Presentation on theme: "World War 1 1914-1918 The US before WW1 REMEMBER! –Industrialization The US begins to increase industry during rebuilding from the Civil War (Reconstruction)"— Presentation transcript:
The US before WW1 REMEMBER! –Industrialization The US begins to increase industry during rebuilding from the Civil War (Reconstruction) –Immigration Foreigners begin entering the US for work, religious freedom, etc. –Progressive Era Americans are concerned with topics like temperance, suffrage, food safety, etc. –US Expansion The US begins looking toward becoming a world power through colonization and industrial growth
Who’s To Blame?
Causes of World War I
Militarism - naval/arms race Alliances - Allies vs. Central Powers Imperialism - control over weaker nations Nationalism - pride in one’s country Russia will pull out of war…USA will enter later…
Militarism & Arms Race. YearTotal Military Expenses (in millions of £s)
The Alliance System Triple Entente Triple Alliance Great Britain Germany France Austria- Hungary Russia Italy
Two Armed Camps Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain Germany France Austria-Hungary Russia Ottoman Empire Italy
Imperialism = Rivalries ($$$)
Nationalism. National and political pride in the empire (patriotism?) “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family Assassinated in Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip Gavrilo Princip
The Start of the War On June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, of Austria-Hungary was shot (along with his wife) in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Hertzegovnia.
An Assassin’s Story (pg. 8a) As a class, we will read page 8a-b, then answer the questions on page 8b.
Homework Complete the map on page 9 of your packet. Be sure to follow directions (and fill in the key…) Answer questions 1-5 (you do NOT have to use complete sentences)
An Assassin’s Story (pg. 8a-b) What was Gavrilo Princip’s dream? Explain how the following countries became involved in WW1: Austria- Hungary, Russia, Germany, France, and Britain. What country left one group to join the other? Why? List the countries that fought on the side of the Triple Entente. List the countries that fought on the side of the Triple Alliance.
The Beginning of the War…it’s very simple
Serbia Austria- Hungary Assassination Russia Allies Prepare for war Germany Allies Belgium Declared War France Germany Declares War when Russia readies troops Declared war to get to France Allies Britain Declare war Allies
The Great War Map (pg. 9) In what country was Sarajevo located? How does the geographic location of the Central Powers put them at a disadvantage? Which of the Central Powers borders Russia? Judging from the map, why was the alliance between France and Russia a threat to Germany? On July 28th, who did Austria-Hungary declare war on?
Great War Map (pg. 9)
The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”
German Atrocities in Belgium
Trench Warfare clip
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
“No Man’s Land”
Declaration of Neutrality What does neutrality mean? What do you think President Wilson meant when he said “the people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war?” What does President Wilson mean when he said that the US “must be neutral in fact as well as in name?”
American Neutrality (pg. 12) The official position of the United States was neutrality when WWI broke out. Opinion was varied. Most Americans favored the Allies. They spoke the same language and shared many traditions. The United States and France had also been allies in the American Revolution.
American Neutrality (pg. 12) However, about 8 million people were of German or Austrian decent and sided with the Central Powers.
American Neutrality (pg. 12) The United States benefited from the war for several reasons. The economy boomed. Both the Allied and Central Powers needed food, weapons, oil, steel, and other goods. Americans rushed to fill orders. By 1917, trade with the Allies had grown SEVEN times in value and by a smaller amount Central Powers. (And in some cases, decreased). This trade imbalance meant that the US was not strictly neutral as it claimed to be.
US Exports (pg. 13) What happened to trade with major ALLIED Powers between 1914 and 1916? What happened to trade with major CENTRAL Powers between 1914 and 1916? What does the difference tell you?
The Zimmermann Telegram (pg. 16) February, To Bernstorff, Washington DC US press to publish contents of telegram sent to Von Eckhardt tomorrow prepare for public outrage and massive demonstrations outside embassy. Zimmermann Berlin
The Zimmermann Telegram (page 17-18) What type of document is this? –Primary Source (telegram) What does Germany plan to do on February 1? –Begin unrestricted submarine warfare What does Germany want the United States to do? –Remain neutral
The Zimmermann Telegram (page 17-18) What does Germany promise to Mexico? –Land lost in the Mexican-American war (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona) Why do you think this document was written? –To communicate with Mexico –To warn the United States –To get the US involved in WW1
Make War for Democracy (pg. 12a-b) 1. What was the attitude in the US toward the war in Europe when it began in 1914? –Neutral 2. Why did President Woodrow Wilson change his mind about the war? –Submarine warfare by Germany 3. What did Representative Claude Kitchin suggest the US do to avoid war with Germany? –Stop trading with the allies
Government Involvement - The War at Home Using pages in your textbook, fill in the boxes on page 19 in your packet. You may use bulleted answers (not in complete sentences). You should try to find at least 2 bullet points for each box.
