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Presentation on theme: "Protozoans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protozoans

2 Protozoan Groups Apicomplexans Amebas Ciliates Fig. 11.CO Flagellates

3 Protozoan Taxonomy Morphological taxonomy Molecular taxonomy
Phylum sarcomastigophora Subphylum mastigophora Flagellates Phytoflagellates Zooflagellates Subphylum sarcodinia Amoebas Foramiferans Radiolarians Phylum Ciliophora Ciliates Phylum Apicomplexa parasitic protozoa Spore forming protozoans Molecular taxonomy Indicate that morphological relationships are tenuous Divergence between phyla of protozoa as great as between kingdoms (ie animalia, fungi and plantae) Revisions are continuously occurring

4 Newly Revised Protozoan Taxonomy
Phylum Chlorophyta algae with chlorophyll Phylum Retortamonada no mitochondria Phylum Euglenozoa euglenoidea kinetoplasta Phylum Apicomplexa Phylum Ciliophora Phylum Dinoflagellata Amebas

5 Basis of Taxonomy Morphological traits Reproductive modes
Flagella Cilia Pseudopodia Shells (tests) Reproductive modes Sexual Asexual Spore formation Distinct reproductive cell forms Cyst formation Characteristic organelles Apical complex Kinetoplast Presence/Absence of mitochondria Presence/absence of chloroplast Trophism Heterotrophic Autotrophic

6 Flagella & Cilia Fig. 11.3a

7 Fig. 11.6b Fig. 11.6b

8 Pseudopodial Movement
Fig. 11.4

9 Amoeba Amoeboid movement Phagocytosis Pseudopodial extension
Engulfment of large particles Fig. 11.5

10 Contractile Vacuoles Osmotic regulation
Remove excess metabolic H2O, and HCO3 Remove H2O that enters by osmosis Fig. 11.8

11 Feeding Fig. 11.9

12 Examples of Binary Fission – Asexual Reproduction

13 Sexual Reproduction Conjugation Sporogomy Meiotic nuclear division
Transfer of portion of genome between partners Sporogomy Formation of sporozoites Formation of gametocytes from sporozoites Fusion of gametocytes to form new generation of sporozoite Gametocytes and sporozoites are present in separate hosts

14 Cyst Formation Fig. 11.1

15 Euglenozoa A phytoflagellate Autotrophic Opportunistic heterotroph

16 Free Living Flagellates
Fig Pandorina colony

17 Colonial Flagellates Fig Volvox colony

18 Cell Specialization in the Colonial Volvacae

19 Examples of Sarcodinians

20 Foraminiferan Tests Fig b

21 Radiolarian Undergoing Binary Fission

22 Dinoflagellates Fig

23 Flagellates Parasitic examples Cyst formers Fig. 11.Fig. 11

24 Intracellular Parasitic Flagellates

25 Parasitic Kinetoplastids
Phylum Euglenozoa Subphylum Kinetoplasta Class Trypanosomatidea Trypanosoma spp Leishmania spp

26 Immages from links at
Trypanosomiasis African sleeping sickness – Eastern hemisphere Trypanosoma brucei Vector – Tsetse Fly - Glossina spp Immages from links at

27 Trypanosomiasis Chaga’s disease – Western hemisphere Trypanosoma cruzi
Vector – assassin bug – Rhodnius spp, Panstrongylus spp and Triatoma spp

28 Life Cycle of Trypanosoma

29 Leishmaniasis Leishmania spp
Vector – sandfly – OW Phlebotomus spp, NW Lutzomyia, Brumptomyia Similar protozoan to Trypanosoma sp Cutaneous and visceral forms of disease

30 Life Cycle of Leishmania

31 Apical Organelles of the Apicomplexans

32 Life Cycle of Plasmodium falciparum

33 A Ciliate – Parmecium sp

34 Reproduction in Ciliates – Sexual and Asexual
Fission = asexual Fig

35 Conjugation Fig a

36 Conjugation Fig c

37 Conjugation Fig e

38 Reproduction in Ciliates
Conjugation Fission Fig

39 Some other Ciliates Fig

40 Symbiotic Relationships
Host Symbiont Relationship Parasitism Commensalism Mutualism

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