Sukuk Musharakah Sukuk Infrastructure Institutions Liquidity Management Center IIFM

33 How a Secured Commodity Murabaha Works:
Islamic Bank / Investor (Principal) Broker ‘B’ ‘A’ Conventional Bank (Agent) Buy Pay (Spot) Receive (Sales proceeds at maturity) Receive funds from Investor (to pay Broker ‘A’) Sell (at a profit & deferred payment) Settle Investor (Sales proceeds less Agents fees) Funds Flow Commodity Flow Credit for the diagram: IIFM

34 Advantage of SCM Short-term therefore liquid
Buying and selling in same currency (usually US$) therefore no FX risk

35 Problems with SCM Flow of funds away from Muslim economies
Not contributing in any growth or development oriented economic activity Limited scope for liquidity management: since transactions are mostly bilateral therefore counterparty limits apply Always back to back murabaha is needed for maintaining liquidity

36 Salam Sukuk (Ex. of Bahrain)
Gov of Bahrain (GoB) undertakes to sell Aluminum (deferred) for advance payment BMA securitizes it by issuing salam sukuk Individual IBs buy these to park their excess liquidity IBs appoint GoB as their agent to receive delivery of commodity and sell it through its distribution channels

37 Salam Sukuk (contd.) Similar to SCM but securitized Advantages:
Cost price need not be declared Lower credit risk to bank due to sovereign counter-party Lower cost (or higher return) to bank than in SCM due to securitization Funds utilized in the local economy until very near to delivery date Disadvantage: Not trade-able therefore high liquidity risk

38 Bahrain Salam Sukuk (contd.)
Country Issuer Type Value Maturity Bahrain Bahrain Monetary Agency Sukuk Al Salam (23 issues up to April 2003) US$ 625 Million (cumulative)* 91 days for each issue

39 Structure of Malaysian Sukuk
Credit for this slide: BMA presentation, Feb., 2004.

40 Other sukuk and trade-able securities useful for liquidity management
Gov. Participation Certificates (Sudan) Central Bank Participation Certificates (Sudan) Malaysian Global Ijarah Sukuk [US$500M] First Global Sukuk Malaysia [US$150M] Qatar Global Ijarah Sukuk [US$700M] IDB Sukuk [US$400M] Tabreed Global Ijarah Sukuk (Corporate) [US$150M]

41 LM Infrastructure Institutions
Output Country Membership IIFM Facilitation in issuance of sukuk of Bahrain and Malaysia 6 founding members LMC Part of IIFM efforts. Facilitated cross listing of Bahrain and Malaysian sukuk 6 members IsDB Mother/Umbrella organization Development finance Research 54 countries

42 New Ideas: Good & Bad

43 Thank you


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