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Ms. Susan M. Pojer, Debra Solomon Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY The Wars of Religion (1560s-1648) The Wars of Religion (1560s-1648)

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Presentation on theme: "Ms. Susan M. Pojer, Debra Solomon Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY The Wars of Religion (1560s-1648) The Wars of Religion (1560s-1648)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ms. Susan M. Pojer, Debra Solomon Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY The Wars of Religion (1560s-1648) The Wars of Religion (1560s-1648)

2 Civil War In France ( )

3 Religious Riots and Civil War in France : Power shift from France to Spain:Henry II, last powerful Valois King, dies at marriage tournament1559: Power shift from France to Spain:Henry II, last powerful Valois King, dies at marriage tournament Daughter Elizabeth of Valois married Phillip II of SpainDaughter Elizabeth of Valois married Phillip II of Spain Connects two Catholic powersConnects two Catholic powers

4 Because of monarchial weakness, 2/5-1/2 French nobles become CalvinistBecause of monarchial weakness, 2/5-1/2 French nobles become Calvinist

5 The Valois Family: The Beginning of the End After Henry II’s death, Three weak sons followed:  Francis II  Charles IX  Henri III  Catherine de Medici controlled the sons:  Was mother to the boys  Played both sides in the civil war  Developed a reputation for cruelty

6 Catherine de Medici

7 Francis II & His Wife, Mary Stuart

8 First War of Religion Begun by Massacre at Vassy in 1562Begun by Massacre at Vassy in 1562 Duke of Guise stopped in a Calvinist worship service at VassyDuke of Guise stopped in a Calvinist worship service at Vassy Catholic Servants argued with HuguenotsCatholic Servants argued with Huguenots

9 Guise factions fired on unarmed HuguenotsGuise factions fired on unarmed Huguenots –Burned the church –Killed much of the congregation –Series of small battles/sieges follow –Duke of Guise assassinated

10 The French Civil War  There were two sides:  Guise family led Catholics in North  Bourbon family led Huguenots in South -Navarre, Coligny, Conde, Montmorency  Fighting for the royal inheritance  Catherine supported the Guises in the first phase.  St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre  August 24, 1572  20,000 Huguenots were killed  Henri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived

11 St. Bartholomew ’ s Day Massacre

12 St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre 1572 To solve religious issues, Catherine de Medici arranged a wedding: Aug 17, 1572: Henri de Navarre married Margot de ValoisTo solve religious issues, Catherine de Medici arranged a wedding: Aug 17, 1572: Henri de Navarre married Margot de Valois Festivities last until Aug. 23Festivities last until Aug. 23 Aug 22: Admiral de Coligny shot by assassin--Aug 22: Admiral de Coligny shot by assassin--

13 Suffers broken arm, severely woundedSuffers broken arm, severely wounded Suspected the GuisesSuspected the Guises Huguenots wanted justice from King; and they wanted Coligny to fleeHuguenots wanted justice from King; and they wanted Coligny to flee The king holds a meeting at the LouvreThe king holds a meeting at the Louvre

14 At the Louvre Charles IX, Catherine de Medici, Henri d’Anjou, encouraged by the Guises, decide to kill Coligny and HuguenotsCharles IX, Catherine de Medici, Henri d’Anjou, encouraged by the Guises, decide to kill Coligny and Huguenots Charles IX: “Well kill them all that no man be left to reproach me.”Charles IX: “Well kill them all that no man be left to reproach me.”

15 Charles’ soldiers go to Coligny’s door; shot guard; ran through the house; dragged Coligny from bed—stabbed him thru/ threw body from windowCharles’ soldiers go to Coligny’s door; shot guard; ran through the house; dragged Coligny from bed—stabbed him thru/ threw body from window Duc de Guise mocked the body/kicked in face/said it was King’s willDuc de Guise mocked the body/kicked in face/said it was King’s will

16 Militia/general population went on rampage, sanctioned by church and king:Militia/general population went on rampage, sanctioned by church and king: Wore white crosses on hatsWore white crosses on hats Butchered their neighborsButchered their neighbors Killing lasted 3 days in Paris, but much longer in the provinces.Killing lasted 3 days in Paris, but much longer in the provinces.

17 Henri de Navarre Slept in bridal suite in LouvreSlept in bridal suite in Louvre His entourage of 40 Huguenots killedHis entourage of 40 Huguenots killed Henri de Navarre/Henri de Conde dragged before King Charles IX and threatened w/death unless they converted to CatholicismHenri de Navarre/Henri de Conde dragged before King Charles IX and threatened w/death unless they converted to Catholicism

18 Both converted; Navarre became prisoner of court for 4 yearsBoth converted; Navarre became prisoner of court for 4 years In Provinces: massacres lasted for monthsIn Provinces: massacres lasted for months

19 Several more wars occur, and Henri of Navarre and his cousin escape the court. They are excommunicatedSeveral more wars occur, and Henri of Navarre and his cousin escape the court. They are excommunicated

