Presentation on theme: "The Causes of WWI AP World Mrs. Nowotarski Bell Ringer 3/5/14 1.) If you have your AP money and form to turn in, DO NOT PASS GO and go straight to the."— Presentation transcript:
The Causes of WWI AP World Mrs. Nowotarski Bell Ringer 3/5/14 1.) If you have your AP money and form to turn in, DO NOT PASS GO and go straight to the office and turn in to Mrs. Pond 2.) Sign for up for practice exam on Thursday 3-5:30. 3.) Pick up the worksheets at the front table and complete the MAINE chart ( one key detail for each cause of WWI).
AP Key Ideas u 6.2.I Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the 20 th century –A. Older land based empires like the Ottomans, Russians, and Austrians were collapsing. u 6.2.IV Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale. –B. The sources of global conflict varied. u 6.2.V Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict.
AP sources of conflict for early 20 th century u Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan u Competition for resources u Ethnic conflict u Great power rivalries between Germany and Britain u Nationalist ideologies
Balkan “Powder Keg” u Austria-Hungary gains Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1878 and annexed the territory in 1908 u Pan-Slavism u Pro-Serbian/Anti-Austrian groups exist in Bosnia u Austria-Hungary would periodically crack down
A Visit From the Archduke u June 28, 1914, the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand planned to tour the Bosnian capital city of Sarajevo. u Anniversary of Serbia’s defeat by the Ottoman Turks in 1339 and then their independence 500 years later
The Black Hand u Serbian terrorist group that encouraged anti- Austrian unrest. u Assassination plot with conspirators along the parade route. u The first assassin claimed that a policeman prevented him from throwing his bomb. u The second assassin lobbed a bomb that the Archduke deflected into the street, where it exploded and injured several people. u The Archduke felt it was necessary to visit the victims of the bombing at the hospital. –Wrong turn leads to U-turn and the crowd surges stopping the car. u The final assassin, 19 year old Gavirilo Princip, stepped from the curb and fired two shots, hitting the Archduke in the neck and his wife in the stomach. The expectant* mother and her husband died almost instantly.
A Blank-Check u The Austrian government had been given a “blank check” from Germany guaranteeing its support no matter what happened. –make the ultimatum so severe that either Serbia would refuse, prompting war and allowing Austria to increase its territory in the Balkans, or Serbia would accept and Austria would take over Serbia without even fighting. Austrian-Hungary Whatever you want to do Germany
An Ultimatum u July 23 Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with an ultimatum, or final set of demands, concerning the inquiry into the crime, which had to be answered in 48 hours. –Description of various acts of hostility directed against Austria- Hungary by Serbia. –Description of alleged direct involvement of Serbian government officials in the assassination of the Archduke. –Suppression of all anti-Austrian activity and anti-Austrian organizations –Dismiss all Serbian officials to whom Austria-Hungary objected –Demand the right for Austrian officials to enter Serbia to investigate Serbian state involvement in the crime –Serbian agrees to all of the demands except for the last one.
Willy-Nicky Telegrams On July 28 th, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia after it refused to accept the Ultimatum. Thus, Czar Nicholas II of Russia took it upon himself to telegraph his cousin Wilhelm II of Germany in order to prevent this war from getting out of hand. The Czar asked the Kaiser to urge Austria to soften its demands. Kaiser responds in defense of Austria
Russia Mobilizes u On July 30 th Russia mobilized its armies. u Germany took this as an act of war and issued two ultimatums of its own: –Russia demobilize immediately –France declare its neutrality
Alliance system leads to war
Russia and France both refused, thus one thing led to another… u Germany declared war on Russia on August 1 st u France, found itself at war against Germany and Austria-Hungary on August 3 rd u Wanting to avoid a two-front war and knowing that Russia would be slow to mobilize, Germany had to defeat France quickly. In order to accomplish this, Germany invaded Belgium on August 3 rd u Britain, allied to France, but more importantly obligated to defend Belgium, declared war against Germany on August 4 th u Britain’s entry in the war forced the colonies of Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand and South Africa to offer military and financial support u The United States declared a U.S. policy of absolute neutrality. u Japan, honoring a military agreement with Britain, declared war on Germany on August 23 rd u Italy, although allied to both Germany and Austria-Hungary, was able to avoid its obligation because Italy had signed an agreement that stated they would only defend Germany and Austria-Hungary in the event of a “defensive” war and argued that their actions were “offensive.” In May of 1915 at the urging of Britain and France, Italy would join the side of the Allies.
Who is to blame? u There are many theories about who actually caused WWI. With a partner, read through your theory and complete the backside of your bell ringer sheet. u If time, rotate to another group or two to have them explain which theory they had. u Finally, write an explanation of who you think is responsible.
A Fun Review u X1MHY X1MHY
Key Points u Weakening of Ottoman Empire creates a power vacuum in the Balkans –Competition between Austria-Hungary and Russia for influence (Pan Slavism) –Turn toward Germany for help u Nationalism runs rampant in the late 19 th century –Germany’s unification, Britain’s power, France’s defeat in Franco-Prussian war –Splitting Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Ottomans –Hadn’t had a major war since Napoleon (over 80 years) –Bolstered by imperialism and new feelings of power –No other land to conquer without coming in conflict with another power
Key Points #2 u Industrialization and military arms race, particularly between Britain and Germany u System of alliances