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Exam next Tuesday 4/8 Review Questions What type of piece is Brahms’s German Requiem? What type of piece is Brahms’s German Requiem? What does Requiem.

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Presentation on theme: "Exam next Tuesday 4/8 Review Questions What type of piece is Brahms’s German Requiem? What type of piece is Brahms’s German Requiem? What does Requiem."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Exam next Tuesday 4/8

3 Review Questions What type of piece is Brahms’s German Requiem? What type of piece is Brahms’s German Requiem? What does Requiem mean? What does Requiem mean? What type of music is Verdi known for? What type of music is Verdi known for? What are some characteristics of his operas? What are some characteristics of his operas?

4 Verdi’s Operas Verdi’s music is divided into “numbers” (arias, recit, choruses), yet fluid drama Verdi’s music is divided into “numbers” (arias, recit, choruses), yet fluid drama Followed conventions for arias- recitatives-ensembles Followed conventions for arias- recitatives-ensembles Great emphasis of the singer: parts were written with specific singers in mind Great emphasis of the singer: parts were written with specific singers in mind

5 Verdi’s Rigoletto Listening guide 51 Listening guide 51 Story… Story… Based on Victor Hugo play, The King is Amused Based on Victor Hugo play, The King is Amused Rigoletto is a court jester, enemies place a curse on him Rigoletto is a court jester, enemies place a curse on him

6 Verdi’s Rigoletto Gilda is his daughter Gilda is his daughter Duke is a nasty seducer of women an he’s after Gilda Duke is a nasty seducer of women an he’s after Gilda Gilda gets abducted by Rigoletto’s enemies Gilda gets abducted by Rigoletto’s enemies Sparafucile is an assassin slated to kill the Duke Sparafucile is an assassin slated to kill the Duke

7 Verdi’s Rigoletto Gilda and Rigoletto watch as the Duke seduces Sparafucile’s sister Gilda and Rigoletto watch as the Duke seduces Sparafucile’s sister Gilda offers herself to be killed in place of the Duke Gilda offers herself to be killed in place of the Duke Rigoletto gets a body bag; thinks the dke is inside, but it’s really Gilda Rigoletto gets a body bag; thinks the dke is inside, but it’s really Gilda Curse is fulfilled Curse is fulfilled

8 Verdi’s Rigoletto Act 3 excerpts... Act 3 excerpts... Duke-sings a famous tuneful STROPHIC song: Woman is fickle--ha ha Duke-sings a famous tuneful STROPHIC song: Woman is fickle--ha ha Song captures the Duke’s character perfectly Song captures the Duke’s character perfectly

9 Verdi’s Rigoletto Ensemble… Ensemble… classic ensemble technique: each character responds differently to situation; all sing together, but in different styles (like Mozart’s Figaro classic ensemble technique: each character responds differently to situation; all sing together, but in different styles (like Mozart’s Figaro

10 Verdi’s Rigoletto Listen for differences in style: Maddalena and the Duke are passionate, singing in long lyrical lines.. Listen for differences in style: Maddalena and the Duke are passionate, singing in long lyrical lines.. While Gilda is angry: her singing is short and punctuated While Gilda is angry: her singing is short and punctuated

11 Richard Wagner ( ) ( ) Huge innovator in German opera Huge innovator in German opera

12 Wagner: Philosophical Stuff Wagner: Philosophical Stuff Believed that traditional opera was artificial because Believed that traditional opera was artificial because Divided into numbers (like Verdi) Divided into numbers (like Verdi) Ensembles where everyone sang different things at once Ensembles where everyone sang different things at once Solution: “endless melody” or continours music-no separation inteo recitative and aria Solution: “endless melody” or continours music-no separation inteo recitative and aria

13 Wagner: Philosophical Stuff Wagner: Philosophical Stuff Believed in unity of the arts, called it collective artwork (Gesamtkunstwerk) Believed in unity of the arts, called it collective artwork (Gesamtkunstwerk) Poetry, state sets, the architecture of the theater, all were just as important as music Poetry, state sets, the architecture of the theater, all were just as important as music Believed opera should be more natural, like spoken drama.., Believed opera should be more natural, like spoken drama.., So he called his operas “music dramas.” So he called his operas “music dramas.”

14 Wagner: misc. interesting things Pontificated on many issues, obnoxious antisemitism Pontificated on many issues, obnoxious antisemitism Participated in a political uprising, had to go into exile. Participated in a political uprising, had to go into exile. Built his own theater at Bayreuth Built his own theater at Bayreuth Second wife was the daughter of Franz Liszt, his close friend (and the wife of another friend). Second wife was the daughter of Franz Liszt, his close friend (and the wife of another friend).

