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Terrorism Why did the Black Hand assassinate the Archduke Franz Ferdinand?

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Presentation on theme: "Terrorism Why did the Black Hand assassinate the Archduke Franz Ferdinand?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Terrorism Why did the Black Hand assassinate the Archduke Franz Ferdinand?

2 What is the difference between a terrorist and a murderer? Give me some words to describe Osama Bin Laden. How was he viewed by the public?

3 What is terrorism? Terrorism occurs when a certain group has a viewpoint or concern that is being ignored by the people in power. As a result, the terrorist group hopes to bring about change by putting pressure on the group in power by using violence. This situation usually develops when the terrorists become desperate for change but realise that they would quickly be destroyed if they tried to fight a conventional or open war. They fight using suicide bombs etc because they cannot hope to have theirs views listened to.

4 9/11 and Al Queada The 9/11 attacks were carried out on the USA in the hope of forcing them to pull out of the Middle East. Osama Bin Laden used these means to horrify, scare or terrorise the population of the USA to put pressure on their own government to do as he wishes and pull out. Very often, as in the case of 9/11 the response is often an increase in hostility rather than giving up. In 1914 a terrorist group known as the Black Hand attempted to force Austria- Hungary to pull out of Bosnia. They were in no way powerful enough to force them in the normal way (i.e. through a war) so they chose the next best option. ….a terrorist attack. The Assassination of Ferdinand and the Black Hand

5 This is a painting of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. He was the next in line to be Emperor of Austria. On 28 th June 1914, he made a special visit to part of his future Empire – Sarajevo in Bosnia. What happened that day changed the course of world history.

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11 ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS IN FULL SENTENCES AND AS MUCH DETAIL AS POSSIBLE. 1.On what date did Archduke Franz Ferdinand visit Sarajevo? 2. What country was Franz Ferdinand from and why was he important? 3.What type of people lived in Sarajevo? 4.Why do you think some people wanted to harm the Archduke? 5.What was the name of the assassin who threw a bomb at the Archduke’s car? 6.What did the driver do wrong that gave the assassins another chance? 7. What was the name of the assassin who killed both the Archduke and his wife at point blank range? 8. How did Austria react to the death of their Archduke? Who did they blame? 9. Why did Austria blame them?

12 On 28 th June 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne was assassinated in the Bosnian town of Sarajevo. The killer was Gavrillo Princip, a Bosnian who believed that his country should leave the Austro Hungarian Empire and become part of neighbouring Serbia. Background – The Austro Hungarian Empire The Austro-Hungarian empire was not one country. It contained people of many different nationalities and who spoke many languages. Some of these nationalities did not want to belong to the empire. The most important example of this is Bosnia. Many people in Bosnia were Bosnian-Serbs: they wanted their land to leave Austro-Hungary and join up with Serbia.

13 On 28 th June 1914, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne was assassinated in the Bosnian town of Sarajevo. The killer was Gavrillo Princip, a Bosnian who believed that his country should leave the Austro Hungarian Empire and become part of neighbouring Serbia. Background – The Austro Hungarian Empire The Austro-Hungarian empire was not one country. It contained people of many different nationalities and who spoke many languages. Some of these nationalities did not want to belong to the empire. The most important example of this is Bosnia. Many people in Bosnia were Bosnian-Serbs: they wanted their land to leave Austro-Hungary and join up with Serbia.

14 Gavrillo Prinicip, a 19 year old student, was one of these Bosnian Serbs and he belonged to a terrorist group called The Black Hand who believed in using violence to get Bosnia out of the Empire. He hoped to see Bosnia join up with Serbia instead. He spoke Serbian and visited Serbia regularly between 1912 and Gavrillo Princip was suffering from Tubercolosis and he knew he was dying. His family were extremely poor and he blamed the Austrian Government that ruled Bosnia for this. This hatred of Austria became stronger when the Austrian Army torched several houses in the his village of Obljaji. Title: Did Gavrillo Princip act alone? 1.What evidence do we have that Princip had his own personal reasons for carrying out the assassination? 2.What evidence do we have that he was working for Serbia?

15 Some people believe that if the Serbian Government was really behind the assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand they would have selected someone who would was well-trained and would remain calm under pressure. Watch the following clip, compare source C to what you see in the film about a trained assassin. Would you have hired Gavrillo Princip, if you wanted Franz Ferdinand dead? Why or why not? Title: Evidence that Gavrilo Princip was acting alone. 1.Using Source C what evidence do we have that Princip was acting alone? You must use quotes and explain the origin of the evidence in your answer.

16 When Gavrillo Princip shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on the 28 th June 2008 people immediately began to suspect Serbia of the assassination. People at the time suspected that Dragutin Dimitrijevic (codename Apis) had hired Princip to do the murder. Apis was an important and respected General in the Serbian Army. He was also a specialist in terrorism and assassinations. There was a secret section of the Serbian government that trained terrorists – called the Black Hand Gang. Apis was the leader of this group. It was known that the Prime Minister of Serbia was aware of the existence of this group – and mostly supported what they were doing. Colonel Apis was never arrested for his involvement in the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and remained in the army until Title: Was Serbia behind the plot? 1. What evidence do we have that Serbian Government may have been behind the plot?

