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Protozoans. Protozoan Groups Ciliates Amebas Apicomplexans Flagellates.

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Presentation on theme: "Protozoans. Protozoan Groups Ciliates Amebas Apicomplexans Flagellates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protozoans

2 Protozoan Groups Ciliates Amebas Apicomplexans Flagellates

3 Protozoan Taxonomy Morphological taxonomy –Phylum sarcomastigophora Subphylum mastigophora –Flagellates »Phytoflagellates »Zooflagellates Subphylum sarcodinia –Amoebas –Foramiferans –Radiolarians –Phylum Ciliophora Ciliates –Phylum Apicomplexa parasitic protozoa Spore forming protozoans Molecular taxonomy –Indicate that morphological relationships are tenuous –Divergence between phyla of protozoa as great as between kingdoms (ie animalia, fungi and plantae) –Revisions are continuously occurring

4 Newly Revised Protozoan Taxonomy Phylum Chlorophyta –algae with chlorophyll Phylum Retortamonada –no mitochondria Phylum Euglenozoa –euglenoidea –kinetoplasta Phylum Apicomplexa Phylum Ciliophora Phylum Dinoflagellata Amebas

5 Basis of Taxonomy Morphological traits –Flagella –Cilia –Pseudopodia –Shells (tests) Reproductive modes –Sexual –Asexual –Spore formation Distinct reproductive cell forms –Cyst formation Characteristic organelles –Apical complex –Kinetoplast –Presence/Absence of mitochondria –Presence/absence of chloroplast Trophism –Heterotrophic –Autotrophic

6 Flagella & Cilia

7 Fig. 11.6b

8 Pseudopodial Movement

9 Amoeba Amoeboid movement –Pseudopodial extension Phagocytosis –Engulfment of large particles

10 Contractile Vacuoles Osmotic regulation –Remove excess metabolic H 2 O, and HCO 3  –Remove H 2 O that enters by osmosis

11 Feeding

12 Examples of Binary Fission – Asexual Reproduction

13 Sexual Reproduction Conjugation –Meiotic nuclear division –Transfer of portion of genome between partners Sporogomy –Formation of sporozoites –Formation of gametocytes from sporozoites –Fusion of gametocytes to form new generation of sporozoite –Gametocytes and sporozoites are present in separate hosts

14 Cyst Formation

15 Euglenozoa A phytoflagellate –Autotrophic –Opportunistic heterotroph

16 Free Living Flagellates Pandorina colony

17 Colonial Flagellates Volvox colony

18 Cell Specialization in the Colonial Volvacae

19 Examples of Sarcodinians

20 Foraminiferan Tests

21 Radiolarian Undergoing Binary Fission

22 Dinoflagellates

23 Flagellates Parasitic examples Cyst formers

24 Intracellular Parasitic Flagellates

25 Parasitic Kinetoplastids Phylum Euglenozoa –Subphylum Kinetoplasta Class Trypanosomatidea –Trypanosoma spp –Leishmania spp

26 Trypanosomiasis African sleeping sickness – Eastern hemisphere –Trypanosoma brucei –Vector – Tsetse Fly - Glossina spp Immages from links at

27 Trypanosomiasis Chaga’s disease – Western hemisphere –Trypanosoma cruzi –Vector – assassin bug – Rhodnius spp, Panstrongylus spp and Triatoma spp

28 Life Cycle of Trypanosoma

29 Leishmaniasis Leishmania spp Vector – sandfly – OW Phlebotomus spp, NW Lutzomyia, Brumptomyia Similar protozoan to Trypanosoma sp Cutaneous and visceral forms of disease

30 Life Cycle of Leishmania

31 Apical Organelles of the Apicomplexans

32 Life Cycle of Plasmodium falciparum

33 A Ciliate – Parmecium sp

34 Reproduction in Ciliates – Sexual and Asexual Fission = asexual

35 Conjugation



38 Reproduction in Ciliates Conjugation Fission

39 Some other Ciliates

40 Symbiotic Relationships Host Symbiont Relationship –Parasitism –Commensalism –Mutualism

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