Old Hickory Jackson was nicknamed "Old Hickory" because of his toughness and aggressive personality. He fought in duels, some fatal to his opponents. He was a rich slave owner. He appealed to the common men He expanded the spoils system during his presidency to strengthen his political base.
In the Nashville capitol. At the battle of New Orleans
On January 30, 1835, the 7th President of the United States, Andrew Jackson, became the first to have an attempt made on his life. Elected in 1828 and serving his first of two terms “ Old Hickory ” as he was affectionately known, made many enemies for this stand on reform of the banking system and civil service patronage appointments. South Caroline representative William R. Davis has just died. The president and most of the cabinet were attending the funeral of Davis which was being held in the Capitol building. Andrew Jackson at 67 years of age was suffering from respiratory aliments and showing his age. After the service Jackson was walking through the Capitol Rotunda. Suddenly a man separated himself from the crowd and approached the president. He got to within three paces of the president, raised a small pistol, and pulled the trigger at virtually point-blank range. There was a loud bang, but nothing happened. The percussion cap had detonated, but the gunpowder failed to ignite. Immediately he pulled a second pistol from his coat, aimed at the president and pulled the trigger, but it too misfired. No harm was done to Jackson. By this time the crowd had been alerted by the noise of the first misfire that something was wrong. Jackson, outraged that someone was actually trying to harm him, charged the assassin. The president began savagely beating him with his cane. With the assassin now on the ground and Jackson still assailing him, others rushed to assist him. Lawrence was taken away for interrogation. The would- be assassin was Richard Lawrence, a former house painter. Lawrence had been stalking the President for several days. Richard Lawrence had asked the Jackson Administration for a civil service appointment and was denied. He also believed that the United States government owed him a substantial sum of money. Lawrence told authorities that this money would enable him to assume his rightful place as the King of England. He was enraged because the President would not authorize this payment. Finally Lawrence was convinced that Jackson had killed his father. These were the reasons for Richard Lawrence ’ s attempt to assassinate the president. Lawrence was brought to trial. During the one-day trial he repeatedly interrupted the proceedings, proclaiming that he was the King of England and Rome. The jury acquitted him by reason of insanity. Their deliberation lasted only five minutes. He was held at various hospitals and mental institutions for 26 years until his death in 1861. There was speculation that Lawrence was part of a conspiracy and even Jackson believed that Lawrence had been hired by his enemies to kill him, but there was never any evidence found to prove this. After his behavior at trial it was obvious that he had acted alone. Smithsonian Institute researchers did a study on Lawrence’s derringers a century after the assassination attempt. Both guns discharge properly on the test’s first try. It was found the odds of both guns misfiring during the assassination attempt were one in 125,000. First Assassination Attempt on a President
The Candidates Andrew Jackson- Andrew Jackson- John Quincy Adams-John Quincy Adams- Henry Clay-Henry Clay- William Crawford-William Crawford- Jackson won the popular vote, but no candidate won the electoral vote.
The vote went to the House of Representatives who picked from the top three- Jackson, Adams, and Crawford. Clay used his position as Speaker of the House to persuade representatives to vote for Adams, who won. Who will you vote for? Adams!
Adams appointed Clay Secretary of State. Jackson called the election a “Corrupt Bargain.” Why did he feel this was a “Corrupt Bargain”? He felt cheated Secretary of State Henry Clay
The Democratic-Republicans split DEMOCRATS supporters of Jackson WHIGS His opponents
To the victor belongs the spoils! John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson faced each other again in the 1828 election.. Jackson won by a landslide.
Spoils - benefits gained by the winner The Spoils System is giving political jobs to loyal supporters.
, Jackson replaces many Federalist officials. After taking office, Jackson replaces many Federalist officials. He gave their jobs to his loyal supporters. OUT!!!
Thomas Nast depicts a statue of President Andrew Jackson riding a pig, on a pedestal that reads, "To the victors belong the spoils." Jackson's "spoils system," in which loyal party members were rewarded with appointive offices, was attacked for its corrupt and fraudulent implications.
The idea of spreading political power to all people and ensuring majority rule, this became known as Jacksonian Democracy. The expansion of voting rights helped Jackson win the presidency, the COMMON MAN now had a voice in the government.
GOOD MORNING, SCHOLARS! NEW JOURNAL ENTRY JACKSON’S PRESIDENCY
"You are a den of vipers and thieves. I intend to rout you out, and by God, I will rout you out.“ Andrew Jackson
President Andrew Jackson fights the “monster” bank. (1833)
The Bank of the U.S. was created by Federalist Alexander Hamilton. The Bank’s purpose was to regulate economic policies.
Jackson thought the Bank was too powerful. He thought Bank president Nicholas Biddle and Bank administrators used the Bank for their own profit.
Jackson vowed, “I will kill it!” He vetoed the Bank when its charter was up for renewal. The Bank cut back on loans which hurt farmers in the West.
After his veto of the Bank of United States bill, President Andrew Jackson's opponents accused him of abusing his Presidential powers. This cartoon shows Jackson as a tyrannical king, trampling on the Constitution.
Andrew Jackson hated the idea of the Bank of the United States. He thought it wasn’t fair to the poor people. He wanted to destroy it. The many-headed monster is the states, who are fighting Jackson to keep the bank. Jackson raises a cane that says “veto.”
In this cartoon, President Andrew Jackson refuses to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States. Nicholas Biddle, with the head and hoofs of a demon, runs to Jackson’s left. (LIBRARY OF CONGRESS)
Congress passed the Tariff Bill of 1828 which was the highest import tax ever. This was a “protective tariff” because it was designed to protect U.S. industry by increasing tariffs on goods from Europe.
This tariff hurt Southern planters because they depended on trade with Europe. The high tariff meant Southerners still sold their cotton to Europe, but paid more for European imports.
Vice President John C. Calhoun was from South Carolina and, like most Southerners, believed in the idea of “states’ rights”. They called it the “Tariff of Abominations”. An abomination is something hated. Hurt southern farmers
States’ rights is the right of states to limit the power of the federal government. South Carolina passed the Nullification Act and declared the tariff illegal. Nullify means cancel.
South Carolina threatened to secede if the tariff was not lifted. Secede means withdraw. What are Jackson’s options?
If you were Jackson facing the issue of states seceding from the union, what would you do? What are the issues he must consider? REFLECT AND DISCUSS
Henry Clay designed a compromise that lowered the tariff but gave the president more power to use force if a state threatened to secede. Henry Clay: the “Great Compromiser”
The forced removal and journey west of Native Americans.
Jackson believed he did not have the power as president to interfere with Georgia’s rights and stop the removal. In a desire to attract more white settlers, Georgia began moving Native Americans west. One Way
"John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it!" Worcester v. Georgia Cherokee sued to try to keep Georgia from taking their land Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokee Nation President Jackson refused to enforce the ruling
Indian Removal Act Jackson’s passed his law quickly through Congress which gave the president power to move Native Americans west of the Mississippi.