15 Wagner’s Music dramas On mythological or historical topics On mythological or historical topics Orchestra very important, often having the more lyrical melody. Orchestra very important, often having the more lyrical melody. Vocal parts less tuneful and memorable Vocal parts less tuneful and memorable

16 The Ring Cycle 4 operas (Rheingold, Die Walkure, Siegfried, Gotterdamerung) 4 operas (Rheingold, Die Walkure, Siegfried, Gotterdamerung) Written over a period of c. 40 years Written over a period of c. 40 years Takes 16 hours to perform Takes 16 hours to perform Complicated story based on Norse mythology Complicated story based on Norse mythology Lust for power, incest, adultery, heroism Lust for power, incest, adultery, heroism

17 Wagner’s Ring Cycle Uses LEITMOTIFS: a specific musical theme that represents a character, event. object or concept. Uses LEITMOTIFS: a specific musical theme that represents a character, event. object or concept. Wagner didn’t invent the idea, but took it to a whole new level of complexity- Wagner didn’t invent the idea, but took it to a whole new level of complexity- some listeners have found 200 leitmotifs in the Ring Cycle!! some listeners have found 200 leitmotifs in the Ring Cycle!! Star Wars illustrates the leitmotif concept well Star Wars illustrates the leitmotif concept well

18 Die Walküre Second opera in the Ring Second opera in the Ring A very simplified summary: A very simplified summary: Gold in the Rhine river guarded by maidens Gold in the Rhine river guarded by maidens Who ever can steal it and make a ring from it will have power, but must renounce love Who ever can steal it and make a ring from it will have power, but must renounce love The dwarf Alberich does this The dwarf Alberich does this

19 Die Walküre The gods steal it from him The gods steal it from him This begins a series of events that end with the downfall of the gods (16 hours later) This begins a series of events that end with the downfall of the gods (16 hours later) Wotan is the head of the gods Wotan is the head of the gods Brünnhilde is his daughter Brünnhilde is his daughter Siegmund and Sieglinde are his twin son and daughter, who have fallen in love with each other Siegmund and Sieglinde are his twin son and daughter, who have fallen in love with each other

20 Die Walküre Wotan must punish them because Sieglinde has cheated on her husband Wotan must punish them because Sieglinde has cheated on her husband Tells Brünnhilde she must let Siegmund get killed in a fight with Hunding, Sieglinde’s husband Tells Brünnhilde she must let Siegmund get killed in a fight with Hunding, Sieglinde’s husband But Brunnhilde disobeys him, therefore... But Brunnhilde disobeys him, therefore...

21 Die Walküre He puts her to “sleep” surrounded by fire He puts her to “sleep” surrounded by fire But allows her to be woken by a hero But allows her to be woken by a hero In the next opera, this hero will be Siegfried, the son of S and S, Brunnhilde’s half-nephew. He is a great hero, and her lover In the next opera, this hero will be Siegfried, the son of S and S, Brunnhilde’s half-nephew. He is a great hero, and her lover

22 Leifmotifs in Die Walküre In this excerpt you will hear the following leitmotifs: In this excerpt you will hear the following leitmotifs: Sleep Sleep Wotan’s spear (which represents his authority.) Wotan’s spear (which represents his authority.) Loge, the god of fire Loge, the god of fire Siefried, the hero who will wake up Brunnhilde Siefried, the hero who will wake up Brunnhilde

23 French opera: Carmen By Georges Bizet ( ) By Georges Bizet ( ) Example of opéra comique (not sung all the way through used spoken dialogue) Example of opéra comique (not sung all the way through used spoken dialogue) Later the spoken parts were replaced with recitative Later the spoken parts were replaced with recitative An example of EXOTICISM-dealing with far away people and places in a romanticized way An example of EXOTICISM-dealing with far away people and places in a romanticized way

24 Carmen Considered very scandalous in its time Considered very scandalous in its time Carmen is a gypsy (the “bad girl” character type) Carmen is a gypsy (the “bad girl” character type) Don José is a soldier who loves her Don José is a soldier who loves her But he is engaged to Michaela (the “good girl” character type) But he is engaged to Michaela (the “good girl” character type) When Carmen takes up with another man, D.J., kills her When Carmen takes up with another man, D.J., kills her

25 Musical Exoticism Bizet uses a Habanera, a Cuban dance, to depict Carmen’s “otherness” Bizet uses a Habanera, a Cuban dance, to depict Carmen’s “otherness”


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