20 5 th War (1576) Charles IX died “sweating blood and tormented w/guilt for Massacre”1574--Charles IX died “sweating blood and tormented w/guilt for Massacre” Henri d’Anjou, Charles IX’s brother, becomes King Henri IIIHenri d’Anjou, Charles IX’s brother, becomes King Henri III He has lots of problemsHe has lots of problems

21 Henri III’s brother, Duc d’Alencon, began anti-royalist campaign that portrayed himself as an alternate king: more fair and tax-cuttingHenri III’s brother, Duc d’Alencon, began anti-royalist campaign that portrayed himself as an alternate king: more fair and tax-cutting They formed a strong alliance: Catherine de Medici could not counter it—20,000 troops invade France under Jan CasimirThey formed a strong alliance: Catherine de Medici could not counter it—20,000 troops invade France under Jan Casimir

22 Casimir’s troops met up w/additional armies and Catherine forced to negotiate.Casimir’s troops met up w/additional armies and Catherine forced to negotiate. Edict of Beaulieu (Peace of Monsieur) signed in MayEdict of Beaulieu (Peace of Monsieur) signed in May –Great settlements for leaders: –Navarre made governor of Guyenne

23 –Conde—governor of Picardy –Alencon—Duc d’Anjou and given many titles –Jan Casimir—crown paid for his mercenaries –Henry III angry; Parlament of Paris did not register the settlement; some towns ceded to Protestants did not let them in

24 Several more wars occur, but the culmination is the War of the Three HenriesSeveral more wars occur, but the culmination is the War of the Three Henries

25 War of the 3 Henries ( ) Crown was CatholicCrown was Catholic Role of “Most Christian King”Role of “Most Christian King” Fundamental ideals for FranceFundamental ideals for France

26 Henry III begs Henry de Navarre to convert to make the throne legitimateHenry III begs Henry de Navarre to convert to make the throne legitimate Navarre not ready: needed current base of support in the SouthNavarre not ready: needed current base of support in the South Duc de Guise revived Catholic League: To prevent a heretic from coming to the throneDuc de Guise revived Catholic League: To prevent a heretic from coming to the throne

27 Dec 1584: Treaty of Joinville Signed between Guises, Catholic League, and Philip II of SpainSigned between Guises, Catholic League, and Philip II of Spain Spain gives enormous sum to Catholic League and Guise pockets for 10 years.Spain gives enormous sum to Catholic League and Guise pockets for 10 years.

28 Treaty of Nemours 1585 Revoked all previous edictsRevoked all previous edicts –Reformed religion banned –No Protestants in Royal offices –Evacuation of all garrisoned towns –All protestants abjure faith in 6 months or be exiled

29 Catholic League (Guises) hold N/ECatholic League (Guises) hold N/E Navarre & Conde hold S/W—they look for aid from Germans and Queen Elizabeth INavarre & Conde hold S/W—they look for aid from Germans and Queen Elizabeth I 1587—Jan Casimir leads German mercenaries to France; he is defeated by Guise armies1587—Jan Casimir leads German mercenaries to France; he is defeated by Guise armies

30 Navarre defeats Henry III’s army at CoutrasNavarre defeats Henry III’s army at Coutras In Paris: growing dissatisfaction w/Henry III failure to suppress ProtestantsIn Paris: growing dissatisfaction w/Henry III failure to suppress Protestants 1588: Paris uprising: Barricades in streets1588: Paris uprising: Barricades in streets Henry III leaves Paris, but there is much fear of a Guise kingHenry III leaves Paris, but there is much fear of a Guise king

31 Dec. 24, 1588: Henry III invites the Duc de Guise to visit him in his quarters: archers lined stairs; 40 men in waiting room—Guise entered and doors bolted; Guise cut to pieces; body burnt; bones dissolved; ashes scattered; Cardinal de Guise suffered same fateDec. 24, 1588: Henry III invites the Duc de Guise to visit him in his quarters: archers lined stairs; 40 men in waiting room—Guise entered and doors bolted; Guise cut to pieces; body burnt; bones dissolved; ashes scattered; Cardinal de Guise suffered same fate

32 Result of Guise murders Duc de Mayenne (Guise) becomes Catholic League leaderDuc de Mayenne (Guise) becomes Catholic League leader revolutionary tracts printedrevolutionary tracts printed The Sorbonne—taught it was just and right to depose Henry III, or commit regicideThe Sorbonne—taught it was just and right to depose Henry III, or commit regicide

33 The Catholic League sent army against Henry IIIThe Catholic League sent army against Henry III Henry III turns to Henry de Navarre for help, and they reclaim ParisHenry III turns to Henry de Navarre for help, and they reclaim Paris

34 July 1589 Jacques Clement, monk, begs audience w/King Henry IIIJacques Clement, monk, begs audience w/King Henry III Puts long knife into his spleen: wound festeredPuts long knife into his spleen: wound festered On his deathbed, he calls for Navarre and named him heir to the French throneOn his deathbed, he calls for Navarre and named him heir to the French throne

