Presentation on theme: "Chapter 31 Section 3: Challenges to the Movement."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 31 Section 3: Challenges to the Movement
Nation of Islam Formed in the 1930s Black Muslims Emphasizes the supremacy of the black race. Advocated black separatism Teaches self discipline (no drinking, smoking, lying, etc) Teaches self reliance – during Great Depression they refused govnt aid.
Elijah Muhammed – influential leader of the Nation of Islam (his teachings converted Malcom X)
Today’s leader of the Nation of Islam Louis Farrakhan.
Little Islam English Teacher Prison Martin Luther King Jr. Violence Mecca
Malcom X – Nation of Islam minister who advocated fighting violence with violence and black separatism.
How would you respond to events like this time after time?
X “Any negro that teaches another Negro to turn the other cheek is disarming that Negro of his natural right to defend himself” (Malcom X)
Black Power – SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael came up with the phrase and led the movement. The movement called for black separatism and emphasized African culture and heritage
Carmichael was a classic example of someone who grew tired of the peaceful protests making slow headway and began the switch to equality by “any means necessary”
Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics.
This is actually real. How do you think it works?
The ideas of the Black Power movement were organized into the political Black Panther Party by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton. Black Panther Party national chairman Bobby Seale (left) and defense minister Huey Newton They hoped to gain electoral power…in other words influence politics with votes They advocated self defense by any means necessary including violence. They scared many whites with their “radical” views.
That’s Interesting How Black Panthers justified not fighting in Vietnam -The group was founded on the principles of its Ten-Point Program, a document that called for "Land, Bread, Housing, Education, Clothing, Justice And Peace," as well as exemption from military service that would utilize African Americans to "fight and kill for other people of color in the world who, like Black people, are being victimized by the White racist government of America."
What holiday do you think came out of the Black Power Movement? Kwanzaa – celebrated for the first time Dec 26 th to Jan 1 st (66-67). It was started as an alternative to the Christian holiday of Christmas. It emphasizes African heritage and dress. About 13% of all African Americans celebrate it (4.7 mil)
What affect do you think the Black Power movement had on white Americans? Do you think it turned them away from the Civil Rights movement or drew them closer?
Causes of Civil Rights Riots Civil Rights riots broke out all across America in the 1960’s. LBJ appointed the Kerner Commission to investigate the cause. They reported that white racism was largely to blame. "Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—- separate and unequal." Detroit: 1967 – 43 dead
MLK – Poor People’s Campaign King said money that should be funding social programs was going to the Vietnam War not the poor. He wanted to change this. Goal was to draw attention to the black poor.
Martin Luther King Assassination King was visiting Memphis Tennessee on April 4 th 1968. While leaving the Loraine Motel he was shot through the neck. The man arrested and found guilty for the shooting was James Earl Ray. Many people, including the King family, believe he was innocent.
Loraine Motel in Memphis Jesse Jackson is in bottom picture.
In response to the question: Where did the shot come from?
Ray originally said he was guilty but later changed his plea and said he was duped as part of a larger plot. Dexter King (MLK’s son) and Coretta believed him and worked to get him a retrial…He never got it and died of liver disease in 1998.
Bob Dylan Oxford Town (Song about James Meredith) Oxford Town, Oxford Town Ev'rybody's got their hats bowed down The sun don't shine above the ground Ain't a-goin' down to Oxford Town. He went down to Oxford Town Guns and clubs followed him down All because his face was brown Better get away from Oxford Town. Oxford Town around the bend He comes to the door, he couln't get in All because of the color of his skin What do you think about that, my friend ? Me and my gal, my gal's son We got met with a tear gas bomb I don't even know why we come Goin' back where we come from. Oxford Town in the afternoon Ev'rybody singin' a sorrowful tune Two men died 'neath the Mississippi moon Somebody better investigate soon.