Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 11 April 20, 2009. Jeannette Rankin Only member of the House to vote against going to war in WWI and WWII. Read Page 394 One American’s."— Presentation transcript:
Jeannette Rankin Only member of the House to vote against going to war in WWI and WWII. Read Page 394 One American’s Story
WWI August 4, 1914 German troops poured into Beligum Neutrality was difficult
4 Long Term Causes of WWI Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Formation of a system of alliance
Nationalism Belief that national interest and national unity should be placed ahead of global cooperation and that a nation’s foreign affairs should be guided by its own self interest. Competitive and antagonism toward other countries. France and Germany wanted European Leadership. Russia felt they were to protect Europe’s Slavic people including Serbs.
Nationalism Continued Russia and Austria-Hungary were rivals due to Serbia were several Serbs lived under Austria-Hungary rule. Nations of their own Poland—Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia Czechs—Austria-Hungary
Imperialism Industrialization and imperialism linked Germany, France, and Britain compete for countries. Raw materials, cotton, oil and rubber prestige
Militarism Military budgets rise Development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. 1890 Germany strongest in Europe. Drafted young men, trained them, and were returned to civilian life when needed. British navy strongest in the world. Germany competes with Britain to build the largest battleships and destroyers. France, Italy, Japan, and the U.S. join the race.
Alliance System Hostility, jealousies, fears, and desires Nations of Europe sign treaties of assistance—support one another if attacked. 1914 two major alliances
Triple Entente Allies France Great Britain Russia
Triple Alliance Germany Austria-Hungary Italy—promised return of territories
Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire—Middle Eastern Lands
Assassination Leads to War! June 28, 1914 Sarajevo, Bosnia Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophie were killed. Gavrilo Princip Teenage assassin. Member of “Black Hand”
Black Hand Secret society Unite all Serbs under one government July 28, 1914 Austria- Hungary “bright, brisk, little war.”
War Begins Serbia, Russia—full mobilization on July 29 Aug 1 Germany declared war on Russia Aug 3 Germany declared war on France Great Britain declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. “The Great War” had begun!!!!
Schlieffen Plan Aug. 4 Germany invades Belgium Holding action against Russia, quick drive through the Belgium lowlands to Paris When France falls two Germany armies pull together to defeat the Russian czar.
Germany-Belgium Belgium refugees fled in terror. British and French retreat to Marne River in France where they stop German advance in Sept. 1914.
Trench Warfare 1915 Two lines deep Rat infested Zigzagged across Northern and eastern France. “no mans land” 3 years
Loyalities Americans of German descent sided with Germany. Irish Americans seen the war as a way for Ireland to gain its independence. Many Americans felt close to Britain. Germans attack civilians and hospitals. “The Bully of Europe.”
British Blockade Blockade German coast to prevent military supplies from getting through. (Food) American ships carrying goods for Germany refused to challenge the blockade. Germany found it difficult to import foods and fertilizers. 1917 Famine strikes Germany. 750,000 starve to death. America was unhappy that this blockade kept them from their destination but was outraged by Germany’s response.
German U-Boats Counter blockade by U-Boats Any British or Allied boat found in the waters around Britain would be sunk. May 7, 1915 worst disaster when a U-Boat sank the British liner Lusitania. 1,198 persons lost 128 were Americans
German U-Boats Americans outraged America turns away from Germany and Central Powers August 1915 a U-Boat sank another British ship. Arabic. Two Americans killed U.S. protest and Germany promises not to sink another ship. March 1916—A French ship, Sussex, was torpedoed by Germany. 80 passengers killed.
Deal or No Deal America warns Germany to stop sinking ships or they break all ties. Germany agrees under these conditions: U.S. had to persuade Britain to lift its blockade against food and fertilizer. If they could not then Germany would continue to sink ships. If they could then Germany would stop sinking ships.
1916 Election Dem: Wilson Republics: Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes. Wilson: “He Kept Us Out of War” Hughes: uphold America’s right to freedom of the seas—not to severe on Germany. Hughes went to bed believing he had won. Wilson wins the election!!!
United States Goes to War Wilson calls for Peace—Germany ignores him. Jan. 13 1917 all U-Boats will sink EVERY ship in British waters. U.S. will have to go to war. President Wilson says that he will wait to go to war until “actual overt acts.”
Zimmerman Note Telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. Mexico and Germany promised alliance if war with the U.S. broke out. Germany would give Mexico back their lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 4 unarmed American ships were sunk—36 died Russia becomes representative government. War of democracies against brutal monarchies. April 2, 1917 Wilson responds., Read Pg. 380
Fourteen Points Wilson’s plan for world peace. 3 groups First 5 would prevent another war. 1. No Secret treaties among nations. 2. Freedom of seas for everyone. 3. Should foster free trade. 4. No large armies. 5. Colonial policies should consider the interest of the colonial peoples as well as the interest of the imperial powers.
Fourteen Points Following 8 points deal with boundaries. 14 th point called for the creation of an international organization to address diplomatic crises. League of Nations---provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without having to resort to war.
Treaty of Versailles Nine new nations Poland,k Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia Shifted boundaries of other nations. Five areas out of the Ottoman Empire France, Great Britain were to control these areas until they where ready to self-rule and gain their independence. Germany was barred from maintaining an army. Alsace-Lorraine to France Pay war reparations of $33 billion to the Allies.
Treaty Weaknesses Basic flaws in the treaty Lead to postwar international problems Treaty humiliated Germany War-Guilt clause—Germany had to admit sole responsibility for the war. Germany could not pay the reparations Germany stripped of its colonial possessions in the Pacific Russia was excluded from the peace conference and lost more territory than Germany. Ignored claims of colonized people.
Russia 1917 Czar Nicholas II—WWI Food riots, people wanted change March 15, 1917 he left his throne November 1917 “Bolsheviks” (majority) led by Lenin gained power. Based on communism
RED SCARE!!! Communist call for international revolution. 70,000 in U.S. form Communist Party. Abolish private property Bombs mailed to government and business leaders. “Reds” Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer—take action to fight the “Red Scare” Suspicion of foreigners and immigrants
Sacco and Vanzetti Shoemaker and fish peddler Italian immigrants Evaded the draft during WWI April 1920 Massachusetts 2 men shot and killed a factory paymaster and his guard. $15,000 3 weeks later arrested Alibis
Sacco and Vanzetti Jury sentenced them to death Died in electric chair Aug. 23, 1927 Read page. 432 1961 Sacco’s gun was the gun that killed the guard—no evidence proved he fired the gun. 1977 Massachusetts governor declared Sacco and Vanzetti had not been given a fair trail
Warren G. Harding 29 th President “return to normalcy” “back to the days before social reforms”
Buying Goods on Credit Businesses expand in size Chain stores sprouted Income gap between workers and managers Advertising Easy credit Installment plan—people could buy goods over an extended period w/o having much money to put down. Banks low interest rates “You furnish the girl, we’ll furnish the home.” “Enjoy while you pay”