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Ch. 34: Camelot to Watergate 1960 - 1975 American History (CHA3U1)

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 34: Camelot to Watergate 1960 - 1975 American History (CHA3U1)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 34: Camelot to Watergate 1960 - 1975 American History (CHA3U1)

2 Introduction The 1960s began with such promise with the election of the youthful and charismatic JFK and ended in turmoil and disgrace with Nixon and Watergate

3 Sec. 1: Kennedy’s New Frontier The Election of 1960 – Dem. Kennedy vs. Rep. Nixon The Impact of Television – Kennedy better looking on TV The Issue Of Religion – Kennedy became first and only Catholic to ever become President, but narrowly

4 Dem. Kennedy vs. Rep. Nixon

5 Sec. 1: Kennedy’s New Frontier The New Frontier – torch passed to a new generation born in the 20 th C - “ask not what your country can do for you: Ask what you can do for your country” - Kennedy popular all over the world

6 Sec. 1: Kennedy’s New Frontier Kennedy’s Economic Program – tax cuts and increased business efficiency Promoting Economic Growth –business / unions hold down prices / wages Conflicts With Steel Companies – lower wages but higher prices forced Kennedy to threaten buying foreign steel and investigating price-fixing

7 Sec. 1: Kennedy’s New Frontier Legislative Victories – NASA (National Aeronautics & Space Administration), federal aid to public schools, urban renewal Conflict With Congress – Southern Democrats opposed Kennedy’s plans to help the poor and elderly (e.g. medicare)

8 Sec. 1: Kennedy’s New Frontier

9 Tragedy in Dallas – Kennedy shot Nov. 22 ’63 while trying to win over S. Dem. The Warren Commission – Lee Harvey Oswald found to be the lone assassin Johnson Takes Over - VP is able to get much of Kennedy’s New Frontier programs passed out of memory for Kennedy

10 Kennedy Assassination

11 Sec. 2: The Great Society The Election of 1964 – Dem. LBJ vs. Rep. Goldwater easily won by LBJ - LBJ offered “the Great Society” where Kennedy’s program of helping the poor was expanded upon to include discrimination, pollution & social ills - Goldwater would allow military to use nuclear weapons

12 Dem. Johnson vs. Rep. Goldwater

13 Sec. 2: The Great Society War On Poverty The Other America – 25% of Americans were poor (Michael Harrington)  slums of inner cities, rural Deep South, elderly Johnson Declares War – war on poverty  Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)  billion $ budget  disease, illiteracy, unemployment Medicare – hospital care age > 65

14 Sec. 2: The Great Society Immigration Reform – 157,000 immigrants per yr  83,000 Great Britain / Ireland vs. 100 India based on quotas - Immigration Act 1965 – favoured those with special skills  Asia & Latin American immigrants increased sharply

15 Sec. 2: The Great Society Rising Costs End Great Society - $54 billion in 1964 to $98 billion by 1968 Guns and Butter – Vietnam War costing $20 billion /yr & rising social costs led to $28 billion federal gov’t deficit End of an Era – Congress would not raise taxes unless social costs reduced Growing Concern for the Environment – R. Carson’s “Silent Spring”  new laws

16 Sec. 3: An Imperial Presidency Nixon’s Political Career - first President to be elected (1968) after losing first time (1960) - Changed image from being ruthless to being broad-minded and calm

17 Sec. 3: An Imperial Presidency The War Against Crime - Nixon disagreed with permissive rights given to those accused of crimes - Warren Burger and 3 other judges were added to the Supreme Court who supported police power

18 Sec. 3: An Imperial Presidency Nixon’s Economic Policies Stagflation – rising unemployment & inflation unsuccessfully dealt with A Balance of Payments Deficit – USA automobiles worldwide 76% (1950) – 31% (1970)  $22 billion trade deficit The New Federalism – less spending by federal gov’t  more by state & local gov’t

19 Sec. 3: An Imperial Presidency The Energy Crisis - Fall of 1973 Arab nations (OPEC) placed embargo on oil shipments to USA because of support for Israel - Price of gas, heating oil etc. increased 400% and often shortages - USA had 6% of world pop.  used 33% of world’s energy  conservation began

20 Energy Crisis

21 Sec. 4: The Watergate Scandal A Crisis in the Presidency – Nixon wins a massive landslide in 1972 by withdrawing from Vietnam, visiting China & Russia and supporting law and order CREEP – Committee to Reelect the President raises illegal money that is used to pay for dirty tricks in election The Watergate Break-in  bugged offices of the Democrats in Watergate B.

22 Sec. 4: The Watergate Scandal The Investigation – Senate held televised hearings into the break-in showing connection with CREEP The Trial – 25 people connected to Nixon were convicted & imprisoned Charles Colson G. Gordon Liddy

23 Sec. 4: The Watergate Scandal The President Answers – refuses to hand over White House audio tapes The Saturday Night Massacre – Nixon dismisses special prosecutor (Cox) demanding the tapes Agnew Resigns – Vice President took bribes  Gerald Ford new VP

24 Sec. 4: The Watergate Scandal Nixon Proclaims Innocence – appoints new special prosecutor  releases written transcripts Tapes Reveal Cover-up – August 1974 Supreme Court forces Nixon to turn over the tapes  resigns August 8 th

25 Sec. 4: The Watergate Scandal Ford Becomes President – good, honest man, but pardons Nixon to avoid trial Congress Reasserts Its Authority – Democratic Congress at odds with Ford Congress Attacks Executive Privilege – War Powers Act requires President to report to Congress 48 hrs after sending troops into action and potentially withdraw troops within 60 days

26 President Gerald Ford

27 Sec. 4: The Watergate Scandal Quarrels Over the Economy – Ford wanted to decrease gov’t social programs & deregulate businesses while Congress wanted job creation Ford’s Foreign Policy – Helsinki Accords recognized the borders of Eastern Europe and human rights - Ford not allowed to aid S. Vietnam & Camodia  Communist take over 1975

28 Fall of Saigon April 1975

29 Sec. 4: The Watergate Scandal The Bicentennial – USA turned 200 years old on July 4, 1976 with big celebrations - despite problems still a great nation that put a man on the moon and stopped imperial presidency

30 Conclusion The dream that became a nightmare for America would not really end until the 1980s when President Ronald Reagan would instill an optimism in America not seen for 20 years The wounds caused by the deaths of President Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Bobby Kennedy and thousands of soldiers would finally start to heal


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