Government Involvement (pg. 19) How did the United States raise money to fight the war? –War bonds –Raised $21 billion How did the government get people to support the war? –Hollywood movie stars support bond sales –“Four-Minute Men” –Women worked in factories (and were paid more for it)
Government Involvement (pg. 19) How did the government react to antiwar activities? –Passed laws making criticism of the government illegal –Some progressives were jailed How did the government get people to join the fight? –Posters –Songs –Selective Service (the Draft)
Government Involvement (pg. 19) How did the government get enough food and supplies to send to Europe? –Reorganized the economy –Herbert Hoover leads the Food Administration –Victory Gardens, Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays
Declaration of War (pg. 20) Why does Wilson think the United States must declare war? –Germany has gone too far How does Wilson hope to change the behavior of nations? –Holding them responsible as citizens would be How does this document help explain the United States entry into WW1? –We can no longer do nothing and must hold Germany responsible
Food and the Flu (pg. 23) 1. How many days did they ask Americans to change their eating habits? –3 (Wheatless, meatless, less fat and sugar) 2. Which items should not be eaten on Wheatless days? –Crackers, pastry, macaroni, cereal, bread 3. In order to save fat, how should one cook? –Bake, broil, or stew - don’t fry. Use meat drippings instead of butter/oil
Food and the Flu (pg. 23) 4. Why could Americans eat fruit, vegetables, and potatoes abundantly? –Could be grown at home (victory gardens), it replaces some nutrients (potatoes = starch) 5. What was the goal of food rationing? –To be sure there is enough food to feed the troops and send to Europe for the war effort
Food and the Flu (pg. 23) 6. Identify one way in which people attempted to cure the flu. –Wear roomy clothes, onions, carefully chewing food 7. In 1919, how many deaths were reported in Syracuse due to influenza and pneumonia? –908 8. What was Syracuse’s rank for the severity of influenza compared to the rest of the cities in the United States? –4th
World War 1 Assignment Put your name on the front of the purple sheet. Label it as binder page 35. Somewhere on the front of the sheet, write down a due date of Friday, January 21.
World War 1 Stations Turn to page 24 in your packet. Using the information in the folders, answer the questions on pages in your packet.
Table of Contents Update 29. Expansion Packet 30. War with Spain Packet 31. Cuba Map Packet 32. US in the Pacific MVPs 33. Expansion “Quest” 34. World War 1 Packet 35. WW1 Assignment (Project) 36. Midterm 37. DBQ - World War 1
Calendar Update January 21 - WW1 Project Due January 24 - Midterm Exam January DBQ on WW1 January 31 - Begin 1920’s Unit
Trench Warfare 1. What are two hardships faced by those in the the trenches? –Rats, trench foot, mud, open to enemy 2. What was the land between the two sides called? –No man’s land 3. What were two hazards faced in this area? –Land mines, artillery, gas warfare 4. Was this an effective way of gaining territory? Why or why not? –No, dangerous/open to enemy
Women in the War 1. What were 2 specific activities women engaged in to help the war effort? –Elevator operators, mechanics 2. What were the peach pits on page 231 going to be used for? –Filters for gas masks 3. Why were women collecting so many books? –Educate/entertain the troops 4. Why might women have been performing jobs that until this time were only held by men? –Men were fighting in the war
Songs to Raise Morale 1. Who are the Yanks? –Americans 2. What are the Yanks preparing to do? –Go to war 3. What is the mood of this song? –Happy, energetic 4. How does the composer of this song think that those remaining home should feel about the soldiers? –Proud
Quotes from the Great War 1. Is Wilson in favor of the war? –Yes 2. Does Gallagher agree with Wilson? Explain. –No, he believed the government didn’t understand what war was really like 3. Houston expressed what concerns relative to the US military? –Discrimination 4. What is the mood of “In Flander’s Fields”? Who is described? What does the poet want us to do? –Sad and mourning, dead soldiers, remember the dead
Gas Warfare 1. How did the Germans gain the upper hand in the battles in which gas was used? –French felt the effects first 2. What is the purpose of gas warfare? –Terror weapon - used to create panic 3. Name a problem with each type of gas mask? –Did not filter deadly gasses, not effective
Propaganda 1. What were to specific things that the posters encouraged citizens to do? –Support the war, buy liberty bonds 2. How does the artist use family to lure men to the war effort? –Family pride, protection, children look up to you How does the artist use sex appeal? –Low cut clothing to get men’s attention How do the artists appeal to women? –Women would want to be strong and independent like the women in the picture
War Casualties 1. What were the total number of US battle deaths? –116,516 Wounded? –204,002 Total casualties? –320,518 2. Which country had the greatest number of battle deaths? –Germany
War Casualties Allied Powers DeathsCentral Powers Deaths Russia1,700,000Germany1,773,700 France1,357,800Austria- Hungary 1,200,000 G. Britain908,371Turkey325,000 Total3,966,171Total3,298,700
War Casualties 4. Which side suffered the greatest number of deaths? –Allies 5. What is one reason for the relatively low death toll of US troops? –Entered the war late 6. Which country had the greatest number of prisoners or missing persons? –Russia
Selective Service 1. Why did President Wilson implement the draft? –We needed more soldiers than had signed up 2. How many American troops did General Pershing estimate were needed? –3 million 3. How many eventually enlisted/were drafted? –2.8 million (4.8 million total served)
The War to End All Wars World War 1 ended on November 1, 1918 The Allied powers (Triple Entente) were victorious giving Great Britain, France, Italy, and the United States were setting punishments for the Central Powers (Triple Alliance).
The War to End All Wars 1. Fourteen Points: –No secret agreements –Freedom of the seas –Free trade –Arms limits –Peaceful settlements of colonial disputes –**National Self- Determination –**General Association of Nations - League of Nations 2. Treaty of Versailles –Germany must accept full responsibility –Germany must DISARM completely –Germany must pay huge reparations ($) to the Allies –Germany was stripped of any colonies
The War to End All Wars League of Nations was created (January 10, officially) The United States Congress rejected the treaty Many Americans were divided on the issue of the treaty Henry Cabot Lodge (MA) wanted changes to the treaty before signing - led the rejection