17 However, it is believed that the Serbian Prime Minister, when finding out about the plot to kill Franz Ferdinand had attempted to arrest Princip and his fellow assassins, but failed! It is also known that the Serbian Prime Minister sent a warning Archduke Franz Ferdinand days before the assassination, telling him about the plot on his life. Nobody knows whether Franz Ferdinand ever received the warning. 2. What evidence do we have that the Serbian Government were not behind the plot? (don’t forget to use Source I)

18 When Gavrillo Princip was arrested for shooting the Archduke, the Austrian government refused to believe that he was acting alone. They accused him of being a professional assassin who had been hired by the Serbian government. Historians agree that Austria-Hungary was desperate to declare war on Serbia and wanted any excuse to do so. By pinning the blame for Franz Ferdinand’s murder on the Serbian government, they had the perfect excuse for war. Title: Evidence that Austria let the assassination happen 1. Read Source F. What evidence do we have that Austria let the assassination happen?

19 Not that kind of twist In 1900, Franz Ferdinand had embarrassed the Austrian Royal Family when he married someone called Sophie Cottech - who was not deemed to have “royal blood.” His father the Emperor Franz Josef, did not approve of the marriage. Franz Ferdinand also had enemies in the Austrian army. Conrad von Hotzenburg, an important general in the army, violently disagreed with Franz Ferdinand on a number of occasions. Hotzenburg thought Franz Ferdinand was too soft on the non- Austrian members of the Empire and wanted to give them too much freedom. Hotzenburg believed the Non-Austrians should be ruled with an iron fist! Hotzenburg was looking for an excuse to crush their Serbian neighbours once and for all.

20 In 1900, Franz Ferdinand had embarrassed the Austrian Royal Family when he married someone called Sophie Cottech - who was not deemed to have “royal blood.” His father the Emperor Franz Josef, did not approve of the marriage. Franz Ferdinand also had enemies in the Austrian army. Conrad von Hotzenburg, an important general in the army, violently disagreed with Franz Ferdinand on a number of occasions. Hotzenburg thought Franz Ferdinand was too soft on the non-Austrian members of the Empire and wanted to give them too much freedom. Hotzenburg believed the Non-Austrians should be ruled with an iron fist! Hotzenburg was looking for an excuse to crush their Serbian neighbours once and for all. Look at Sources A, D and G 1.What do you think about the security arrangements made for F. Ferdinand’s visit? 2.Why do some Historians argue that Franz Josef have deliberately weakened the security for his nephew’s visit?

21 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia It is not clear whether the Serbian government was behind the murder, but nevertheless, Austria declared war on the 23 rd July Serbia appealed to Russia to help on the 24 th and Russia agreed. Russia was now at war with Austria-Hungary. This meant that all the countries in the two alliances would now go to war with each other

22 An important skill at GCSE is the ability to use sources to support an argument. You will be soon asked to use the sources to produce an argumentative essay. There are three main arguments of explanations of who was behind the Archduke’s murder. Theory 1 - Some historians argue that Gavrilo Princip was a lone assassin who killed the Archduke for his own reasons. Theory 2 – Some historians argue that Serbia planned the attack and trained Princip and his gang. Theory 3 – Some historians argue that the Austrian army organised the attack (or at least let it happen) in order to give them the excuse to “teach Serbia a lesson.” Princip acted alone you ass! No, Serbia planned it all along you doofus!

23 It is vitally important that you work out what YOU BELIEVE. It is crucial that you have your own point of view because you won’t be able to write an argumentative essay if you don’t have your point of view clear. Success in arguing relies on understanding other people’s views as well as your own, but never letting go of what you believe! Don’t let go of what you believe!

24 So you write about the 3 theories separately. For example…. You may lead with the one you feel is the best argument- e.g. Princip on his own. You then discuss one of the two other theories- e.g. some think Serbia did it but they are wrong You then deal with the last theory- e.g. some think Austria were behind the assassination but they are wrong. Try to finish off with something clever. Make it clear what your view is.

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26 You will write an essay giving your opinion on the death of Franz Ferdinand. Introduction - Your introduction – will briefly restate the facts of the murder. It will state (but not explain) what the three different theories are: a) Gavrilo Princip acting alone b) Serbian government hired Gavrilo Princip. c) Franz Josef set up his own nephew’s murder. You will then state what theory you most believe in and in one sentence why! Paragraph 1 – I believe that…. * Evidence that supports this is…. ( I would expect you to find three pieces of evidence) * This supports my view because…. Paragraph 2 - An alternate theory is….. * Evidence that supports this is…. ( I would expect you to find three pieces of evidence) * This evidence shows…. * However, this is theory is wrong because…. Paragraph 3 - An alternate theory is….. *Evidence that supports this is…. ( I would expect you to find three pieces of evidence) *This evidence shows…. *However, this is theory is wrong because…. You need to use the sources, the evidence in class and the video to help you to write a good essay. There is no need to do your own research. Conclusion - You need to reach a conclusion with supporting evidence.

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