35 Wars of the League Henry IV (Navarre) delicate positionHenry IV (Navarre) delicate position Catholic League staged coups in principle cities; really it was a reign of terror: political correctness of citizens: moderate Catholics, Protestants, suspicious people hungCatholic League staged coups in principle cities; really it was a reign of terror: political correctness of citizens: moderate Catholics, Protestants, suspicious people hung

36 9/1589: Henry IV and Catholic armies meet and Catholics defeated9/1589: Henry IV and Catholic armies meet and Catholics defeated Throughout winter, Henry IV takes town after townThroughout winter, Henry IV takes town after town 3/1590 League suffered crushing defeat at Ivry; Cardinal de Bourbon died3/1590 League suffered crushing defeat at Ivry; Cardinal de Bourbon died

37 Spring/Summer 1590—Henry IV reduces Paris to severe hunger; Allows women and children to leaveSpring/Summer 1590—Henry IV reduces Paris to severe hunger; Allows women and children to leave Philip II of Spain alarmedPhilip II of Spain alarmed –Sent Duke of Parma to relieve the siege of Paris –Parma re-supplied the City –Henry IV forced to withdraw.

38 Startling turn of Events Catholic League looks for an alternative Catholic KingCatholic League looks for an alternative Catholic King Henry IV abjured his faith in July, 1593— “Paris is worth a mass.”Henry IV abjured his faith in July, 1593— “Paris is worth a mass.” Coronated in Chartres, not Reims, b/c it was still in the hands of the Catholic LeagueCoronated in Chartres, not Reims, b/c it was still in the hands of the Catholic League

39 The French Civil War  Catherine started supporting the Bourbons.  Henri of Navarre defeated Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France.  Effects of Civil War:  France was left divided by religion  Royal power had weakened  Valois family now replaced by Bourbons Catholic League Protestant Union CIVIL WAR

40 Triumphal Entry of Henry IV Into Paris – Peter Paul Reubens

41  Ended Spanish interference in France  Converted to Catholicism :  Did this to compromise and make peace  Paris is worth a mass.  This was an example of politique [the interest of the state comes first before any religious considerations]  Fighting for the royal inheritance  Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598:  Granted religious rights to Huguenots  Did not grant religious freedom for all Henry IV of France

42 1598: Edict of Nantes: granted Huguenots liberty of conscience and public worship in 150 fortified towns; paved way for absolutism by restoring internal peace in France1598: Edict of Nantes: granted Huguenots liberty of conscience and public worship in 150 fortified towns; paved way for absolutism by restoring internal peace in France

43 The Thirty Years War ( )

44

45  The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground.  At the beginning  it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants.  At the end  it was Habsburg power that was threatened.  Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in Characteristics of the Thirty Years War

46  Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia.  The Bohemians hated him.  Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants.  Defenestration of Prague  May, 1618  Bohemia named a new king, Frederick II.  Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor.  Frederick II borrowed an army from Bavaria.  Frederick lost his lands in the fighting.  The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others. The Bohemian Phase:

47 Bohemian Phase

48  Ferdinand II tried to end all resistance.  Tried to crush Protestant northern Holy Roman Empire.  Ferdinand II used Albrecht von Wallenstein for the army.  Wallenstein defeated Protestants in north.  Edict of Restitution (1629):  Restored to Catholics all lands lost since  Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights.  German princes feared Ferdinand  he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them. The Danish Phase:

49 Danish Phase

50 Albrecht von Wallenstein

51  France & Sweden now get involved.  Both want to stop Habsburg power.  Sweden led the charge.  France provided support.  Gustavus Adolphus invaded the HR Empire.  Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein.  Swedish advance was stopped.  German princes still feared Ferdinand II.  Wallenstein assassinated to appease them. The Swedish Phase:

52 Swedish Phase

53 Gustavus Adolphus

54  France & Sweden switched roles.  All countries in Europe now participated.  This phase was most destructive!  German towns decimated.  Agriculture collapsed  famine resulted.  8 million dead  1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5 million in 1648]  Caused massive inflation.  Trade was crippled throughout Europe. The French Phase:

55 Loss of German Lives in 30 Years ’ War

56  Political Provisions:  Each Ger. prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor.  The United Provinces [Dutch Neths.] became officially independent  so. part remained a Sp. possession.  Fr. rcvd. most of the Ger-speaking province of Alsace.  Sweden  got lands in No. Ger. on the Baltic & Black Sea coasts.  Switzerland became totally independent of the HR Emperor  Swiss Confederation.  Sweden won a voice in the Diet of the HR Emp.  Brandenburg got important terrs. on No. Sea & in central Germany. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)

57  Religious Provisions:  Calvinists would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg.  The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT [except in the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs], he must permit freedom of private worship. The Peace of Westphalia (1648)

58 Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

59

60  Many Protestants felt betrayed.  The pope denounced it.  Only merit  it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable!  For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe. Nobody Was Happy!

61 What were the long-range effects of the Thirty Years ’ War?

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